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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

The WTO and the settlement of disputes : from a developing country perspective

Hu, J. January 2003 (has links)
This thesis is aimed at the research of the WTO dispute settlement mechanism from a developing country perspective. It is composed up six chapters, together with its preface and conclusion. Chapter one is a general introduction of the whole thesis, mainly compares the differences of the GATT and the WTO in their legal system and dispute settlement mechanism. Then, it makes a start of the research upon the background of globalisation. Chapter two focuses on the research of the present status of developing countries, the impact of the WTO rules upon the developing countries, and the rationale of regrouping developing countries within the WTO. Chapter three is the research of the WTO institutional features. This research is connected with the development of international institutional law, and the new agenda of the world trade organisation. Chapter four, is the link of the first three chapters, and the last two chapters, is the research of the inherent cohesion of international law, international economic law, and WTO law. Chapter five is the core of the whole thesis. Based on the previous research, this chapter focuses on the WTO dispute settlement mechanism and the respects which need improving. The last chapter, as to correspondence to chapter five, puts forward the improvements on the future WTO dispute settlement institutions.

Information and quality in international trade and the political economy of trade protection

Petropoulou, Dimitra January 2007 (has links)
This thesis examines how information costs, minimum quality standards and electoral incentives affect international trade and trade policy choice. First, a new pairwise matching model with two-sided information asymmetry is developed to analyse the impact of information costs on endogenous network-building and matching by information intermediaries. The framework innovates by examining the role of information costs on incentives for trade intermediation, thereby endogenising the pattern of direct and indirect trade. The model is extended to analyse the strategic interaction between two information intermediaries who compete in commission rates and network size, giving rise to a fragmented duopoly market structure. Second, unilateral minimum quality standards are endogenously determined as the outcome of a non-cooperative standard-setting game between the governments of two countries. Cross-country externalities from the implementation of minimum quality standards are shown to give rise to a Prisoners' Dilemma structure in the incentives of policy-makers leading to inefficient policy outcomes. The role of minimum quality standards as non-tariff barriers is examined and the scope for mutual gains from reciprocal adjustment in minimum standards analysed. Asymmetric externalities make a cooperative agreement at the world optimum infeasible. Third, a new multi-jurisdictional political agency model is developed to analyse electoral incentives for trade protection in an electoral college. A unique equilibrium is shown to exist where political incumbents build a reputation for protectionism through their policy decisions in their first term of office. A spatial dimension is introduced that shows how trade policy incentives hinge on the distribution of swing voters across decisive, swing states. The empirical analysis augments a benchmark test of the "Protection for Sale" mechanism to include a measure of how industries specialise geographically in swing and decisive states. The findings lend support to the theory.

Explaining regime content : the use of trade restrictive measures in multilateral environmental agreements

Krueger, Jonathan P. January 2000 (has links)
One of the central preoccupations of international relations scholars is to explain and elaborate the conditions under which international co-operation will occur. In particular, the 'international regimes' literature investigates how states attempt to manage collective action problems such as threats to the global environment. While there has been much progress in our understanding of the conditions required for the formation and maintenance of regimes, the question of regime content - also known as regime properties or institutional design - has been neglected. A second aspect of international co-operation yet to be fully treated is issue linkage. How does one regime - and its provisions - interact with another. The thesis addresses these issues by investigating a specific question: under what conditions will trade restrictive measures be incorporated into a multilateral environmental agreement (MEA). In addition to the regime analysis literature, I draw upon the 'trade and environment' literature on the interaction between trade policy and environmental policy to strengthen the analytical framework. The debate regarding potential conflicts between the rules of the World Trade Organization and the trade measures employed in various MEAs is particularly useful. A review of the contributions and gaps of the relevant literatures provides the basis for selecting four factors - power, costs and benefits, knowledge, and institutional forum - that are used to answer the research question. The use of trade restrictions is examined in the two pre-UNCED MEAs that are most clearly at the intersection of trade and environment: the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and the 1989 Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes. The thesis then extends the analysis to consider the future of trade restrictive measures in MEAs by applying the conclusions drawn from the two in-depth case studies to two post-UNCED MEAs: the 1998 Rotterdam Convention for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade and the planned Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. It is found that while power, costs and benefits, and institutional forum contribute in different degrees to understanding the factors influencing regime content, traditional knowledge-based regime analysis approaches fail to do so. Thus, a broader approach to examining the role of knowledge - analysing the influence of the Dominant Social Paradigm - is employed and demonstrated to have strong explanatory power.

