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Desenvolvimento e validação de método analítico para análise de bisfenol A e nonilfenol em águas superficiais da cidade de Americana, SP / Development and validation of analytical method for analysis of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in surface waters of the city of Americana, SPDaniele Alves de Souza Beraldo 20 April 2012 (has links)
Neste estudo determinou-se o nonilfenol - um composto xenobiótico utilizados na fabricação de antioxidantes, aditivos para óleos lubrificantes e produção de surfactantes etoxilados - e o bisfenol A - um composto químico utilizado na produção de diversos produtos, como, plásticos policarbonatos, resinas epóxi e retardantes de chama. Ambos exibem atividade estrogênica em concentrações abaixo de 1ng L-1 - em cinco pontos de coleta na cidade de Americana, SP. Devido à ampla utilização, esses compostos estão presentes em esgoto industrial em quantidades substanciais. A primeira etapa deste estudo foi a validação dos método analítico seguindo o Método 8270D da United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) que descreve o procedimento de validação para os compostos semivoláteis analisados por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas (GC/MS). Os limites de detecção e de quantificação do método para a determinação do nonilfenol foram, respectivamente, 1 e 5 µg L-1. O coeficiente de determinação (R2) e a recuperação média para o nonilfenol foram, respectivamente, 0,99 e 99,04%. Os limites de detecção e de quantificação do método para o bisfenol A foram, respetivamente, 1 e 5 µg L-1. O coeficiente de determinação (R2) e a recuperação média para o bisfenol A foram, respectivamente, 0,99 e 91,55%. Na segunda etapa desta pesquisa analisaram-se amostras de água coletadas na cidade de Americana para a determinação do nonilfenol e do bisfenol A. Como método de extração dos compostos, usou-se a extração em fase sólida (SPE) e como técnica analítica a cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas (GC/MS). Os resultados indicaram a presença desses compostos em alguns pontos de amostragem sendo que a concentração do nonilfenol a variou de 5,028 a 10,524 µg L-1 e para o bisfenol A a concentração variou de 5,645 a 295,255 µg L-1. Foram feitos também testes ecotoxicólogicos utilizando como organismo teste o microcrustáceo Daphnia similis, porém o nonilfenol e o bisfenol A, na concentração testada que variou de 0,05 a 500 µg L-1 não apresentaram toxicidade aguda. / In this study it was determined nonylphenol - a xenobiotic compound used in the manufacture of antioxidants, additives for lubricating oils and production of ethoxylated surfactant - and bisphenol A - a chemical compound used in production of various products, such as polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resins and flame retardants. Both exhibit estrogenic activity at concentrations lower than 1 ng L-1 - in five sampling points in the city of Americana, SP. Due to the widespread use of these compounds, they are present in substantial quantities in industrial sewage. The first step of this study was to validate the analytical method following the Method 8270D of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) that describes the validation procedure for semi-volatile compounds analized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The limits of detection and quantification for determining the nonylphenol were, respectively, 1 and 5 µg L-1. The coefficient ofdetermination (R2) and recovery for nonylphenol were respectively 0.99 and 99.04%. The limits of detection and quantification for the bisphenol A were, respectively, 1 and 5 µg L-1. The coefficient of determination (R2) and recovery for bisphenol A were respectively 0.99 and 91.55%. In the second step of this study were analized in water samples of Americana city for the determination of nonylphenol and bisphenol A. As a method of extraction of the compounds it was used solid-phase extraction (SPE) and as analytical technique GC/MS. The results indicated the presence of such compounds in some sampling points and the concentration of nonylphenol ranged from 5.028 to 10.524 µg L-1 and bisphenol A concentration ranged from 5.645 to 295.255 µg L-1. Ecotoxicological tests were also performed using as test organism microcrustaceans Daphnia similis, but nonylphenol and bisphenol A, tested at concentration ranging from 0,05 to 500 µg L-1 showed no acute toxicity.
