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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

Psychological Debriefing of Workplace Trauma: A Case Study of the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC)

Antony, Jesmin 21 July 2010 (has links)
Mental stress resulting from a traumatic event in the workplace has a noteworthy impact on employees. Psychological debriefing is offered to TTC employees as a means of immediate trauma support, however, the usefulness of the intervention is unknown. This thesis explores the debriefing intervention using a mixed methods approach. TTC employees who have experienced a traumatic event were recruited. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptom development and time lost from work were compared between debriefed and not debriefed employees. In addition, purposively selected employees were qualitatively interviewed. The quantitative analysis showed no significant differences in PTSD symptomatology or lost time from work between the groups. Despite these results, however, employees who were debriefed had an overall positive perception of the intervention. Further exploration in this area of study would be beneficial to not only the TTC, but to all workplaces at high risk of exposure to traumatic events.
42

Learning Deficits after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)

Jeon, Hyo Jin 25 August 2011 (has links)
Survivors of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) often have learning and memory deficits. This study tested the hypothesis that SAH in rats is associated with similar deficits and that they are due to neuronal injury in the hippocampus. SAH was induced in rats. Behaviour was investigated in the Morris water maze and brain injury by microscopy. Rats with SAH had deficits in spatial learning and working memory and had significantly more fluoro-Jade- and TUNEL-positive neurons in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Microthromboemboli in microvessels were more frequent in brains of rats with SAH and deficits there was vasospasm of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The amount of cell death in the hippocampus did not appear to be sufficient to cause the observed in the Morris water maze. This suggests that other factors such as dysfunction of neurotransmission or other pathology in hippocampal pathways might contribute to the impairment.
43

An Investigation of the Associations among Recovery, Key Illness Characteristics and Bone Mineral Density in Women with a History of Anorexia Nervosa

Waugh, Esther J. 23 February 2010 (has links)
Background: Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is an established complication of anorexia nervosa (AN). There is inconclusive evidence as to whether this reduction in bone mass is permanent or can be reversed with recovery from AN. The objectives of this study were to: i. determine the extent of reversal of skeletal deficits with recovery from AN, and the duration of recovery required for complete reversal, if this occurred; and, ii. evaluate the effect of key illness characteristics on BMD. Methods: Women (aged 17-40 years) who had previously received inpatient treatment for AN at one of two hospital-based programs were selected for this cross-sectional study; 514 healthy premenopausal women recruited from the community served as a control group. A detailed lifetime illness history was obtained by a Life History Calendar interview. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the spine, hip and total body. Low BMD was defined as a weight and age-matched standard deviation (Z-score) of ≤ -1.5 at one or more skeletal sites. Participants were considered recovered if they had maintained a body mass index ≥ 18.5 kg/m2 and resumed regular menstruation for ≥ 1 year. Results: Of 190 AN participants, 77 were considered recovered and 113 were ill. The prevalence of low BMD was 11.7% in the recovered group, 47.3% in the ill group and 6.8% in the control group. The odds of low BMD in the recovered participants was significantly lower than in the ill participants (odds ratio [OR] = 0.17, 95% CI 0.07, 0.36, p<0.0001) and was not significantly different from the controls (OR = 1.81, 95% CI 0.79, 3.78, p=0.15). Duration of illness was associated with low BMD (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.08, 1.25, p<0.0001) and was negatively associated with the odds of AN recovery. Normal mean BMD values at each skeletal site were observed in women recovered ≥ 3 years. Conclusion: The results emphasize the importance of early and sustained AN recovery for the prevention and treatment of low bone mass in this population and may offer motivation for AN patients to make positive behavioural changes leading to successful, long-term recovery.
44

An Investigation of the Associations among Recovery, Key Illness Characteristics and Bone Mineral Density in Women with a History of Anorexia Nervosa

