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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
11

Metamemory Processes in Persons with Schizophrenia

McAnanama, Edward 08 August 2013 (has links)
Memory impairment in Schizophrenia (SCZ) is robust and associated with poor functional outcome. However, these correlations are only moderate in magnitude, leading some researchers to propose that metamemory deficits may also underpin poor memory performance and related functional deficits in this population. The purpose of this dissertation was to assess various aspects of metamemory performance among persons with SCZ. The studies are organized along a temporal continuum of metamemory processes, operating from retrieval to output. Study 1 evaluated whether persons with SCZ control retrieval by re-instating the processing mode employed at encoding (i.e., source-constrained retrieval). Participants studied words under deep or shallow conditions and then completed two recognition tests – a standard test followed by the memory-for-foils test (i.e., foils from the first test become targets on the second test). Only HCs in the deep encoding condition exhibited superior memory for foils, suggesting diminished source-constrained retrieval among persons with SCZ. In study 2, criterion setting and adjusting was investigated by altering the relative distinctiveness between lures and targets on two separate recognition tests. Persons with SCZ set a stricter criterion but adjusted it appropriately in response to lure distinctiveness (i.e., difficulty). In study 3, the strategic regulation of response granularity (i.e., from fine [e.g., 1:20 pm] to coarse [e.g. afternoon] was investigated by manipulating monetary incentives and penalties. Results show that persons with SCZ are overconfident in their memories and impaired in modulating granularity. Collectively these studies suggest a pattern of both intact and deficient metamemory skills characterize persons with SCZ. Possible underlying mechanisms and functional implications of this pattern are discussed.
12

Social Anxiety Disorder: Behavioural Characteristics Associated with the Cortisol Stress Response

Vaccarino, Oriana 10 December 2013 (has links)
The present study evaluated the cortisol stress response and its relationship to several behavioural measures in SAD participants. It is hypothesized that SAD participants will show an exaggerated cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and differing positive and negative affects compared to controls, as well as correlations between the two measures. SAD (n=12) and controls (n=12) underwent the TSST. Serial plasma cortisol samples were taken and self-report measures were completed. The plasma cortisol levels were numerically higher in SAD at all time points compared to controls but the difference was not statistically significant. Cortisol response correlated inversely with childhood emotional abuse (p=0.01) and directly with positive affect (p=0.02) in SAD participants. Furthermore, SAD participants reported greater negative affect (prior to and after TSST) and more frequent emotional abuse than controls. SAD is associated with changes in HPA axis activity and affective states that differ from controls.
13

Metamemory Processes in Persons with Schizophrenia

McAnanama, Edward 08 August 2013 (has links)
Memory impairment in Schizophrenia (SCZ) is robust and associated with poor functional outcome. However, these correlations are only moderate in magnitude, leading some researchers to propose that metamemory deficits may also underpin poor memory performance and related functional deficits in this population. The purpose of this dissertation was to assess various aspects of metamemory performance among persons with SCZ. The studies are organized along a temporal continuum of metamemory processes, operating from retrieval to output. Study 1 evaluated whether persons with SCZ control retrieval by re-instating the processing mode employed at encoding (i.e., source-constrained retrieval). Participants studied words under deep or shallow conditions and then completed two recognition tests – a standard test followed by the memory-for-foils test (i.e., foils from the first test become targets on the second test). Only HCs in the deep encoding condition exhibited superior memory for foils, suggesting diminished source-constrained retrieval among persons with SCZ. In study 2, criterion setting and adjusting was investigated by altering the relative distinctiveness between lures and targets on two separate recognition tests. Persons with SCZ set a stricter criterion but adjusted it appropriately in response to lure distinctiveness (i.e., difficulty). In study 3, the strategic regulation of response granularity (i.e., from fine [e.g., 1:20 pm] to coarse [e.g. afternoon] was investigated by manipulating monetary incentives and penalties. Results show that persons with SCZ are overconfident in their memories and impaired in modulating granularity. Collectively these studies suggest a pattern of both intact and deficient metamemory skills characterize persons with SCZ. Possible underlying mechanisms and functional implications of this pattern are discussed.
14

Social Anxiety Disorder: Behavioural Characteristics Associated with the Cortisol Stress Response

Vaccarino, Oriana 10 December 2013 (has links)
The present study evaluated the cortisol stress response and its relationship to several behavioural measures in SAD participants. It is hypothesized that SAD participants will show an exaggerated cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and differing positive and negative affects compared to controls, as well as correlations between the two measures. SAD (n=12) and controls (n=12) underwent the TSST. Serial plasma cortisol samples were taken and self-report measures were completed. The plasma cortisol levels were numerically higher in SAD at all time points compared to controls but the difference was not statistically significant. Cortisol response correlated inversely with childhood emotional abuse (p=0.01) and directly with positive affect (p=0.02) in SAD participants. Furthermore, SAD participants reported greater negative affect (prior to and after TSST) and more frequent emotional abuse than controls. SAD is associated with changes in HPA axis activity and affective states that differ from controls.
15

