• Refine Query
  • Source
  • Publication year
  • to
  • Language
  • 144
  • 108
  • 35
  • 33
  • 24
  • 1
  • Tagged with
  • 397
  • 290
  • 284
  • 236
  • 218
  • 218
  • 218
  • 55
  • 54
  • 53
  • 38
  • 34
  • 32
  • 30
  • 29
  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
61

The Specificity and Neural Basis of Impaired Inhibitory Control

Lipszyc, Jonathan 15 February 2010 (has links)
Impaired inhibition is a deficit of several psychopathological disorders, particularly attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In the first study, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine whether impaired inhibition as measured by the Stop Signal Task is specific to ADHD, or whether it could be found in other psychopathological disorders. The meta-analysis found an inhibitory deficit in ADHD, but also in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia (SCZ), suggesting that deficient inhibition is not specific to ADHD. A common neural mechanism may underlie deficient inhibition in ADHD, OCD, and SCZ. Study 2 aimed to determine the neural basis of inhibition using a lesion-deficit approach in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Only TBI children with white matter lesions in the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) region showed impaired inhibition compared with orthopedic injury controls. This suggests that deficient inhibition may stem from frontal lobe white matter damage, particularly in the SFG.
62

Stigma Resistance: Exploring the Experiences of Young People at Risk for Psychosis Through Photo Elicitation

Volpe, Tiziana 31 August 2011 (has links)
The discovery that it is possible to identify an individual before the onset of first episode psychosis and that treatment may prevent or delay onset have led to a proliferation of early intervention clinics designed to intervene before symptoms of psychosis have fully appeared. Early intervention has generated considerable debate, given the risks associated with intervening and that the majority of those identified will never develop full-blown psychosis. Despite potential stigmatizing effects, little is known about young people’s views regarding the favourable and/or adverse consequences of early intervention. This research examines the experiences and meaning of illness in young people identified as being at ultra high risk for psychosis and participating in a psychological intervention program. Specifically, the study uses photo elicitation to explore how participants construct and interpret their experiences, and the impact an at risk label has on their sense of self, identity, and social relationships. Five young people were invited to photograph their daily experiences at home, at school, and in the community. The participants and I then analyzed the photographs together in a photo elicitation interview. I further analyzed the visual and textual data from an interactionist perspective, exploring the concept of stigma and its relationship to young people’s experiences. Visual and narrative data revealed that young people reject their at risk status and redefine their experiences to fit with more acceptable and familiar notions of health. Participants are conscious of the stigma associated with psychosis and actively undertake strategies of resistance to avoid stigmatization and uphold a normal self conception and social impression. Photo elicitation provided insight and understanding into the experiences of young people at risk for psychosis that were not available through more traditional methods. The results from this study support the call for a reconsideration of the psychosis risk paradigm. There is a need to increase awareness about the power of diagnostic information and the labeling process. Non-specialized settings such as schools and community health centres may offer more appropriate environments for mental health monitoring and intervention.
63

The Specificity and Neural Basis of Impaired Inhibitory Control

Lipszyc, Jonathan 15 February 2010 (has links)
Impaired inhibition is a deficit of several psychopathological disorders, particularly attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In the first study, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine whether impaired inhibition as measured by the Stop Signal Task is specific to ADHD, or whether it could be found in other psychopathological disorders. The meta-analysis found an inhibitory deficit in ADHD, but also in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia (SCZ), suggesting that deficient inhibition is not specific to ADHD. A common neural mechanism may underlie deficient inhibition in ADHD, OCD, and SCZ. Study 2 aimed to determine the neural basis of inhibition using a lesion-deficit approach in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Only TBI children with white matter lesions in the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) region showed impaired inhibition compared with orthopedic injury controls. This suggests that deficient inhibition may stem from frontal lobe white matter damage, particularly in the SFG.
64

Learning Deficits after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)

