Ten publications (1 book, 9 articles) are presented within the subject area of Retail Franchising. The aim is to demonstrate how this collection of work contributes individually and collectively to a better understanding Retail Franchising as part of Vertical Marketing Systems (VMS) in general, and its use as a growth strategy to expand the business successfully in international markets with differing legal, political, cultural/social, economic development and governance perspectives, as well as its impact on host country development. The significant growth of franchising in a number of developed/developing economies within the last thirty years has led to this business format franchising/retail franchising experiencing a rising importance in a number of academic debates and research. There has been a significant amount of research done on various aspects of franchising in general and international franchising in particular, from 1960s through to 1990s and the first decade of the new millennium. However, in terms of retail franchising and its fit within VMS and specifically its use as a growth strategy internationally with varying political, legal, sOcial/cultural environments, governance issues and market dynamics, there are still only a small number of contributions of any substance and significance. The author's work sits within a body of literature that spans a number of disCiplines. Conceptually franchising can be seen, for example, as a component of the wider areas of VMS, Growth and (specifically) the Internationalization of the Firm and PrincipalAgency theory. VMS had, in the author's opinion, the greater impact on his work and in setting the context for the same, this literature is discussed first. This collection of work brings together theoretical and practical aspects of business format franchising and retail franchising and uses them as an international growth strategy successfully by creating the right balance of 'standardisation' and 'adaptations' in managerial and marketing/operational dimensions without overall dilution of the core ethics of the concept/brand, against varied political, legal, social/cultural and economic development aspects as well as governance issues using a selection of regions/countries around the world. This collection of work demonstrates that the international markets for franchising are not as homogenous as it is assumed by many franchise companies, as well as researchers. There are, as the author's work highlights, a series of often highly distinctive and individualistic national markets with, in some cases, certain areas/aspects of convergence between the markets. From a theoretical point of view, they may even alter the balance between the economics of different growth strategies. From a practical perspective, one of the apparently attractive aspects of franchising, of being able to grow successfully internationally by rolling out exactly the same format/formula/concept, is not as straightforward as earlier work might make it appear.
A geographical study of retail trade and of business districts in English county towns : an examination of regional and urban variationsThorpe, David January 1963 (has links)
This thesis studies retailing in Great Britain, but its methods of approach and techniques of analysis may be extended to other countries. International comparisons, however, are notoriously difficult in the distributive trades, for both obvious and more obscure reasons. During the final stages of the compilation of the thesis such comparison has become possible as a result of the work of Jefferys and Knee* (Table A). This note attempts to interpret this standardised data, published in November 1962, in relation to the findings of the thesis as a whole. A major subject of study in this thesis is large shops (high average sales per retail establishment). Jefferys and Knee have suggested that variations between the countries of Europe might be explained in terms of four factors:-(a) The number of inhabitants per establishment.(b) The number of employees per establishment.(c) Private expenditure per capita.(d) The structure of the trade. This thesis has found that in Britain two particular factors account for the distribution of large shops: the importance of medium sized towns in the settlement pattern, and of multiple traders in the retail sales of an area. Diagrams A and B show the relationship of these two factors to the size of shops in those countries of Europe with annual per capita private consumption expenditure of over 415 dollars (the rest of Europe has too dissimilar economic landscapes to make comparison profitable).The relationship between the size of shop and the proportion of the population in towns between 20,000 and 100,000 is close for the countries of Northern Europe. Only three countries are notably divergent, having smaller shop than their urban structure would warrant. These are however Belgium, France and the Netherlands, suggesting that different consumption habits and economic conditions in this part of Europe are important. The second relationship is far less marked. A relationship does however exist if the Scandinavian countries are isolated from the rest of Europe, for in these countries the great importance of Co-operative Retailing makes comparisons based on trade structure somewhat unreal. Austria is an exception for which no ready explanation can be given. A direct relationship between the two variables exists in the cases of the U.K., Switzerland, West Germany, Netherlands, France and Ireland. Jefferys and Knee have given a descriptive account of the variations in the size of shops. If causal explanations are to be found it is essential to examine the geographical pattern of retailing, the towns in which most shopping takes place and where large scale organisations set up their branches. It is clear that in order to explain the regional variations noted above much detailed examination would be needed. The study of retailing is also seen to be relevant to the examination of regional patterns which may not other1vise statistically be apparent.* Jefferys, J .B. and Knee, D. Retailing in Europe: Present Structure and future trends. London 1962.