The Association of Childhood Trauma, Eating Disorder Symptoms and General Psychopathology in Individuals with Eating Disorders

Klopfer, Kristina Monika 31 May 2011 (has links)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of childhood sexual, physical and emotional abuse and childhood emotional and physical neglect on eating disorder symptoms and general psychopathology. This study utilized a cross-sectional research design incorporating a combination of self-report measures and clinical interviews. Seventy participants were recruited from two eating disorder treatment centres. A series of univariate tests revealed no significant differences between individuals who reported a mild level of trauma and those who reported a severe level of trauma on all clinical measures. Logistic regression analyses revealed associations between impulsivity and childhood physical abuse and between psychiatric comorbidity and childhood physical neglect. Few associations were found and the observed effect sizes were generally small suggesting that the null findings were not due to inadequate power. It may be that the study sample differed from those used in previous investigations in which significant associations have been documented.
16

The Association of Childhood Trauma, Eating Disorder Symptoms and General Psychopathology in Individuals with Eating Disorders

Klopfer, Kristina Monika 31 May 2011 (has links)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of childhood sexual, physical and emotional abuse and childhood emotional and physical neglect on eating disorder symptoms and general psychopathology. This study utilized a cross-sectional research design incorporating a combination of self-report measures and clinical interviews. Seventy participants were recruited from two eating disorder treatment centres. A series of univariate tests revealed no significant differences between individuals who reported a mild level of trauma and those who reported a severe level of trauma on all clinical measures. Logistic regression analyses revealed associations between impulsivity and childhood physical abuse and between psychiatric comorbidity and childhood physical neglect. Few associations were found and the observed effect sizes were generally small suggesting that the null findings were not due to inadequate power. It may be that the study sample differed from those used in previous investigations in which significant associations have been documented.
17

Zur Sammlung der 38 Homilien des Chrysostomus Latinus : mit Edition der Nr. 6, 8, 27, 32 und 33 /

Wenk, Wolfgang. January 1988 (has links)
Diss.--Geisteswissenschaftliche Fakultät--Universität Wien, 1980. / Contient le texte latin de cinq homélies du Chrysostomus Latinus. Bibliogr. p. 209-214.
18

Help-seeking and use of Workplace Services for Emotional Needs among Community Residential Staff who Support Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Aggressive Behaviour

Hensel, Jennifer Marie 18 March 2014 (has links)
Community workers supporting adults with intellectual disability get a lot of positive impact from their work. However, staff are also required to deal with challenges such as aggressive behaviours which can be associated with burnout. This thesis used a cross-sectional mixed methods design consisting of survey data analysis and qualitative interviews. The study aims were to examine staff report of emotional difficulties related to working with aggressive behaviours and use of available workplace resources. Staff frequently reported experiencing emotional difficulties; however use of workplace resources was low. Findings fit within existing models of general health service utilization with workplace resource use affected by: preventing and coping, severity threshold, enabling factors and cost versus benefit appraisal. Some unique factors included o-worker relationships, finding relief, lacking or inflexible rules and organizational focus on the service recipients. Multi-faceted interventions are likely to be the most successful in improving staff and related organizational outcomes.
19

Novel Insights in Language Production Mechanisms in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Magnetoencephalography Study.

Valica, Tatiana 19 March 2014 (has links)
Absence or impairment of functional communication is a fundamental deficit in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The specific factors that contribute to a great variety of speech and language impairments are still unknown but have a neurobiological substratum. We investigated the brain control of speech production mechanism in children with ASD using Magnetoencephalography (MEG). MEG is a neuroimaging modality with high temporal resolution that records neural activation in real time. A group of children with ASD and age- and sex- matched controls performed simple oromotor (open and close mouth) and speech tasks (one-syllable and multi-syllable phoneme production). Atypical and significantly different brain neural activation in motor (BA 6 and BA 4) areas and speech control (BA 47, BA 22) areas were noted in children with ASD compared to typically developing controls. The present thesis provides new evidence contributing to the understanding of speech and language production in individuals with autism.
20

A Randomized Double Blind Sham-controlled Comparison of Bilateral and Unilateral Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treatment-resistant Major Depression

Blumberger, Daniel 04 September 2012 (has links)
Objectives: High frequency left-sided (HFL) and low frequency right-sided (LFR) unilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are efficacious in treatment-resistant major depression (TRD). Similar benefit has been suggested for sequential bilateral rTMS (LFR then HFL). Therefore, this study evaluated the efficacy of HFL and sequential bilateral rTMS compared to sham in TRD. Methods: Seventy-four subjects between the ages of 18 and 85 with TRD and a 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) greater than 21 were randomized to receive unilateral, bilateral, or sham rTMS. Remission rates were compared among the three groups. Results: Remission rates differed significantly among the three groups. The remission rate was significantly higher in the bilateral group (34.6%) than the unilateral (4.5%) and sham (5.0%) groups. The remission rate in the unilateral group did not differ from sham group. Conclusion: These findings warrant larger controlled studies that compare the efficacy of sequential bilateral rTMS and HFL rTMS in TRD.

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