Mechanisms of transcriptomic and epigenetic responses to industrial pollutants in fishLaing, Lauren Victoria January 2017 (has links)
Thousands of chemical pollutants enter the environment continuously, each with the potential to cause adverse effects in both terrestrial and aquatic organisms. As a result, organisms are often exposed to a mixture of stressors within their habitat. Populations of fish inhabiting most aquatic environments are exposed to time-varying or repeated pulses of exposure, driven by run-off events or spills, or due to their mobility between polluted and clean waters. Therefore, the sustainability of fish populations is critically dependent on their ability to adapt to frequent changes in their local environment. Despite this, legislation to protect the environment from chemical contamination are generally based on toxicological measurements following exposures to single stressors, conducted under optimal laboratory conditions, and that do not take into account the variation in susceptibility of wild populations, or the potential consequences of exposure for the susceptibility of the population during future exposures, including across generations. Increasing evidence is suggesting that a number of chemicals may interact with the epigenome, and that differential responses to pollutants may be modulated, at least in part, via epigenetic mechanisms. However, our understanding of the role of epigenetic mechanisms in normal development in fish models or its susceptibility to exposure to environmental stressors is currently very limited. This thesis aimed to document the mechanisms of genetic and epigenetic responses to industrial pollutants in fish, and to explore the extent to which differential responses can be induced in the lab following exposure during the critical window of embryonic development or in adults. To address these objectives, I performed a series of experiments using both the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as fish models. I first used the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model to investigate the sex-specific transcription and DNA methylation profiles for genes involved in the regulation of reproduction and in epigenetic signalling in the livers and gonads. I provide evidence of the sex-specific transcription of genes involved in reproduction and their regulation by epigenetic signalling in this commonly used vertebrate model and highlight important considerations regarding the use of whole tissues comprised of multiple cell types in epigenetic and transcriptomic studies. I then investigated the potential for exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) to cause adverse effects on reproduction and to disrupt the expression profiles and promotor DNA methylation of target genes important for reproductive function and epigenetic signalling in the zebrafish. To do this, I exposed breeding zebrafish to a range of BPA concentrations over 15 days and found that BPA disrupted reproductive processes in zebrafish, likely via estrogenic mechanisms, but only at high concentrations. Importantly, exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA resulted in altered transcription of key enzymes involved in DNA methylation maintenance, and caused changes in promoter DNA methylation. I also conducted a series of repeated exposures to copper in the three-spined stickleback to investigate the extent to which differential susceptibility can be induced in the lab. This work provides evidence that pre-exposure to copper results in differential responses in future exposure scenarios both when the initial exposure occurred in adults and during embryogenesis. For adults, fish appeared to recover completely from the initial exposure following a period of depuration of 30 days, but displayed decreased susceptibility upon re-exposure. In contrast, for fish exposed during the critical windows of embryonic development when epigenetic reprogramming are hypothesised to occur, differential copper accumulation was maintained throughout life. Importantly, the initial exposure caused increased tolerance in the offspring, which was inherited up to the F2 generation. This work provides valuable information regarding potential critical windows of development which may be more susceptible to effects associated with pre-exposure, highlighting that early life exposure to a low concentration of copper can induce differential responses to copper across generations. These data highlight the extent of differential responses to chemical stressors likely to be present in wild populations, and point towards the possibility that effective population management will likely require an in-depth understanding of the exposure history of a given population in order to manage restocking initiatives, and to inform conclusions drawn from toxicity testing studies conducted using individuals originating from wild populations. In addition, these data suggest that it is likely that both epigenetic and genetic changes can contribute to the adaptation of individual populations to their local environment. Finally, other vertebrates including humans have been shown to be exposed to the chemicals tested in this thesis. Therefore, this highlights the potential for these chemicals to also cause toxic effects in humans, potentially via (epi) genetic mechanisms, and advocate the testing of the potential for inheritable phenotypes, such as those described in this thesis, to occur in mammalian models.