Choy, Koon Kau Ken
Brands have become one of the most discussed phenomena in marketing in recent years. The process of brand creation, especially in fashion, is a challenging and complicated matter. Exploration of a wide range of sources on marketing and branding reveals that whilst they discuss a broad-spectrum approach to brand creation they do not cover some of the practical aspects. For example, adaptation to cultural and psychological features characteristic of the population in the target region is often neglected. A particular omission in relation to understanding the China market concerns national brand creation in a country lacking marketing experience and where many younger consumers prefer foreign-made products. With the aim of developing a process model for creating a Chinese fashion brand, this study investigated brand-building literature, evaluated and compared current brandcreation models, determined key Chinese consumer behaviour characteristics and corresponding barriers to creating a brand, interviewed and analysed some of the largest and most successful Chinese fashion brand retailers and compared their experience and practices to the findings from studies of successful Asian companies. Using the outcomes from the Chinese fashion industry survey, the new model has been based on two academically acknowledged branding models but more-closely fits the Chinese fashion market requirements for creating a successful national brand with potential to become international. Key words: brand, brand creation, China, fashion industry
Loo, Theresa Wai Yue
Competition between nations increasingly takes place across all the outputs of a nation, including products, tourism, location for foreign direct investment and many more. A favourable national image for outputs to benefit from is a competitive advantage in the international arena because foreign publics tend to use a nation's image to infer the quality of its outputs. They are more receptive to outputs from certain countries and are willing to pay more for them, such as French perfume, Swiss timepieces, Italian design, et cetera. However, a nation's image is often steeped in stereotypes, which mayor may not be true. Therefore, many nations are undertaking branding exercises to enhance their images. It has been suggested by academics and practitioners that a nation brand can be managed like a corporate brand. While there is a great deal of intuitive appeal to the proposition, there is neither theoretical foundation nor empirical data to support it. This thesis attempts to fill this gap in knowledge by looking at whether there is a basis for nation branding. The possible links between a nation's image, the image of its outputs and how they affect consumer behaviour are examined. This thesis proposes that a nation brand can be conceptualised like a corporate brand because there are similarities between the two. The first similarity is that like a corporation with many products, a nation has many outputs. The second similarity is that both a nation brand and a corporate brand face multiple stakeholders. While a nation has citizens, government, foreign publics that consume its different outputs, a corporation has staff, a management team, consumers of its products and so on. Last, and most importantly, the corporate masterbrand vs. product sub-brand architecture is a suitable structure for conceptualising the relationship between the nation's overall image and the image of its output sub-brands. Since there is little in the literature to guide specific hypotheses, four research propositions were formulated to guide the research. Using the 'theory of reasoned action' (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) as a framework, a theoretical model on how the overall image of the UK affects three of its outputs, namely products (for export), tourism and education, was developed and tested. If there are national images that hold true across different outputs and can predict consumers' intention to consume, then they can be used in a nation branding exercise. In order to test the theoretical model, proper measurement scales to measure the constructs are essential. The scale for the overall national image needs to be generic, so that it can straddle across all the outputs of a nation. A Corporate Character Scale by Davies et al. (2004) was adopted for this purpose. Scales for measuring image of the individual outputs were developed specific to the characteristics of the three outputs. Structural equation modelling was used to test the model against data collected from China and India. After re-specification, a parsimonious model, which showed that Chic (prestigious, refined, elegant) and Enterprise (innovative, cool, trendy) were image dimensions that best represented the UK and affected its three outputs of products, tourism and education in the eyes of Chinese and Indian young adults. Analysis and discussions on the findings are furnished, with suggestions for future research.
The manner in which the Internet has transformed services and more especially the banking industry is discussed. The main objective of the research is to develop, test and validate a model that identifies the key factors driving usage of Internet banking. An extensive review of the literature, and exploratory qualitative research helped develop a conceptual model depicting the multiple influencing factors relevant to usage of Internet banking. The critical cornerstone of the research is a large scale electronic survey of Internet banking users. The Web survey was conducted using a non-probability sample of convenience, whereby 964 respondents constituted a final sample that broadly resembled the profile of Internet banking users which is cited frequently in the literature. Although, the branch continues to be the most favoured channel for a number of banking products and services, findings from this research indicate that the majority of respondents are willing to consider buying a wider range of banking products and services online in the future (e. g. current account, personal/car loan, and investment/savings), but also that the majority would definitely not buy more complex products (i. e. mortgage, life and pension) online in the future. The research has identified a number of significant demographic differences with respect to Internet banking. Also, people who have been using Internet banking for longer are more likely to use the services of more than one Internet banking provider. A number of variables showed large average estimated differences in the population groups when tested against the constructs. Most of the constructs are positively related to each other and there is a particularly strong positive relationship between Usefulness and Attitude to Internet banking. The results indicate a weak relationship between Usage and Satisfaction; and between Usage and Intentions. Control and Fun/Enjoyment are two significant predictors of Internet banking Usage, and Demographic are relatively weak in predicting Usage. A number of items were identified as strongly encouraging Usage. A revised conceptual model depicting Internet banking Usage is presented. CHAID analysis results suggest that many of the construct, behavioural, and demographic factors included in the revised model can be used to distinguish between high and low users of Internet banking.
