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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

The feeding ecology and behaviour of wigeon (Anas penelope)

Mayhew, Peter Watts. January 1985 (has links)
Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of Glasgow, 1985. / Ph.D. thesis submitted to the Faculty of Science, University of Glasgow, 1985. Includes bibliographical references. Print version also available.
2

Molecular systematics of the native Australian waterfowl (Aves: Anseriformes)

Sraml, Michaela, n/a January 1994 (has links)
A consensus classification for the waterfowl (order Anseriformes) has never been reached. There have been many revisions of the relationships within the order including those of the monotypic Australian genera. The Southern Hemisphere anseriforms comprise a large number of monotypic, endemic genera which have traditionally been linked to the established genera and tribes of the Northern Hemisphere. More recently, however, with the recognition of endemic Australian radiations of marsupial mammals (Main and Bakker 1981) and passerine birds (Cracraft 1976; Sibley and Ahlquist 1985; Christidis et al. 1988; Christidis and Schodde 1991), the affinities of the six monotypic Australian genera of anseriforms have been questioned (Delacour 1954; Frith 1955, 1964a, b, 1982; Johnsgard 196la, b, 1966; Davies and Frith 1964; Fullager 1990). In particular, whether they are more closely related to one another, or whether some or all of these monotypic genera have closer affinities with the Northern Hemisphere genera. Classification of the taxonomic relationships of the aberrant Australian endemic species may also corroborate or refute the recently advanced hypothesis of a Southern Hemisphere origin for the Anseriformes (Cracraft 1976, 1980; Livezey 1986; Olson 1988). A 307bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of the 19 native Australian anseriforms and four Northern Hemisphere species was enzymatically amplified by PCR and manually sequenced. The Chicken (Gallus gallus) and Muscovy Duck (Cairinia moschatd) cytochrome b sequences were obtained from Genbank. The patterns of evolutionary dynamics within the cytochrome b gene of Anseriformes appear to conform to those reported in studies of avian and other vertebrate mtDNA. A new phylogenetic classification for the Anseriformes is proposed. The phylogenetic trees generated in this study indicate that the monotypic Australian genera, the pygmygeese and the swans and geese are members of the subfamily Anserinae which appears to represent a Southern Hemisphere radiation. Within the Anserinae, the Cape Barren Goose and Freckled Duck link most closely with each other, the Pink-eared Duck appears to be closely related to the true geese, the Musk Duck is a sister taxon to the Pink-eared Duck and may be less closely related to the Oxyura than previously thought and the Magpie Goose is the most divergent member of the Anseriformes included in this study. The Maned Duck and the remaining native Australian anseriforms are members of the established European genera and tribes of waterfowl. These species probably represent a secondary radiation of recent Northern Hemisphere invaders of Australia. Finally, the data provides some support for the theory of a Southern origin for the Anseriformes.
3

Vigilância epidemiológica dos vírus da influenza aviária em aves migratórias na região costeira da Amazônia / Epidemiological surveillance of avian influenza viruses in migratory birds on the Amazon coast

