We study participation decisions and bidding behaviour in Michigan Department of Transportation procurement auctions. Patterns in the bidding data suggest that bidders' participation behaviour has a forward looking component. To fully understand the extent of these effects on auction outcomes, we construct and estimate a dynamic asymmetric auction model with endogenous participation. We develop an estimation approach which builds on Guerre et al. (2000) and recently developed dynamic discrete game estimators. We then quantify the level of inefficiencies under the current auction rules and then consider how alternative auction rules affect efficiency. We also analyse the effect of ignoring dynamics in this market by estimating a static version of our model. This approach results in misleading conclusions concerning auction efficiency.
Japanese firms in the EU : Europeanization of lobbying strategies and enduring national characteristicsHamada, Yukihiko January 2008 (has links)
The number of Japanese firms in Brussels has increased since the creation of the European Single Market. At the same time, large European firms have become independent political actors and harmonized their lobbying pattern, creating a distinctive business-government relationship in the EU. Yet, it still remains to be examined whether Japanese firms are able to utilize their political options and conform to the new EU lobbying style, which features firms' direct participation within the policymaking process. This thesis, based on four detailed case studies in automobile and electronics sectors, explores the Europeanization of Japanese firms' lobbying strategies, and assesses how they have adapted to the constantly evolving EU public policymaking system. With reference to the actor-based models of interest groups and Europeanization literature, it provides an empirical investigation of interaction between traditional Japanese lobbying practices and the EU institutional environment in forming firms' preferences for particular lobbying strategies. Each case study is based on a number of interviews conducted in Brussels and Tokyo with firms, business associations, and EU institutions. In short, a key objective is to highlight the variations in the Europeanization of Japanese lobbying, with special attention to the firms' embeddedness in traditional business culture. In addition, this thesis seeks to identify the opportunities and constrains that make up the institutional logic of Japanese firms in pursuing a more Japanese or EU type of lobbying practice. Overall, this thesis concludes that Japanese firms have restructured their political behaviours to suit the EU policymaking process. However, the degree of such Europeanization of lobbying strategies has significantly varied across sectors and firms due to ranging influence from several institutional factors. In other words, the underlying nationality of the firm remains the vitally important determinant in the nature of its lobbying strategy formulation, and is much more persistent in the face of Europeanization than existing studies generally assume.
Foo, Nicole Min-Hui
The thesis expounded in this work is that the relationship between a customer and a brand can be described in two dimensions as communal and exchange, and that these dimensions can be measured by means of a practical metric. The novel brand relationship metric proposed in this research is based on theories of human-to-human relationships in defining customer-brand relationships by means of a set of questionnaire attributes describing the communal and exchange dimensions. Results of experimental validation studies confirm the effectiveness and relevance of such communal and exchange relationships norms in the quantitative characterisation of customer-brand relationships. A controlled experiment is described with a cohort of 69 customers of the Case Bank using Internet and automated teller machine technologies in the context of incentive schemes from the Bank. The experiment examines the impact of the design of incentive schemes on perceptions of relationship with the brand and demonstrates significant evidence that the brand relationship questionnaire is effective in quantifying differences in customer-brand relationship, the extent of the effect depending on what relationship attributes are salient and experienced by the customer within the incentive schemes. In addition, results of a longitudinal empirical study, with a cohort of 66 (different) customers of the Case Bank, confirms that incentive schemes based on communal and exchange attributes are successful at producing statistically significant improvements in perceptions of customer-brand relationship. The longitudinal study also provides evidence that displays of adherence to, or violation of, the norms of communal and exchange relationships also exert a considerable influence on the resultant dynamic perceptions of brand relationship.