Waugh, Esther J. 23 February 2010 (has links)
Background: Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is an established complication of anorexia nervosa (AN). There is inconclusive evidence as to whether this reduction in bone mass is permanent or can be reversed with recovery from AN. The objectives of this study were to: i. determine the extent of reversal of skeletal deficits with recovery from AN, and the duration of recovery required for complete reversal, if this occurred; and, ii. evaluate the effect of key illness characteristics on BMD. Methods: Women (aged 17-40 years) who had previously received inpatient treatment for AN at one of two hospital-based programs were selected for this cross-sectional study; 514 healthy premenopausal women recruited from the community served as a control group. A detailed lifetime illness history was obtained by a Life History Calendar interview. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the spine, hip and total body. Low BMD was defined as a weight and age-matched standard deviation (Z-score) of ≤ -1.5 at one or more skeletal sites. Participants were considered recovered if they had maintained a body mass index ≥ 18.5 kg/m2 and resumed regular menstruation for ≥ 1 year. Results: Of 190 AN participants, 77 were considered recovered and 113 were ill. The prevalence of low BMD was 11.7% in the recovered group, 47.3% in the ill group and 6.8% in the control group. The odds of low BMD in the recovered participants was significantly lower than in the ill participants (odds ratio [OR] = 0.17, 95% CI 0.07, 0.36, p<0.0001) and was not significantly different from the controls (OR = 1.81, 95% CI 0.79, 3.78, p=0.15). Duration of illness was associated with low BMD (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.08, 1.25, p<0.0001) and was negatively associated with the odds of AN recovery. Normal mean BMD values at each skeletal site were observed in women recovered ≥ 3 years. Conclusion: The results emphasize the importance of early and sustained AN recovery for the prevention and treatment of low bone mass in this population and may offer motivation for AN patients to make positive behavioural changes leading to successful, long-term recovery.
45

An Economic Evaluation of Teratology Information Services

Hancock, Rebecca L. 13 August 2010 (has links)
BACKGROUND: Teratology Information Services (TIS) educate the public and health professionals via telephone regarding the safety of drugs and other exposures during pregnancy and lactation. Currently TIS consultations are free, but funding is eroding. A cost-benefit analysis may inform resource allocation. It was hypothesized that an individual TIS consultation regarding anti-depressant use during pregnancy provides a positive net benefit compared to a family doctor (FD) consultation. METHODS: A survey of international TIS was conducted to gauge TIS costs. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was designed to assess preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP, an estimate of benefit) for teratology counseling. DCE respondents (local community volunteers) chose between potential counseling services following an anti-depressant exposure during pregnancy. Services were described by five service attributes and one cost attribute, which were generated in focus groups. Preferences and WTP were estimated using logit regression. Incremental benefits and costs of counseling by TIS and FD were compared in a probabilistic sensitivity analysis to obtain the incremental net benefit from both a societal (productivity costs included) and health system perspective. The FD consultation was costed through OHIP billing codes. The TIS consultation was micro-costed. RESULTS: Eighteen TIS in North America and 16 international TIS completed the survey. Most TIS are small (median two employees, median budget US$69,000). The DCE had 175 respondents. The most important attribute of counseling was receiving very helpful information; information delivery methods were less important. WTP for the TIS scenario was CDN$124 (SD $12); WTP for the FD scenario was CDN$79 (SD $8). Service costs were similar for TIS and FD (approximately $32/consultation); FD had higher productivity costs. Incremental TIS benefits were likely to outweigh costs under both the societal and health system perspectives (probability 99% and 97% respectively). CONCLUSIONS: An economic evaluation of a program that delivers pregnancy health information via telephone required a novel approach. While there are some methodological challenges to valuing benefits through willingness-to-pay, it may be appropriate for valuing counseling. TIS should emphasize their ability to provide high quality information. The benefits of an individual TIS consultation on anti-depressant use during pregnancy are likely greater than the costs.
46

Platelet Activating Factors and Depressive Symptoms in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

Mazereeuw, Graham M. 18 March 2013 (has links)
Depression is highly prevalent in coronary artery disease (CAD) and confers an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, yet mechanisms are unknown. Platelet activating factor (PAF) lipids are associated not only with CAD but also with inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, vascular endothelial dysfunction and platelet reactivity which are proposed etiopathological mechanisms for depression. This study investigated the relationship between PAF species and depressive symptoms in 20 CAD patients. Plasma analyses were performed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (precursor ion scan). Primary analysis revealed no association between the potent pro-inflammatory PAF PC(O-16:0/2:0) and depressive symptoms measured by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAM-D] (F=0.405, p=0.533) or Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]-II (F=0.120, p=0.733) in a linear regression. Exploratory analyses revealed potential associations between greater PC(O-18:1/0:0) and greater HAM-D score and greater PC(O-22:6/2:0) concentrations with a greater BDI-II score. This study suggests that specific PAFs might be biomarkers for depressive symptoms in CAD patients.
47

Platelet Activating Factors and Depressive Symptoms in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