Jeon, Hyo Jin 25 August 2011 (has links)
Survivors of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) often have learning and memory deficits. This study tested the hypothesis that SAH in rats is associated with similar deficits and that they are due to neuronal injury in the hippocampus. SAH was induced in rats. Behaviour was investigated in the Morris water maze and brain injury by microscopy. Rats with SAH had deficits in spatial learning and working memory and had significantly more fluoro-Jade- and TUNEL-positive neurons in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Microthromboemboli in microvessels were more frequent in brains of rats with SAH and deficits there was vasospasm of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The amount of cell death in the hippocampus did not appear to be sufficient to cause the observed in the Morris water maze. This suggests that other factors such as dysfunction of neurotransmission or other pathology in hippocampal pathways might contribute to the impairment.
65

Reshaping an Enduring Sense of Self: The Process of Recovery from a First Episode of Schizophrenia

Romano, Donna M. 10 July 2009 (has links)
Although many advances in the treatment of schizophrenia have been made over the past decade, little is known about the process of recovery from a first episode of schizophrenia (FES). To date, the study of recovery in the field of mental health has focused on long-term mental illness. This in depth qualitative study drew upon Charmaz’s (1990) constructivist grounded theory methodology to address the following questions: How do individuals who have experienced a FES describe their process of recovery? How does an identified individual (e.g. friend, family member, teacher, or clinician) describe their role during the participant’s process of recovery, and their perception of the recovery process? Ten primary participants (who self-identified as recovering from a FES) had two interviews; in addition, there was a one-time interview with a secondary participant, for a total of 30 interviews. Data collection sources included participant semi-structured interviews, participant selected personal objects that symbolized their recovery, and clinical records. The results provide a substantive theory of the process of recovery from a FES. The emergent process of recovery model for these participants is comprised of the following phases: ‘Lives prior to the illness’, ‘Lives interrupted: Encountering the illness’, ‘Engaging in services and supports’, ‘Re-engaging in life’, ‘Envisioning the future’; and the core category, ‘Re-shaping an enduring sense of self,’ that occurred through all phases. A prominent distinctive feature of this model is that participants’ enduring sense of self were reshaped versus reconstructed throughout their recovery. The emergent model of recovery from a FES is unique, and as such, provides implications for clinical care, future research, and policy development specifically for these young people and their families.
66

Resilient Women: Resisting the Pressure to Be Thin

Mizevich, Jane 18 December 2012 (has links)
The purpose of this study was to explore protective factors that help women resist societal pressures for thinness. The present study used a qualitative life history methodology to examine the experiences of women who identified themselves as resilient to pressures to be thin and as liking their bodies regardless of size. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 women, ages 18 to 25, representing diverse social and ethno-cultural backgrounds and body physiques. In the interviews, the participants were inquired about their experiences related to anything they felt was helpful for them in developing a positive body image from childhood, adolescence, and to present day. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed for themes using constructivist grounded theory methodology. Data analysis was informed by the feminist theoretical approach, with attention paid to social and contextual factors. Three core categories emerged from the analysis, which included protective factors associated with participants’ experiences of identity, ways of inhabiting their bodies, and the nature of social influences in their lives. This research highlighted the women’s active role in maintaining a resilient stance in the face of pressures for thinness as well as the importance of social factors that assist them in this process.
67

Learning Deficits after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)

Jeon, Hyo Jin 25 August 2011 (has links)
Survivors of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) often have learning and memory deficits. This study tested the hypothesis that SAH in rats is associated with similar deficits and that they are due to neuronal injury in the hippocampus. SAH was induced in rats. Behaviour was investigated in the Morris water maze and brain injury by microscopy. Rats with SAH had deficits in spatial learning and working memory and had significantly more fluoro-Jade- and TUNEL-positive neurons in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Microthromboemboli in microvessels were more frequent in brains of rats with SAH and deficits there was vasospasm of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The amount of cell death in the hippocampus did not appear to be sufficient to cause the observed in the Morris water maze. This suggests that other factors such as dysfunction of neurotransmission or other pathology in hippocampal pathways might contribute to the impairment.
68

Serum Estradiol Levels and Mental Health-related Quality of Life in Canadian Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-sectional Study

