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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Capable special school environments for behaviour that challenges

Lavan, Gary January 2012 (has links)
Numerous interventions have been identified by research as being effective in reducing the severity of some of the core impairments and challenging behaviours of young people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) and learning difficulties. However, the literature cites significant disparity between what is demonstrated to be effective in supporting young people with ASD and challenging behaviour and the support young people and families actually receive in practice. Paper 1 examines the extent to which evidence-based practice translates into actual practice in special schools in the UK for young people with ASD, severe learning difficulties (SLD) and challenging behaviour. A questionnaire survey targeting 64 special schools in the Midlands was used in conjunction with a series of follow-up semi-structured interviews of school staff. The findings indicate that: 1) the ideal of eclectic provision is potentially undermined by a limited range of training received by staff in evidence-based approaches; 2) mechanisms for supporting staff emotional reactions are inconsistently implemented; 3) limited mechanisms exist for developing staff understandings of challenging behaviour. Furthermore, staff attributions regarding challenging behaviour are pivotal to the consistency and effectiveness of any support programme. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
2

What does good provision for pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorder look like? : the search for a model of good practice

Charters, Lucy January 2014 (has links)
With an expansion of knowledge and interest in ASD, widening diagnostic criteria and an increasing number of students being diagnosed, it is important to address whether schools are meeting the needs of this population adequately and to examine which methods are most effective in achieving this end. The study aimed to develop a clearer insight into the special educational needs of young people with ASD and how these needs can best be met in educational settings. Questionnaires were distributed (through parent support groups) to young people with ASD and their families regrading their high school experiences. The findings from the questionnaire were used to derive a model of good practice for supporting pupils with ASD.The main factors were found to be: the existence of trained staff in the field of autism, higher staffing ratios to support these pupils, flexibility of staff to respond to their individual needs and an inclusive ethos throughout the school. To 'test' this hypothetical model of good practice a case study of an educational setting deemed by parents and pupils to be 'successful' was undertaken in order to test the strength of these hypotheses and also to potentially identify any additional factors to include in the model. Many of the factors identified in the model were found to be present in the 'successful' school yet other significant features included: good relationships between staff and parents, between staff and pupils and between pupils and peers. the case study highlighted that these relationships as well as an inclusive ethos were pivotal to the success of the school. However, it was apparent that an element of inclusion dissonance existed across the school: the perceived commitment of staff to achieving inclusion for these pupils was not always seen in reality.
3

Evaluation of the variability of anesthetic practice in a single institution

Lee, Joshua Donguk 08 April 2016 (has links)
Anesthetics are provided to millions of patients every year in the United States mostly by anesthesiologists. However, there is a lack of literature or documentation on how anesthetics are administered by various anesthesia providers. In order to have a better understanding on the pattern, we performed retrospective chart review on anesthetic practice for surgical atrial septal defect repair procedures performed in Boston Children's Hospital. Our collected data included: premedication, anesthesia induction methods, anesthesia maintenance methods, choice of vasoactive agents, analgesics, and intravenous accesses, extubation in the operating room, postoperative sedation, and choice of antiemetics and postoperative nausea and vomiting. In addition, the studied patients were divided into two groups based on the institutional initiation of the Fast-track protocol: before and after the implementation of the Fast-track protocol (the Non-fast-track group and the Fast-track group). Some results fell under expectation; for example, in the Non-fast-track group, all patients who were induced intravenously were older than 10 years old, and received propofol for induction, which is the most popular choice of intravenous induction drug. The Fast-track group showed a similar trend; 80% of all intravenously induced patients were 10 years or older and induced with propofol. Also, in both groups, anesthesia was maintained with the combination of IV and volatile anesthetics. An anticipated change in practice pattern was seen in the Fast-track group for the choice of analgesics and postoperative sedation for non-extubated patients; acetaminophen was introduced as an adjunct to other analgesics, and propofol infusion was introduced as a standard drug of postoperative sedation for non-extubated patients, both of which are part of the Fast-track protocol. Interestingly, however, overall intraoperative opioid doses did not show any change. The variation in the choice of intravenous access showed difference before and after the Fast-track implementation; in the Non-fast-track group, extra jugular vein was accessed as the most popular choice, whereas in the Fast-track group, central venous line was the most popular choice. Also, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was notably lower in patients who were not given anti-emetics after the Fast-track protocol implementation. This calls for a need for a future research on what part of the Fast-track protocol could have resulted this improvement without intraoperative administration of regular anti-emetics. Overall, our results provide future directions for researches on anesthetic practice that may help improve patient safety and efficiency beyond the practice in Boston Children's Hospital.
4