Mazereeuw, Graham M. 18 March 2013 (has links)
Depression is highly prevalent in coronary artery disease (CAD) and confers an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, yet mechanisms are unknown. Platelet activating factor (PAF) lipids are associated not only with CAD but also with inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, vascular endothelial dysfunction and platelet reactivity which are proposed etiopathological mechanisms for depression. This study investigated the relationship between PAF species and depressive symptoms in 20 CAD patients. Plasma analyses were performed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (precursor ion scan). Primary analysis revealed no association between the potent pro-inflammatory PAF PC(O-16:0/2:0) and depressive symptoms measured by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAM-D] (F=0.405, p=0.533) or Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]-II (F=0.120, p=0.733) in a linear regression. Exploratory analyses revealed potential associations between greater PC(O-18:1/0:0) and greater HAM-D score and greater PC(O-22:6/2:0) concentrations with a greater BDI-II score. This study suggests that specific PAFs might be biomarkers for depressive symptoms in CAD patients.
48

Frequency and Predictors of Sibling Psychological and Somatic Difficulties Following Pediatric Cancer Diagnosis

Massie, Kendra 28 February 2011 (has links)
Siblings of children with cancer encounter stressors and challenges that can lead to severe distress and a host of psychological difficulties. Factors including age, gender, and disease characteristics of the child with cancer are reported to influence sibling adjustment. The majority of research, however, is dated, inconsistent, and marred by methodological problems. Guided by the disability-stress-coping model, the study examined the: (a) frequency of sibling and parent reported symptoms of anxiety and depression, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, and somatic problems, (b) influence of sibling, family, and disease factors on sibling adjustment, (c) moderating effects of age on the relationship between sibling factors and sibling adjustment, and (d) mediating effect of primary cognitive appraisal on the relationship between self-esteem and sibling adjustment. One hundred and eight siblings (7-17 years; 51 males; 57 females) participated. Siblings completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children and the Children’s Depression Inventory to provide measures of sibling reported symptoms of anxiety and depression. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist to provide measures of parent reported internalizing behavior problems, externalizing behavior problems, and somatic problems. The communication and intrapersonal thoughts and feelings subscales of the Sibling Perception Questionnaire, completed by siblings, were used to assess perceived social support and primary cognitive appraisal. Self-esteem was assessed with the global self-worth subscale of the Self Perception Profile for Children/Adolescents, completed by siblings. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to assess the direct and indirect effects of sibling, family, and disease factors on psychological outcomes. Siblings and parents reported higher incidents of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety, internalizing behavior problems, and somatic problems than expected in a normative population. Sibling age and gender, diagnosis of the child with cancer, social support, self-esteem, and primary cognitive appraisal were significantly associated with sibling and parent reported psychological adjustment measures. Age moderated the relationship between gender, social support, and primary cognitive appraisal and several adjustment outcomes. Lastly, primary cognitive appraisal partially mediated the relationship between self-esteem and sibling reported anxiety and depression symptoms. These findings highlight the need for sibling psychosocial interventions and provide direction for the development and implementation of such groups.
49

Examining Performance Monitoring in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Payne, Shalaine 11 December 2009 (has links)
Behavioural symptoms, cognitive deficits, and findings from electrophysiological, neuroimaging and genetic studies all suggest atypical performance monitoring in ADHD. Performance monitoring involves error detection and post-error behavioural adjustment and is crucial to behavioural self-regulation and reinforcement learning, both of which are dysfunctional in ADHD. Therefore, post-error slowing was examined in children with ADHD and controls using a modified flanker task both with, and without, error detection provided. There was a significant main effect of group on post-error slowing across conditions and when error-detection was provided, significant post-error slowing deficits were found in children with ADHD. These findings suggest that the performance monitoring deficit in ADHD is specific to post-error behavioural adjustment and supports the inclusion of this deficit in the neurocognitive profile of ADHD. Findings are discussed in terms of current neurocognitive reinforcement learning models of ADHD.
50

Olanzapine-induced Weight Gain: An Animal Model

Mann, Stephen Wallace 15 February 2010 (has links)
Introduction: Using an animal model, we examined weight gain in rats exposed to olanzapine, as well as whether increased weight was associated with food intake, visceral fat and/or locomotion. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically treated with olanzapine while being offered diets including standard chow, a high fat (60% fat) diet, and a high fat/high carbohydrate (42% fat; 42.7% carbohydrate) diet. Body weight, food intake, visceral fat and locomotor activity were measured. Results: Our findings related to weight gain are in line with other reports indicating that while olanzapine-induced weight gain can be observed, it does not mirror what is observed in humans on two levels: (i) it is not of the same magnitude, and (ii) it is more gender specific i.e., females greater than males. Conclusions: These data confirm that chronic treatment with olanzapine has varying effects on weight gain, food intake, visceral fat and locomotor activity.

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