Companies frequently seek to increase market share and/or profit by developing brand extensions that relate to an existing parent brand. However sometimes these brand extensions are different in some ways from the parent and therefore present information that is incongruent with consumers' existing impressions of the brand, which can therefore change consumers' perceptions of the parent brand. Previous research on brand knowledge changes has considered two alternative models of brand knowledge changes: typicalitybased and bookkeeping. These two models lead to opposite predictions regarding the pattern of brand knowledge changes in response to incongruent information presented by the brand extension. The bookkeeping model predicts that j] ..incongruent information causes more changes to the parent, whereas the typicality-based model suggests that j incongruent information causes more changes. However, empirical tests of these theories have not shown conclusively which model is best: some studies support one model, while other studies support the other. The purpose of this dissertation is to reconcile these previous findings by suggesting that different models are likely to be correct depending on the tvne of cognitive processing undertaken by the consumer. This dissertation also notes that different researchers have used different operationalizations of incongruity and explores the effects of these differences by using multiple operationalizations in the same study. Lastly, this dissertation examines the differential sensitivity of two different ways of capturing brand knowledge changes: the strength of associations and the overall attitude towards the brand. The findings suggest that algebraic piecemeal processing (which focuses on the extension's information on its own) leads to a bookkeeping-based pattern of brand knowledge changes. In contrast, thoughtful piecemeal processing, (which focuses on the extension in its relation to the parent brand) leads to a typicality-based pattern of brand knowledge changes. This pattern is shown to be true regardless of the operationalization of incongruity. Furthermore, the different measures are found to be differentially sensitive to certain brand knowledge changes. Therefore, the previously conflicting results can indeed be accounted for by different types of processing, as well as by different measures of brand knowledge changes.
What is preventing e-commerce from reaching its full potential? : an investigation into trust as a barrier for the adoption of B2C e-commerce in the United KingdomMalone, Sarah January 2008 (has links)
Although electronic commerce has seen considerable growth in recent years, usage figures suggest that U.K consumers are still hesitant to make the switch to onJine shopping. This study initially reviewed the literatures on trust, Internet security, consumer purchasing behaviour and electronic commerce, and then combined the literature review findings with initial results obtained from a pilot study, and a model identifying the factors that affect consumers' perceived trustworthiness of web sites when making purchasing decisions on the Internet was created. The model was then tested by means of a consumer perception survey that used a novel quantitative survey instrument to investigate current consumer perceptions of e-commerce, from the perspective of both Internet and Non Internet users, and determined the main barrier to business to consumer (B2C) electronic commerce as identified by the potential consumers themselves. These quantitative findings were then used to further develop the model of trust, encompassing all the potential factors that the research identified could impact on a consumer's perceived level of trust in a web site, thus ultimately affecting their decision to purchase. This model was then tested through further qualitative research that incorporated observational studies to test consumer reactions to an onJine shopping scenario, using a special selection of web sites that should have (based on the model) a positive or negative influence on consumers' trust. Although the research design was qualitative in nature, a triangulation approach was adopted to ensure that the information generated was highly relevant and directly applicable to the creation of a model of trust. The model was revised, with the final version named the Model of Factors Affecting Consumer Trust Online (M.O.F.A.C.T.O). The implications of the model and recommendations for further research are discussed.