Multilateral supervision of regional trade agreements : developing countries' perspectives

Thiratayakinant, Kraijakr Ley January 2010 (has links)
The number of regional trade agreements (RTAs) has risen sharply in the past decade. This has resulted in a new global trade landscape where a great proportion of trade is carried through preferential arrangements rather than on a most-favoured-nation basis. This prompts concerns over how such trade agreements should be managed. Importantly, developing countries are increasingly taking part in the current RTA proliferation. This thesis therefore sets out to identify the challenges facing developing countries when they negotiate and form such trade arrangements with their developed-country trade partners and among themselves, and seeks to deal with these challenges through the WTO rules and mechanisms pertaining RTA supervision. To do so, the thesis first surveys the general trends and characteristics of the current RTA proliferation, and examines three bodies of literature, which are supplemented with the author's personal participation in RTA negotiations and interviews with trade negotiators, in order to identify the challenges facing developing countries. It then evaluates the WTO rules governing the formation of an RTA, namely, GATT Article XXIV, the Enabling Clause, and GATS Article V. It is argued that these rules are problematic and inadequate to deal with the challenges. In response, the thesis proposes a variety of interpretative solutions. Lastly, acknowledging the practicality of the proposed substantive reforms, the thesis explores whether there are other less contentious means that may complement and strengthen the existing WTO rules and mechanisms with regard to RTA supervision. These include promulgation of code of best practices, revision of the WTO surveillance mechanism, and technical assistance for developing countries in relation to RTAs.

Explaining the Product-Specificity of Country-of-Origin Effects : The Role of Typicality

Tseng, Ting-Hsiang January 2008 (has links)
This research works to understand the various discrepancies in the acceptability of different products from a single country. The concept of product typicality holds promise for this direction. Specifically, this project is particularly interested in the role of typicality in COO effects. Additionally, this study focuses also on the role of typicality among ethnocentric consumer images toward domestic products and consumer attitudes toward disliked foreign products as well as the role of typicality among certain consumer-related and product-related contingent variables, such as the consumer need for variety, the consumer need for uniqueness, types of goods (necessity/luxury), and product category structure (super-ordinate/ subordinate). An extensive mix of a between- and within-subjects design experiment was used to test the key hypotheses in particular. The results suggest that product typicality can actually account for the discrepancies of COO effects across different products of a country. More typical products of a country can possess stronger COO images and get more favorable consumer attitudes. Further, different moderation effects of all the contingent variables on the effects of product typicality regarding COO provide researchers and marketers valuable insights into product-specific COO effects for different market targets. It is therefore recommended for researchers to use product typicality instead of general COO images to account for the varied effects across different products and for marketers to focus more on the differentiations of COO effects among industries.