Mansfield, Joanna 14 December 2011 (has links)
Background: Serum estradiol levels decline after menopause and the effect on mental health-related quality of life (MHR-QOL) is unclear. Objective: To determine if there is an association between endogenous serum estradiol levels and MHR-QOL in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: This cross-sectional study used baseline Canadian data from the Mammary Prevention.3 trial. Serum estradiol was measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Outcomes for MHR-QOL were the Medical Outcomes 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) Mental Health Inventory-5 (MHI-5), Mental Component Summary (MCS), and the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL)-psychosocial domain. Results: There were no statistically significant associations between estradiol levels and MHR-QOL in univariate analyses (n=455). Multivariable linear regression predicted statistically significant differences in MCS (R2=0.10, P=0.03) and MENQOL-psychosocial domain (R2=0.10, P=0.04), however estradiol was not a significant predictor. Conclusions: This study did not find a statistically significant association between endogenous serum estradiol levels and MHR-QOL in healthy postmenopausal women.
69

Understanding the effects of war-related trauma and deployment on the couple relationship: evidence for the Couple Adaptation to Traumatic Stress (CATS) model

Wick, Stephanie January 1900 (has links)
Doctor of Philosophy / Department of Family Studies and Human Services / Briana S. Goff / The purpose of the current study is to understand the lived experiences of military couples regarding the effects of war-related trauma and deployment on couple functioning. An interpretive phenomenological perspective was utilized during data analysis. This type of phenomenological perspective suggests that human phenomena can only be understood in a situated context (Packer & Addison, 1989). This is to suggest that a person’s emotions, behaviors, and experiences cannot be separated from the context in which they occur. For the purpose of this study, the “context” under consideration was the Army culture and customs in which each of the participant couples was embedded. The Couple Adaptation to Traumatic Stress Model (CATS; Nelson Goff & Smith, 2005) offers a constructive step forward in systemically understanding and treating the impediments created by war-related trauma and deployment. The current study utilized the core terms included in the CATS Model (Nelson Goff & Smith, 2005) as sensitizing concepts to guide the qualitative analysis process. This includes the CATS Model couple functioning variables of attachment, satisfaction, stability, adaptability, support/nurturance, power, intimacy, communication, conflict, and roles. Using qualitative interviews from 90 participants (n = 45 couples), five themes were identified as salient, including communication, conflict management, roles, support/nurturance, and post-traumatic growth. Participants were divided into subgroups (n = 15 couples, 30 total participants) according to their scores on the Purdue Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale – Revised (PPTSD-R; Lauterbach & Vrana, 1996) and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS; Spanier, 1976). This subsample was selected to examine differences in themes among couples with high and low levels of marital satisfaction, as well as those with high and low levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Many similarities were found among the couples with high marital satisfaction and those with low levels of post-traumatic symptoms. Likewise, similarities were also discovered among the couples with lowest levels of marital satisfaction and those with highest levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms. From the current study, there is clear evidence in support of the CATS Model elements of communication, conflict, roles, support/nurturance, and satisfaction. A new contribution to the CATS Model can be made from the current study, which is the inclusion of post-traumatic growth.
70

Predictors of sexual coercion in a sample of male and female college students

Cook, Joshua Evan January 1900 (has links)
Master of Science / Department of Family Studies and Human Services / Sandra M. Stith / Sexual violence, and sexual coercion in particular, is an understudied field, but research is beginning to show that males and females alike are perpetrators of sexual violence. Research has looked at predictors of sexual violence in males, but little research has looked at predictors of sexual violence in females. Similarly, little research has examined predictors of sexual violence in the context of dating relationships; therefore, this study examined predictors of sexual coercion in males and females within dating relationships. Using a sample of 305 male and 363 female undergraduate students’ self-report surveys, hierarchical regression analyses were utilized to test the nature of the sexual coercion predictors. Seven variables (problems with alcohol, past child abuse, anger management skills, relationship satisfaction, acceptability of violence towards wives, acceptability of violence towards husbands, and sexual coercion victimization) served as the independent variables with sexual coercion perpetration as the dependent variables in all of the regression analyses. Using the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2; Straus, Hamby, Boney-McCoy, & Sugarman, 1996) to assess sexual coercion perpetration, male and female students were found to exhibit a different set of significant predictor variables in the regression analyses; however, sexual coercion victimization was a significant predictor in both data. Sexual coercion victimization predicting sexual coercion perpetration in males and females suggests that sexual coercion is bilateral and part of a systemic cycle of violence. Clinical implications and recommendations for future research are provided.

Page generated in 0.0372 seconds