Parents' Perception of a School-Based Inclusion Program for their Children with Autism

Ary, Sarah Lynn 01 January 2017 (has links)
As the number of students diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) increases, many classrooms are turning to an inclusion model of learning. To gain the perspective of program users rather than providers, this study explored parents' perceptions of the inclusion model. Pearlin's stress process model served as the theoretical framework for this study. Ten parents in Pennsylvania were recruited via snowball sampling for participation, and 7 completed the study. Parents completed a short demographic questionnaire and then participated in individual interviews. The research questions were concerned with the lived experiences of parents of children with autism enrolled in inclusion programs or who have participated in inclusion programs within the past 5 years, their perceived roles, and the stresses they felt in those roles. Transcripts were iteratively reviewed to identify consistent themes across interviews. Findings from this study showed: (a) the inclusion model of education had both positive and negative effects on different children diagnosed with autism, (b) the development of emotional skills of children with autism enriched their participation and social relationships with other people, and (c) a strengthened support system for children with autism must be advocated through accessible information and services. These findings support available literature, which is largely against the inclusion model. Findings suggest that support systems for information dissemination should be strengthened, and educators should develop their emotional skills to help students with disabilities.
5

Evaluating IEPs of Elementary School Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Watkins, Pamela Lawrence 27 April 2018 (has links)
The prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has increased 54.7% from 2000 to 2016 nationally (CDC, 2016), and comparably, 52.38% in the district where this program evaluation was conducted. This increase, paired with legislative requirements through the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and recommendations from the National Research Council on educating students with ASD, has challenged school districts to develop programming targeting specific impairments characteristic of students with ASD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate programming through the evaluation of individualized education plans (IEPs) of students with ASD in kindergarten through third grade for the presence of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act requirements and National Research Council recommendations. Additionally, 13 special education teachers providing services to one or more students in the category of ASD completed a 30 item self-report questionnaire on their confidence in developing IEPs and programming for students with ASD. Sixty-three IEPs were evaluated in the study for IDEA and NRC indicator proficiency levels and cross-referenced with teacher confidence levels on developing IEPs and programming for students with ASD. The study concluded data analysis of IEPs and special education teacher confidence levels resulted in the identification of programming strengths and weakness that can be used by the district in this study to develop a structured plan for improvements in the development of IEPs specific to the identified areas of impairments for students with ASD (behavior, communication, socialization). Specific to the district in this study is a recommended focus on the development of IEP goals based on individual student needs and NRC recommendations for students with ASD, descriptions of student motivational systems when appropriate, specially designed instruction, educational placement and the relationship of teacher knowledge and confidence about ASD to IEP and program development. / Ed. D.
6

Access to Dental Care for a Selected Group of Children and Adolescents with ASD

Abbasnezhad-Ghadi, Banafsheh 21 July 2010 (has links)
Objectives: 1) to determine if children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encounter difficulties accessing dental, 2) to identify barriers that diminish access to dental care for this population. Methods: This descriptive study is based on a web-survey conducted at the Geneva Centre for Autism in Toronto between November 2008 and March 2009. Forty-nine multiple choice questions including open-ended fields were developed. Parents of children with ASD (ages 5–18) completed the survey. Results: The majority of participants visited a dentist regularly (71%) and had private dental insurance (64%). Parents/caregivers were more likely to have difficulties finding a dentist as unmarried parents (OR=3.7, P=0.075) or when their level of education was high school/less (OR=10.4, P=0.043). Conclusions: The majority of children/adolescents with ASD had access to dental care. Difficulties accessing dental care were related to family structure, parents’ education and their perception of dentists’ knowledge of ASD.
7