Customer relationship management (CRM) and perceptions of unfairness

Nguyen, Bang Xuan January 2009 (has links)
This study concerns the role of CRM in enhancing and maintaining fairness in relationships between a firm and its customers. This study has two aims. The first main aim of this research is to understand how customers form perceptions of unfairness of CRM by investigating the influence of CRM offerings on the advantaged and disadvantaged customers in the retailing sector. The second aim is to develop a comprehensive model of perceptions of unfairness in a CRM context and to empirically test the relationships between CRM offerings, relationship stage, inequality comparisons, negative inferences and unfairness feelings. Data collection was conducted in 3 phases using a mixed method approach, including an exploratory-, pilot-, and main study. Several modes of interviews were conducted, including face-to-face, telephone interview and email enquiries. The survey for the main study generated a response rate of 13.75%. The findings from the mam study provided insights for both academics and practitioners. It was found that CRM offerings can be effective in managing perceptions of unfairness. Efforts should be emphasised in preventing inequality comparisons by altering negative inferences into positive inferences. This study further provided significant insight into the implications for marketers in understanding the differential effectiveness of a firm's CRM offerings on the advantaged- (favoured) and disadvantaged (unfavoured) customers. Service and communication concern the advantaged customer more strongly, whilst price issues concern the disadvantaged customer more strongly. Customization and reputation did not exert a statistically significant influence on the two groups and their feelings of unfairness. This study starkly reveals the importance of understanding the role of unfairness in customer relationship management. It allows managers to develop a better grouping of their customers; to identify the group which needs more attention; and, to deploy appropriate action In order to retain those customers and to maintain customer loyalty

Market based organizational learning and organizational capabililties

Ali, Sadaqat January 2011 (has links)
This study aimed to contribute to our understanding of the antecedents to organizations' Sustainable Competitive Advantage (SCA) by integrating insights from the perspectives of marketing and strategic management. Specifically it aimed to investigate the indirect effect of Market Based Organizational Learning (MBOL) on hotel performance in the United Kingdom and Pakistan taking on board an organizational capabilities view. To achieve this aim the researcher started by reviewing the literature in the fields of both marketing and strategic management to examine current trends, limitations and commonalities between these fields and then proposed a conceptual model and propositions that can help link these two fields into an integrative framework. The researcher found that although both the marketing and strategic management literatures have accumulated a significant amount of insight on the antecedents to SCA, there has been little attempt (and hence a need) to incorporate insights from both these perspectives in explaining the antecedents to SCA and in formulating these into an integrated holistic picture, This approach is innovative because it focuses on synergistic insights from different management fields, and contributes to our understanding of how firm performance may be affected indirectly, by the marketing and learning orientations of the firm, through the capabilities it develops as a result of the learning processes informed by these orientations. In reviewing the literature, the researcher has identified some common theme underlying both the disciplines of marketing and strategic management, that is, "Organisational Learning Processes", "Resource Based View" of the firm and securing "Sustainable Competitive Advantage". The researcher also noted that in the marketing literature, the direct effect of the MBOL on a firm's performance has been well established. However, what are less clear are its indirect effects. To map out these indirect effects the researcher developed a framework that explores the relationships among market orientation, learning orientation, organizational learning, dynamic capabilities, substantive capabilities and organizational performance. Moreover, the mediating role of a firm's different capabilities (learning, dynamic and substantive capabilities) was proposed as a better explanation of the indirect impact the MBOL on a firm's performance. Finally the researcher expected a firm's external environment to work as a moderator in the dynamicsubstaThe researcher followed a mixed method approach characterised by an instrument development model variant of the exploratory mixed method design that best suits the study objectives. Being a mixed method sequential study, the researcher first conducted indepth interviews with hotel managers both in the United Kingdom and Pakistan in order to develop some constructs (dynamic and substantive capabilities) for this study. These interviews were analysed qualitatively and the results from this part of the study were used for the development of the questionnaire that was in turn used for large scale quantitative data collection. The questionnaire was sent to a population of 1150 hotel managers (750 in United Kingdom and 400 in Pakistan). 240 fully completed responses (120 United Kingdom and 120 Pakistan) were used in the final data analysis. The empirical results confirmed all the hypothesized relationships among the various variables of the conceptual framework, except the mediated role of the organizational learning between a hotel's learning orientation and its dynamic capabilities. The findings suggested that organizational internal capabilities play an influential mediating role in the indirect effect of MBOL on its performance. The results also highlighted the moderated effect of organization external environmental conditions on the dynamic-substantive capabilities relationship. This PhD thesis is rounded off with a discussion of the implications of the findings for theory in the parent discipline of marketing research and strategic management and for managers in the hotel sector. The limitations of this research study are described and future research directions in this area of investigation are given at the endntive capabilities relationship