The effects of bisphenol A on adipose tissue development, metabolism, and endocrine function and the role it may play in the development of obesityWyatt, Brantley Nelson 01 May 2011 (has links)
While diet and sedentary lifestyle remain important factors in the development of obesity, recent findings have shown the possible involvement of environmental obesogens, chemicals that can disrupt homeostatic energy balance and increase adiposity. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a compound used in the manufacturing of plastics as a hardening agent and is ubiquitous in the environment due to its widespread use. BPA has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor through its ability to mimic estrogen, which is now known to play important roles in adipose tissue growth and metabolism. In fact, a small but compelling number of studies have shown that mice exposed to BPA in utero or postnatally are fatter as adults. We hypothesized that BPA exposure exerts effects on adipose tissue, promoting adipogenesis and inflammation, and altering energy homeostasis in a manner that promotes obesity. We tested our hypothesis using both in vitro and in vivo models. First, we found that low concentrations of BPA increased the expression of the inflammatory genes, Il-6 and Tnfa, approximately 1.5-3.0 fold in mouse adipose tissue explants. We also found a 3-fold increase in the expression of the lipogenic gene, Fasn. BPA also altered the adipose tissue metabolism, increasing the levels of a number of glycolytic and TCA cycle metabolites, suggesting that BPA may disrupt energy homeostasis. We also found that BPA exposure increased proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells approximately 1.2-fold, which are potential adipocyteprecursors. The study was expanded using two different strains of mice, C57BL/6 and DBA/2J, chronically exposing them to BPA through drinking water for six weeks. A moderate concentration of BPA increased the perigonadal fat pad mass in males. This increase in adiposity was associated with adipocyte hypertrophy and decreased serum adiponectin levels. There were also changes in the expression of some genes with BPA treatment, including a 1.4-fold increase in Leptin and decreases in some Cytochrome P450 genes; however the genes differentially expressed were different between the two strains. Our results suggest that childhood exposure to low doses of BPA, in lieu of any developmental exposure, may contribute to childhood obesity.
Chronic toxicity of phthalates, biphenol and a Canadian bottled water stored under different light regimes using the Cnidarian Hydra Viridissima©Ganeshakumar, Mathumai 01 August 2009 (has links)
There is general concern whether human exposure to selected Canadian bottled waters and the chemicals which may leach from them, could potentially cause deleterious effects. This research was designed to determine whether exposures to bottled water and plastic leachates caused toxicity to the freshwater Cnidarian Hydra viridissima (green hydra). Three chemicals used in the production of polycarbonate and polyethylene plastics, bisphenol A (BPA) and two phthalate esters: dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and bis (2- ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) along with one type of commercial bottled water were investigated. One brand of bottled water was analyzed over four months (stored in light and dark conditions) along with lab water similarly stored in glass, polycarbonate and polyethylene bottles. Following 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks in each of the two treatments, hydra bioassays were conducted. Chronic toxicity tests were also conducted on the two phthalates and BPA. The chronic toxicity tests showed that BPA caused effects on hydra morphology and population at low doses and DBP and DEHP both showed signs of hormesis.
Effects of polycyclic musks and bisphenol A on the settlement and metamorphosis on sponge, Spongia ceylonensisChen, Shiang-Ting 05 September 2011 (has links)
Sponge population partly depends on larval recruitment. Environmental factors, e.g. light, salinity, pH and temperature, chemical factors and pollution may influence larval settlement and metamorphosis. In this study, the effects of galaxolide¡]HHCB¡^¡Btonalide¡]AHTN¡^and bisphenol A¡]BPA¡^on the settlement and metamorphosis of an intertidal sponge ¡]Spongia ceylonensis¡^ were examined. The experiments included LC50 test, effects of solvent, HHCB, AHTN and BPA on sponge settlement and metamorphosis. In the LC50 tests, the 96 hr¡VLC50 value of HHCB and AHTN all greater than 1.00 mg/L, and the 96 hr¡VLC50 of BPA was 0.58 mg/L. Acetone concentration (1.00 mg/L ) in this study didn¡¦t affect sponge settlement and metamorphosis. Effect of HHCB and AHTN on sponge settlement and metamorphosis concentrations of 0.13, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 mg/L was insignificant. In contrast, the settlement rate was decrease by 20 % at treatment of 1.00 mg/L BPA. The metamorphosis rates were also decrease by 20 % and 80 % at concentrations of 0.50 mg/L and 1.00 mg/L BPA. In conclusion, the toxicity of AHTN was greater than that of HHCB to sponge settlement and metamorphosis.