'International' marketing in one country : standardization and adaptation strategies of fast-moving consumer goods firms in a tourism-oriented environmentPoulis, Konstantinos January 2008 (has links)
This thesis applies a standardization/adaptation framework (SA) to explore the strategies of Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) firms in the Greek market. This market is transformed into an 'international' one during the tourist season due to an influx of 15 millions of tourists from several, primarily European, countries. Extant research has not addressed how FMCG firms may respond to this market transformation; whether they standardize their offering across the 'native' and tourist population (and within the tourist population from different countries) or they adapt their offerings. Despite the growing importance of international tourism and despite tourism being a major driver of globalisation, there is no empirical evidence showcasing how a beer, an ice cream or a shampoo seller market their products to the plethora of nationalities visiting their country of operation. The purpose of this research, therefore, is to gain, for the first time, a deeper understanding on how FMCG firms -both MNE subsidiaries and local entities- serve the needs of mobile consumers of FMCGs in a tourism estimation. Greece is chosen as the field of study since in this country, the contextual idiosyncrasies of such polyethnic markets are clearly evident. The research adopts the interpretive paradigm, a realist orientation and case studies as the most fitting methodology for the research questions. Multiple sources of evidence were utilized, focusing primarily on personal interviews with key managers in 14 organizations. Findings suggest that the impact of tourism is two-fold and that there is a mixture of SA strategies implemented by firms. These strategies are driven by such factors as organizational features of each firm, internationalizing outlook of firms or perceived tourists' quest for experimentation/familiarity. The contingency approach is supported indicating that deployed strategies along the SA continuum rest upon oftenneglected idiosyncrasies ofthe market and upon firm-specific considerations. The contribution of the research to international business/marketing and tourism literatures is explicitly stressed and it is pinpointed that implications for FMCG firms and public authorities in such environments are worth-noting. The study concludes with highlighting the limitations of the study and the avenues that call for closer scrutiny and greater illumination as a result ofthe findings of this study
Making trade fair? : an examination of the relationship between Cafedirect and a coffee co-operative in TanzaniaTallontire, A. January 1999 (has links)
Using a qualitative approach, based on a multi-layered case study of Cafedirect, a coffee trading Alternative Trading Organisation (ATO), this thesis explores the nature of partnership in fair trade relationships from the producer to the consumer. This is set in the context of an historical analysis of the emergence of fair trade and contemporary developments in ethical consumption and ethical business. The primary objective of ATOs is to ensure that the benefits of trade accrue to small scale producers, for which the partnership between the ATO and groups representing small producers is central. Partnership in Cafedirect is explored in detail, specifically at the level of the company and in the relationship between Cafedirect and a coffee cooperative union in Tanzania, the KNCU. Along with co-operatives in Latin America and elsewhere in East Africa, the KNCU supplies coffee for Cafedirect's products and receives support from Cafedirect as part of the fair trade partnership. Whilst there are benefits to the KNCU members in terms of a premium price, this partnership has proved problematic. Reasons for the problems in the partnership between the KNCU and Cafedirect are explored through an examination of the requirements for partnership and the context in which the partnership was developed. Key factors are the bureaucratic history of the co-operative and limited commitment to the partnership. The analysis raises questions about the need for ATOs to be more flexible in their interpretation of partnership and the need for development inputs to accompany fair trade initiatives.
The effect of internal market orientation, internal dynamics and knowledge management strategies on NSD project performanceBoukis, Achilleas January 2014 (has links)
Recognizing that service firms' performance is driven from their capability to innovate, new service development (NSD) is an increasingly important area of interest, as it can provide service organizations with a sustainable competitive advantage and ensure their long-term prosperity. The main objective of this thesis is to deliver an integrated framework for the strategic management of NSD by acknowledging how various internal conditions affect NSD project performance. The focus of this dissertation rests on the contingent effect of project manager's behaviour, interfunctional relationships and team-level contingencies on different new service development outcomes. In particular, the role of project manager's Internal Market Orientation, interfunctional relationships (i.e. trust, conflict, interfunctional integration and political activity), team-level conditions (i.e. climate, task and relationship conflict) and knowledge management strategies (i.e. personalization and codification strategy) for project learning, organizational learning, resource allocation effectiveness and efficiency and project performance during NSD is evaluated. To investigate these relationships, a hierarchical research design is adopted by drawing nested data from both two different sources (i.e. project managers and participants of NSD projects) across several service industries. A final usable sample of 116 project managers and 543 responses from NSD participants was obtained. Results highlight the importance of project manager's Internal Market Orientation adoption for NSD project performance while the role of interfunctional relationships, team-level contingencies, individual perceptions and knowledge management strategies during also proves critical for NSD. This dissertation is anticipated to provide service managers with several useful insights regarding ways of improving the management and the organization of the NSD process as well as to shed light on the reeffectiveness different knowledge management strategies for project performance, project learning and resource allocation during NSD. The identification of how intra-organizational dynamics and contextual factors concurrently influence performance, learning and resource allocation during service innovation efforts will optimize their daily management and help practitioners understand the impact of their actions on team dynamics and innovation performance.
Duffy, Katherine M.
This thesis explores how practices, spaces and socialities intersect in the consumption of vintage. The study is based within Consumer Culture Theory (CCT) with a particular focus on studies that consider alternative spaces and practices of consumption. Vintage has become a widespread movement in the UK that encompasses production, marketing and consumption, but it has largely been omitted from the consumer research discussions to date. As a site of enquiry this ethnographic study focuses within the vintage 'pop-up markets' of Glasgow, UK and considers the vintage scene as an embodied set of social practices and values. This thesis addresses four research objectives detailing the 'doings' of vintage from a practice perspective and extends the CCT understanding of the 'circuit of practice' to be spatially bound. The markets exist as marginal sites of consumption and were found to be active spaces that were an amalgamation of market objects, actors and values that encoded particular practices. The findings of this study contribute to CCT in demonstrating how objects, practices and knowledge intersected in the marketspace in the performance of the alternative. This research contributes to an understanding of the consumer as an active practitioner in the marketspace and the aesthetic labour this necessitates. Further it finds the vintage tribe as a collective consumption site of learning and apprenticeship. The findings advance consumer research understandings of space with the pop-up markets as a practiced space of 'the familiar'. The final contribution frames the 'fluidity of value' in vintage as liminal and transient in practice. The study concludes by emphasising the importance of a turn to a practice perspective methodologically within the CCT landscape and the development of future research opportunities that probe market labour, formation and creativity in practice.