The Development of a Model For Empirically Testing Virtual Item Purchase Behaviour in Virtual Worlds : Theory and Results

Guo, Yue January 2009 (has links)
In the past few years, virtual worlds - such as Second Life (SL), World of Warcraft (WoW) and RuneScape - have demonstrated the potential to be a promising online business model. Millions of users around the world now participate in virtual worlds and trade virtual items with each other. What is more important is that typically virtual items can be traded for real world currencies within virtual worlds or via other third-party exchange platforms. The advent of virtual worlds, accompanied by virtual item transactions for real money has created a significant impact on the lives of people globally. However, little empirical research has been conducted into virtual world residents' purchase behaviour in virtual worlds. Based on the gaps found in the literature, this research was designed to help us to gain a better understanding of factors influencing virtual item purchase behaviour in virtual worlds. This research was carried out in two distinct stages, covering both exploratory and explanatory research. The exploratory stage began with reviewing the current stage of knowledge with respect to understanding players' purchase behaviour in virtual worlds. Seven prominent theoretical models were carefully selected as our theoretical frameworks to build a preliminary research model for explaining virtual item purchase behaviour in virtual worlds. The seven theoretical models are the theory of reasoned action (TRA) (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975), the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991), the technology acceptance model (TAM) (Davis, 1989), trust theory (McKnight et al., 2002) transaction cost theory (Williamson, 1981, 1985, 1991; Liang and Huang, 1998), innovation diffusion theory (lOT) (Rogers, 1995) and the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) (Venkatesh et al., 2(03). These established theoretical models have proven to have good predicting or explaining power via prior research in the field of IS adoption and e-commerce online shopping behaviour (e.g. Cheong and Park, 2005; Gefen, 2000; Hsu and Lu, 2004; Lin and Lu, 2000; Teo et al., 1999; Moon and Kim, 2001). Moreover, four focus groups were then conducted to gain deep insights into virtual item purchase behaviour in virtual worlds, thereby further refining and improving the preliminary conceptual model and its constructs. The revised research model provides a more comprehensive understanding of the latent psychological processes that typically induce players' purchasing behaviour in virtual worlds. For practical considerations, a more parsimonious research model was finally developed for empirical testing based on an overall modification and refmement of the revised model. In the explanatory research stage, a large-scale online survey was conducted within World of Warcraft and Second Life respectively. SEM-PLS (Structural Equation Models by Partial Least Squares) (Tenenhaus et aI., 2005) was used to confirm the finally developed model in this study. SEM-PLS can offer a unified mechanism to validate the relationships between constructs and their indicators in the measurement model and test the relationships among constructs in the structural model together. Among the statistically significant paths found in the final research model, three prominent IS adoption constructs including effort expectancy, performance expectancy and enjoyment still exerted considerable influence on virtual item purchase behavioural intention. Another typical construct habit not only had the direct effect on actual purchase behaviour in both SL and WoW contexts, but also significantly moderated the relationship between purchase behavioural intention and actual purchase behaviour in the context of WoW. Each of three newly developed constructs including advancement, perceived value and customisation had a strong impact on players' virtual item purchase behavioural intention in both WoW and SL contexts. As expected, perceived social status had a close relationship with players' purchase behavioural intention in WoW. In summary, the research findings provided useful information for virtual world developers and marketers in prioritising and allocating their resources to improve the impact of these constructs, all of which will ultimately stimulate players' purchase of virtual items. For example, given the important influence of enjoyment and customisation, the developers of a virtual world should carefully consider how to design novel, interesting contents and virtual items for simulating players' purchase behaviour. The underlying transaction mechanism must be designed and developed towards ease of use and high usefulness. In addition, game-oriented virtual world developers should refer to socially-oriented virtual world economic systems (e.g. Second Life) and consider establishing a currency exchange mechanism for virtual currency and real money. This PhD dissertation rounds off with a discussion about future research opportunities, the limitations and implications for research and practice in this very new area of investigation.