Access to Dental Care for a Selected Group of Children and Adolescents with ASD

Abbasnezhad-Ghadi, Banafsheh 21 July 2010 (has links)
Objectives: 1) to determine if children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encounter difficulties accessing dental, 2) to identify barriers that diminish access to dental care for this population. Methods: This descriptive study is based on a web-survey conducted at the Geneva Centre for Autism in Toronto between November 2008 and March 2009. Forty-nine multiple choice questions including open-ended fields were developed. Parents of children with ASD (ages 5–18) completed the survey. Results: The majority of participants visited a dentist regularly (71%) and had private dental insurance (64%). Parents/caregivers were more likely to have difficulties finding a dentist as unmarried parents (OR=3.7, P=0.075) or when their level of education was high school/less (OR=10.4, P=0.043). Conclusions: The majority of children/adolescents with ASD had access to dental care. Difficulties accessing dental care were related to family structure, parents’ education and their perception of dentists’ knowledge of ASD.
8

Stress and Coping in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Mekki, Karim 19 December 2012 (has links)
Heightened levels of stress are observed in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), yet little is known about the relationship between stress and coping in mothers of children recently diagnosed with an ASD. The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of maternal stress, identify coping strategies used by mothers, examine the relationship between stress and coping, and ascertain whether coping mediated the relationship between ASD symptom severity and subsequent maternal stress. Data on 128 mothers of children who had received a diagnosis of ASD in the last four months were examined. Results indicated that mothers presented with elevated levels of stress. With regards to coping, escape-avoidance and confrontive coping were positively correlated with stress, while seeking social support was negatively correlated with stress. Confrontive coping did not mediate the relationship between ASD symptom severity and maternal stress. Results confirm previous findings, while underscoring the importance of helping mothers understand the relationship between the coping strategies they adopt and the subsequent stress they experience.
9

Stress and Coping in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Mekki, Karim 19 December 2012 (has links)
Heightened levels of stress are observed in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), yet little is known about the relationship between stress and coping in mothers of children recently diagnosed with an ASD. The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of maternal stress, identify coping strategies used by mothers, examine the relationship between stress and coping, and ascertain whether coping mediated the relationship between ASD symptom severity and subsequent maternal stress. Data on 128 mothers of children who had received a diagnosis of ASD in the last four months were examined. Results indicated that mothers presented with elevated levels of stress. With regards to coping, escape-avoidance and confrontive coping were positively correlated with stress, while seeking social support was negatively correlated with stress. Confrontive coping did not mediate the relationship between ASD symptom severity and maternal stress. Results confirm previous findings, while underscoring the importance of helping mothers understand the relationship between the coping strategies they adopt and the subsequent stress they experience.
10

Are children with Autism Spectrum Disorder sensitive to the different emotions underlying posed and genuine smiles?

Blampied, Frances Meredith January 2008 (has links)
Facial expressions are a useful source of information about the emotional state of others. However, facial expressions do not always correspond with an underlying emotional state. It is advantageous for perceivers to be able to differentiate between those expressions that are associated with a corresponding emotional state (genuine expressions) and those which are not associated with underlying emotions (posed expressions). The present study investigated the sensitivity of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and age and sex-matched control children to the different emotions underlying posed and genuine smiles. The first task required participants to listen to 12 emotion eliciting stories and select, from a grid of 4 facial expressions (a genuine smile, a posed smile, a neutral expression and a sad expression) that which matched how the target in the story would feel. Children with ASD correctly matched facial expressions and stories than did participants without ASD. The second task required children to look at a series of faces, each displaying either a posed smile, a genuine smile or a neutral expression and indicate whether each target was or was not happy. Participants with ASD were less sensitive both to the underlying emotional state of the targets and to the difference between posed and genuine smiles than were the control participants. Results are discussed in terms of the social deficits symptomatic of ASD.

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