The literature on service-dominant logic has highlighted the central role value cocreation plays in enhancing service delivery. Thus, understanding value co-creation is imperative as it presents new opportunities for providers (firms) to create value with patients (customers). A number of studies have focused on the actor activities in the value co-creation process outside the service encounter. Thus, activities put forward by firms to engage customers, and activities observed by consumers to engage with the firm to co-create value. Using a mixed method research design, this thesis explores value co-creation at the micro level between the doctor and the patient in a healthcare setting to further the understanding of actors' differing perceptions of value and key factors that drive value co-creation. The study takes a patient centric view of value from the experiential perspective by examining the service encounter between the doctor and patient in the consulting room. The first study of the sequential design is exploratory and qualitative with results leading to the second study, quantitative research. The qualitative study found three key factors influencing the value co-creation at the micro level that include the social context of the encounter, the beliefs and perceptions of the actors, and the partnership between the doctor and the patient. The findings also suggest the experiential view of value in the healthcare setting. The quantitative study affirmed the importance of these critical areas of the co-creation process and how they impact on the service outcomes that include improved service engagement, improved compliance to medical instructions and perceived value realised. The findings also highlight the effects of actor characteristics on value co-creation. The thesis contributes to the value co-creation literature to further our understanding of the micro level factors influencing value co-creation from the dyadic perspective. The thesis also contributes to the healthcare value literature and contends that value in healthcare extends beyond the economic perspective to the experiential perspective. The study also contributes to the methodological discourse on the application of quantitative approaches to examine value co-creation, and propose a model that have both theoretical and managerial implications.
Al Oraini, Badrea Saleh
Most individual technology acceptance models are based on the technology acceptance model (TAM), or the conceptualisation of TAM. Even though many researchers consider TAM to be a good model for predicting individual technology acceptance because it has good explanatory power across the population, context and time, and has a parsimonious structure, it has been criticised by several researchers. TAM has been criticised for what is called inherent 'cultural bias'. This 'cultural bias' is responsible for limiting the generalisability of TAM across cultures (from national to organisational levels). Therefore, in this thesis TAM has been extended to suit a developing country context. Numbers of variables related cultural aspects were added to the model to enhance its ability to predict consumers' technology acceptance, given their religious values and social influences. Results of the extended model are satisfying, as the proposed model was able to explain 56 percent of Muslim consumers' behavioural intentions compared to the original TAM, which was able to predict only 39 percent of their intentions. This thesis reports the findings related to the issues concerning the acceptance of Internet-only banking in one of the conservative Islamic countries, namely Saudi Arabia. Although the study was conducted at a specific site on a particular technology application, there is a justification for claiming that the findings are pertinent to the introduction of a wide range of Internet applications into other Islamic countries. Therefore the study makes a significant contribution to research across all areas of information technology adoption and to this practice in financial services. The thesis starts with an exploratory study involving some semi-structured interviews with religious scholars, in-depth interviews with bank consumers and a literature review in this study area. This led to the decision to base the study on integrating three of the recognisable models in technology acceptance. The models are TAM, innovation diffusion theory (IDT) and the theory of reasoned action (TRA), with extensions to enhance their predictability. The extension included religiosity, previous experience in technologies, human values, awareness, need for human interaction, perceptions of risk and trust. A mixed method approach was undertaken. An extensive empirical survey was undertaken to collect data. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was the analysis technique used to test the hypothesis in the quantitative study. At the same time, interviews were conducted as a part of the qualitative study with the aim of gaining an in-depth understanding of the factors that may enhance or hinder Internet banks in Islamic countries. The qualitative data was processed using thematic data analysis. The results of both the qualitative and quantitative studies are discussed in terms of their academic and practical contributions.
Kamaruddin, Mohd Ali
Production sharing contract (hereinafter referred to as to PSC) is not a contract exclusively applicable in the oil industry. It is a relatively recent development for regulating the relationship between foreign companies and the host country - or the host country's national company - for exploitation and development of natural resources of the said country. Thus, in Indonesia, the Japanese have negotiated and entered into production sharing contracts with the Indonesian Government, amongst other thing, in "nickel, timber, sugar, fish, pearls and maize. " From the above, it is obvious that the extent of the types of natural resources which can operate under a PSC is up to the imagination and innovation of mankind. However, this article is a consideration of the PSC exclusively in the light of the oil industry.
Page generated in 0.0334 seconds