Renata Ferreira Hurtado 04 February 2014 (has links)
Os vírus da influenza aviária, ou vírus da influenza A, podem acometer inúmeras espécies de aves e mamíferos, e são conhecidos pelos relevantes impactos gerados na economia e Saúde Pública. As aves pertencentes às ordens Anseriformes (patos, marrecos e cisnes) e Charadriiformes (maçaricos, gaivotas e trinta-réis) são consideradas reservatórios, sendo que o comportamento migratório de muitas destas espécies pode favorecer a disseminação viral entre países. Existem poucos estudos sobre a circulação dos vírus da influenza aviária na América do Sul, dificultando a compreensão da ecologia e epidemiologia destes patógenos no Brasil. Este trabalho tem como objetivo monitorar as aves migratórias, em áreas de descanso e invernada na região Amazônica brasileira, por meio da detecção e caracterização dos vírus da influenza A. Através de seis expedições científicas ao norte do estado do Pará entre 2008 e 2010 foram colhidos swabs orotraqueais e cloacais de 1093 aves silvestres, principalmente Anseriformes e Charadriiformes. Pela técnica de Real time RT-PCR, nove aves foram positivas: 2 Actitis macularius, 4 Arenaria interpres, 1 Calidris pusilla, 1 Charadrius semipalmatus e 1 Dendrocygna viduata. Destas, o isolamento viral foi realizado com sucesso a partir das amostras de três Arenaria interpres, corroborando estudos que demonstram uma elevada prevalência do vírus da influenza A nesta espécie. As reações de inibição da hemaglutinação e de inibição da neuraminidase revelaram tratar-se do subtipo viral H11N9, considerado de baixa patogenicidade e relativamente comum nestas aves. O sequenciamento genético indicou estreita relação filogenética entre as estirpes virais deste estudo e aquelas isoladas na América do Norte, evidenciando um vínculo epidemiológico entre estas populações. Assim, é essencial a contínua vigilância epidemiológica dos vírus da influenza aviária em aves silvestres nesta região, visando a obtenção de informações sobre a prevalência do vírus, subtipos circulantes e suas características patogênicas, para subsidiar medidas apropriadas de prevenção e controle caso ocorram surtos no país. / Avian influenza viruses infect a variety of birds and mammals and are known for their relevant enconomic and public health impacts. Anseriformes (ducks, mallards and geese) and Charadriiformes (shorebirds, seagulls and terns) are natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses, and the migratory behaviour of many of these species can result in the spread of the virus among countries. There are few studies investigating the occorrence of these viruses in South America, hindering understanding of their ecology and epidemiology in Brazil. This study aims to detect and characterize avian influenza viruses in migratory birds in wintering areas on the Amazon coast. Orotracheal and cloacal swabs were obtained from 1093 wild birds, mostly Anseriformes and Charadriiformes, during six expeditions between 2008 and 2010 to the state of Pará, Brazil. Samples from nine birds were positive to Real time RT-PCR: 2 Actitis macularius, 4 Arenaria interpres, 1 Calidris pusilla, 1 Charadrius semipalmatus e 1 Dendrocygna viduata. Virus isolation was successfully carried out for the samples from three Arenaria interpres, in agreement with previous studies reporting high prevalence in this species. Hemaglutinin and neuraminidase inhibition assays indicated these strains belonged to subtype H11N9, considered low pathogenic and relatively common in shorebirds. Gene sequencing demonstrated close phylogenetic relationship between the strains isolated in this study and those found in North America, revealing the existence of epidemiological conectivity among these populations. It is therefore vital to maintain active epidemilogical surveillance of wild birds in this region, collecting information on virus prevalence, subtype and pathogenicity that may in turn be used to implement prevention and control policies for avian influenza outbreaks.
4

Caracteriza??o dos oocistos de Tyzzeria parvula (K?tlan, 1933) Klimes, 1963 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) do ganso dom?stico (Anser anser) no Brasil. / Characterization of Tyzzeria parvula (Kotlan, 1933) Klimes, 1963 oocysts (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of the greylag goose (Anser anser Linnaeus, 1758) in Brazil.