Park, Jee Seon
The purpose of the present research is to propose a cognitive process model which exhibits why and how distanced international sports consumers become loyal consumers, namely fans, of a sports team. Distanced sports consumers indicate those who are geographically and socioculturally distanced from their consumption object (sports team) which leads them to be isolated from any local and team influence throughout the consumption experience. The target population of distanced consumers selected for the present study is South Korean football fans who support European football teams. Building on a literature review ranging from relationship marketing to organisational behaviour, and taking into account the unique features of the sports product, industry and consumers, a cognitive process model is constructed and tested applying mixed research methods through three research stages (preliminary interviews, a web-survey and confirmatory interviews). The cognitive process model illustrates the associations between sports consumers consumption motives and their loyal behaviours which are mediated by emotional attachment. Hence, this model illustrates why/how distanced consumers are motivated and evaluate their relationship with the team to become loyal to it. The research model aims to demonstrate: 1) two psychological consumption motives (hedonic experience and communality) that exist as higher-level motives, which contribute to the understanding of the underlying dimensions of distanced consumers' selection of a sports team and supporting behaviours, and provide a conceptual basis for linking consumption goals and consumers' behavioural consequences as loyal consumers; 2) different types of emotional attachment (identification, affective commitment and normative commitment) as mediating mechanisms, which are identified to evaluate their separate role in the process model to predict different types of loyal behaviours (retention and membership behaviour); and 3) increasing levels of knowledge about the team contributes to encouraging identified consumers to affectively commit towards the team regardless of consumers' length of relationship duration. The results show that measuring levels of identification does not directly predict different loyal behaviours while affective commitment is able to predict consumers' membership behaviour and normative commitment can predict consumers intentions to stay in the relationship The findings of the present study explain how distanced international sports consumers develop and strengthen their relationship with sports teams as loyal consumers, and provide an opportunity for marketing practitioners to work on a strategy premise that may be applied across borders while still being tailored, where necessary, to the characteristics of the local market and specific socio-demographic segments. -
Yaakop, Azizul Yadi
For almost half a century, advertising attitudes have been a popular topic of study among researchers in consumer behaviour (Bauer and Greyser, 1968; Petrovici and Marinov, 2007). In parallel with the long history and ever-growing interest in this area, the framework to examine consumers' attitudes towards advertising has also gone through a considerable evolution. The evolution demonstrates how researchers in the field want to look at this phenomenon from a very detailed perspective. However, most of previous studies have not examined advertising attitudes from any specific frame of reference. Therefore, this present study is concerned with how consumers form attitudes towards advertising which are derived from a more specific source of advertising reference. In this study, Malaysia tourism is used as a context in order to (i) examine how tourists respond towards advertising media, particularly the ones that are utilized in promoting Malaysia as a top-of-mind tourism destination i.e. traditional print and television advertising as well as the modern-day internet advertising, and to (ii) exhibit a selection of advertising references exclusively for this study. This study is a quantitative survey based on a sample of 425 respondents, 255 are international tourists (60%) and 170 are local visitors (40%). Data were collected between April and June 2009 in Malaysia. All international tourists who were approached based on quota sampling methods and based on international tourist arrival statistics (2007). Based on extensive and rigorous literature reviewing, instrument design and subsequent pilot testing, the study shows that attitudes towards advertising in specific media (A Media) emerged ii as another important determinant to attitudes towards advertising (AG). Specifically, the results indicated that AG is best explained by the television advertising frame of reference. As a matter of fact, the study arrived at a noteworthy finding that attitude towards television advertising (ATV) acts as the strongest predictor of AG. Additionally, the study has also established the mediating effect of AMedia in the relationship among the tested variables. Other supporting findings especially concerning tourists' responses towards the three advertising media are also presented as well as the limitations of the research, and suggestions for future research endeavours.
Factors influencing the export performance of the Scottish manufacturing sector of the offshore supplies industryGregory, P. D. January 1982 (has links)
The development of the oil and gas resources discovered on the U.K. Continental Shelf has had a significant impact on employment in Scotland. It is estimated that in Scotland 60,000 - 70,000 people are currently in oil-related employment. Approximately 20,000 of these are employed in (over 300) units manufacturing offshore-related equipment. However, it is argued in this thesis that domestic demand for many items of offshore-related equipment will fall from around 1982 onwards as the number and size of new field developments being undertaken declines. It is further argued that if offshore-related employment is to be maintained in Scotland it is to be hoped that manufacturers of offshore-related equipment can identify and exploit opportunities in offshore markets overseas by means of exporting. It has frequently been suggested that involvement in the development of North Sea oil fields has given indigenous firms a comparative advantage over their international competitors. However, very little is known about the nature and scale of offshore-related exporting activity being undertaken and virtually nothing about the factors which influence the aims and attainment of these firms with respect to exporting. Thus, this thesis represents the first major study of the practice of exporting in the Scottish manufacturing sector of the offshore supplies industry. The main objective of the thesis was to undertake a detailed examination of the major factors influencing the export performance of this sector of Scottish industry. This was achieved by means of a series of in-depth, qualitative interviews with the senior executives responsible for exporting strategy in a number of offshore-related manufacturers. In addition, further research was undertaken to investigate possible future trends in the exporting activity of the surveyed firms. In order to do this it was first necessary to develop, with the aid of a survey of expert opinion, a hypothetical scenario of the global offshore market in the period to 1985. The third and final phase of the fieldwork then consisted of returning to the original sample of offshore-related manufacturers to discuss their expected strategy (particularly with respect to exporting) in the period to 1985, given the market situation presented in the scenario. Thus, this thesis provides not only the first in-depth study of the major factors influencing the offshore-related export performance of Scottish manufacturers, but also investigates the implications of these findings for the future of the Scottish manufacturing sector of the offshore supplies industry in the period to 1985.
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