The Arms Industry and Globalisation

Skons, Elisabeth January 2009 (has links)
This dissertation examInes whether the arms industry is globalising. Although it is a broadly accepted view that the arms industry is glob ali sing, it is not always clear what this involves and there is little empirical evidence available to support this view. More importantly, the view that the arms industry is glob ali sing is often based on a meaning of globalisation that is not distinctively different from the meaning of internationalisation. This study is based on the view that the question whether the arms industry is globalising is meaningful only if the concept' globalisation' has a distinctly different meaning from the concept 'internationalisation'. Based on an extensive review of the globalisation literature, and especially of the literature on economic globalisation, three main features of globalisation are identified: (i) increased pace and global scope of economic cross-border activities (i.e. increased internationalisation); (ii) transformation of multinational companies into truly transnational companies; and (iii) a reduced government capacity to regulate and control cross-border activities. If these features are true for the arms industry, then globalisation of the arms industry would involve a radical change from during the cold war, when there was little internationalisation of the arms industry apart from government-to-government international armaments collaboration; when arms-producing companies were not transnational; and when governments were able to exercise control over their respective arms industries. This study examInes the intensity and global scope of international transfers of major weapons and the intensity and scope of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) in the Euro-Atlantic arms industry and analyses the impact of these trends on government control over the arms industry. It also discusses the extent of transnational companies in the arms industry and other trends in the arms industry that may be considered evidence of globalisation. The main focus of the study is on cross-border M&As in the Euro-Atlantic arms industry. The reason for this is that this trend, which has enlerged during the postcold war period, is one of the factors most often referred to as evidence of arms industry globalisation. However, so far there has been no systematic mapping of this trend, primarily due to the lack of comprehensive data. This study is based on a new data set on cross-border M&As. It covers the Euro-Atlantic area, since this is the area where most of the global arms industry is located. This is true in particular for the most advanced private arms industry, which is the most likely to be affected by the economic forces underlying globalisation.

"ATM location and usage in Egypt : social and technical perspectives"

Shalaby, Rasha Abd El Aziz Youssef January 2010 (has links)
This study explores social and technical aspects of the provision and use of ATM (Automated Teller Machine) systems in Egypt. A pragmatic research approach using mixed methods with a range of stakeholders was employed. At an early stage of the investigation, Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) was used to develop conceptual models of the problem area; as it puts its primary emphasis on problem formulation rather than problem solution. A structured questionnaire was devised to survey a large number of ATM users and the data collected was analysed statistically. Semi-structured attributes allowed a more probing study of small numbers of decision makers in the Egyptian banks, and of ATM suppliers. The investigation was conducted mainly in Cairo and Alexandria. The banks sampled included Islamic and non-Islamic banks in both public and private sectors. From the data analysis, supported by a review of literature, revised conceptual models were generated. When results were brought together, differences between customers, on one hand, and bank managers in particular, on the other, were discovered. Through the study, the following main points were brought to light: • Whereas the key attributes of ATM seen by bank managers were safety, accurate information and ease of use, customers see the key attributes as availability and reliability. • The dominant stakeholders in determining the way ATMs are in fact used are the bank managers, who are not proactive in taking customer or even staff views into account. • ATM suppliers emerged as an additional stakeholder, who has an influential role regarding the use of ATMs in Egypt. In response to the findings, two new versions of the conceptual model were drawn, a reduced one reflecting the actual situation, and an expanded one that envisages a situation in which the views of the various main stakeholders are taken more fully into account. The reduced model emphasises the role of bank managers, recognises the role of ATM suppliers, and reduces the roles of both customers and bank staff. The expanded model retains the bank managers' perspective as dominant but adds activities that enable that perspective to be tempered by the views of customers and bank staff.

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