Berto, Bruno Pereira 14 February 2008 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-04-28T20:17:26Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2008- Bruno Pereira Berto.pdf: 2687710 bytes, checksum: 59bb1034b221236a652de238a6f587e5 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2008-02-14 / The principal objective of this research was to describe an coccidium found in the feces of greylag goose Anser anser Linnaeus, 1758. Based on morphometric analysis of these sporulated oocysts, they were classified as Tyzzeria parvula (K?tlan, 1933) Klimes, 1963. This coccidium was described for the firt time in goose of Brazil at rural and urban areas from the State of Rio de Janeiro. The oocysts were sub-spherical to ellipsoidal, measuring 11.28 to 16.44 for 9.15 to 14.44μm, with double-layer and without micropile, polar granule and sporocysts. The residuum was observed around the sporozoites or forming a granular mass. Eigth sporozoites were presents with one of the extremities rounded, and other one narrows and lightly curved. The sensitivity test in Cairina moschata and Anas platyrhynchos was done, however T. parvula did not develop infection. Through the comparison of the sporulated oocysts from goose of the rural and urban areas of the state of the Rio de Janeiro, it could be concluded that influences of the breeding systems and continuous natural infection degree in the greylag goose (A. anser) were responsible for pleomorphism of the dimensions of the T. parvula sporulated oocysts found in the feces of domestic goose of Brazil. / Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal descrever um cocc?dio encontrado nas fezes de gansos dom?sticos Anser anser Linnaeus, 1758, identificado com base na an?lise morfom?trica de seus oocistos esporulados como Tyzzeria parvula (K?tlan, 1933) Klimes, 1963. Este protozo?rio ? descrito pela primeira vez no Brasil em ?reas urbana e rural do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os oocistos observados tinham apar?ncia sub-esf?rica a elips?ide, medindo cerca de 11,28 a 16,44 por 9,15 a 14,44μm, com parede dupla e sem micr?pila, gr?nulo polar e esporocisto. O corpo residual foi observado ao redor dos esporozo?tas ou formando uma massa granular. Os esporozo?tas, em n?mero de oito, tinham uma das extremidades arredondada, e a outra estreita e levemente curva. O teste de susceptibilidade nos anat?deos Cairina moschata e Anas platyrhynchos foi realizado, entretanto T. parvula n?o desenvolveu infec??o. Atrav?s da compara??o dos oocistos provenientes dos gansos das regi?es rural e urbana do estado do Rio de Janeiro, p?de-se concluir que as influ?ncias dos sistemas de cria??o e o repetitivo grau de infec??o natural sobre os gansos dom?sticos A. anser foram respons?veis pelo pleomorfismo dos oocistos espEste trabalho teve como objetivo principal descrever um cocc?dio encontrado nas fezes de gansos dom?sticos Anser anser Linnaeus, 1758, identificado com base na an?lise morfom?trica de seus oocistos esporulados como Tyzzeria parvula (K?tlan, 1933) Klimes, 1963. Este protozo?rio ? descrito pela primeira vez no Brasil em ?reas urbana e rural do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os oocistos observados tinham apar?ncia sub-esf?rica a elips?ide, medindo cerca de 11,28 a 16,44 por 9,15 a 14,44μm, com parede dupla e sem micr?pila, gr?nulo polar e esporocisto. O corpo residual foi observado ao redor dos esporozo?tas ou formando uma massa granular. Os esporozo?tas, em n?mero de oito, tinham uma das extremidades arredondada, e a outra estreita e levemente curva. O teste de susceptibilidade nos anat?deos Cairina moschata e Anas platyrhynchos foi realizado, entretanto T. parvula n?o desenvolveu infec??o. Atrav?s da compara??o dos oocistos provenientes dos gansos das regi?es rural e urbana do estado do Rio de Janeiro, p?de-se concluir que as influ?ncias dos sistemas de cria??o e o repetitivo grau de infec??o natural sobre os gansos dom?sticos A. anser foram respons?veis pelo pleomorfismo dos oocistos esporulados de T. parvula encontrados nas fezes de gansos dom?sticos no Brasil. Palavras chave: Cocc?dio; Anat?deos; Coccidiose; Anseriformes.orulados de T. parvula encontrados nas fezes de gansos dom?sticos no Brasil.
5

Trait Evolution in Anseriformes: Is Evolution of Body Mass, Diet, Locomotory Behavior, and Diel Activity Pattern Correlated?

Kao, Zoe M. 01 January 2014 (has links)
The morphologies and behaviors of animals evolve and diversify, filling ecological niches in their environments. In this study I examine how a morphological trait, body mass, and three ecological traits, namely diel activity patterns, diving/non-diving locomotion, and diet, evolve in the Anseriformes (waterfowl). Through ancestral state reconstructions using a maximum likelihood approach the evolution of these traits was compared to see if any patterns of trait coevolution emerged. Body mass was compared to each ecological trait using a phylogenetic ANOVA to test if there were body size differences between ecological groups. The pattern of male and female body mass evolution across the clade was found to be remarkably similar, indicating that selection effected body mass in similar ways between the sexes. Diving locomotion appears to be the ancestral state for Anseriformes with non-diving independently evolving probably five times. The ancestral state of diet appears to be either herbivory or omnivory, with carnivory secondarily evolving twice independently. For diel activity patterns, the ancestral state reconstruction showed little resolution at the internal nodes, indicating the high degree of plasticity in this trait among the species studied. Body mass in both males and females was not significantly correlated with any particular diet, diving locomotion, or diel activity pattern.

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