Use of fish cell lines to compare the cytotoxicity of Tetrabromobisphenol A with its degradation products and with an alternative brominated flame retardantWong, Janice 06 November 2014 (has links)
Tetrabromobisphenol A, (TBBPA or Br4BPA), is a widely used brominated flame retardant (BFR). Although TBBPA and its breakdown products been found in river sediments, the environmental impact of their contamination is largely unknown. One breakdown product of TBBPA is bisphenol A (BPA), which has been studied intensively for its toxicology because it is used in the manufacturing of plastics and leaches from food containers, water bottles and pipes. Other breakdown products of TBBPA include tribromobisphenol A (Br3BPA), dibromobisphenol A (Br2BPA), and monobromobisphenol A (BrBPA) but little is known about their toxicology. Since TBBPA is toxic, there is a need to search for an alternative BFR, with one being tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropylether) or TBBPA-DBPE. However, almost nothing is known about the toxicology of this compound. Hence, two rainbow trout cell lines, RTL-W1 from liver and RTgill-W1 from gill, were used to evaluate the cellular toxicity of TBBPA, BPA, BrBPA, Br2BPA, Br3BPA and TBBPA-DBPE. The cells were exposed to these compounds for 24 h in the basal medium, L-15, to study their cytotoxicity and in L-15 with fetal bovine serum (FBS) to evaluate their capacity to induce 7-ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD) activity. Viability was measured with three fluorometric indicator dyes: Alamar Blue (AB) for metabolism, 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate acetoxymethyl (CFDA AM) for cell membrane integrity, and Neutral Red (NR) for lysosomal activity. The concentrations causing a 50 % reduction in viability (EC50) as measured with these three dyes were used to compare the relative cytotoxicity of these chemicals. For both cell lines and with all viability endpoints, TBBPA was the most cytotoxic, with EC50s ranging from 2.33 to 3.11 ug/ml. BPA, BrBPA, Br2BPA, and Br3BPA also caused dose-dependent declines in cell viability but showed no consistent order of potency. None of the six compounds induced EROD activity, which suggests that they do not activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Regardless of the endpoint or cell line, TBBPA-DBPE was not cytotoxic. This suggests that, from a toxicological perspective, this compound may be a suitable replacement for TBBPA as a BFR. BPA stood out from the other compounds in two regards. BPA caused a dose-dependent decline in cell viability for cultures in L-15 with FBS, whereas for the other compounds, little or no change in viability was seen in cultures with FBS. BPA elicited a decline in the ability of cells to reduce AB almost immediately upon its addition to cultures in a simple buffer, whereas as for other compounds a decline took time to develop. These results suggest that BPA exerts its cytotoxicity by a different mechanism different from the other compounds.
Crystallization Behavior of Bisphenol-A Polycarbonate: Effects of Crystallization Time, Temperature, and Molar MassSohn, Seungman 20 April 2000 (has links)
Crystallization and multiple melting behavior of bisphenol-A polycarbonate (PC) was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the monitoring of thermal behavior and atomic force microscopy (AFM) for the morphology study. The exceedingly slow crystallization kinetics of PC and the feasibility of obtaining near monodisperse fractions provide distinct advantages for the elucidation of the effects of crystallization time, temperature, and molar mass on crystallization kinetics. The effects of molar mass on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and heat capacity change at Tg, and the amorphous density of PC were investigated. Similar to many semicrystalline polymers, PC exhibits a multiple melting behavior upon heating. While for each PC sample, the coexistence of low and high temperature endothermic regions in the DSC heating traces is explained by the melting of populations of crystals with different stabilities, melting-recrystallization-remelting effects are observed only for the lowest molar mass samples. The effects of crystallization temperature and molar mass distribution on overall crystallization kinetics were studied for some of the fractions, including the commercial PC-28K (Mw = 28,000 g.mol-1) sample. Regarding the kinetics of secondary crystallization, particular attention was placed on understanding the effects of molar mass, initial degree of crystallinity prior to the secondary crystallization, and secondary crystallization time and temperature. The secondary crystallization of PC follows the same laws discovered in previous studies of PEEK, PET, it-PS and ethylene copolymers, and the results are discussed in the context of a bundle-like secondary crystallization model. During isothermal annealing of semicrystalline PC-28K around the high melting endotherm, a significant increase of melting temperature along with peak broadening with time was observed. Independently, morphological studies using AFM showed that mean lamellar thickness increases with time during isothermal annealing. These results are discussed in light of isothermal thickening of lamellar crystals. Lastly, almost 200 DSC melting traces of varying molar mass PC samples thermally treated under various conditions were analyzed to calculate crystallinity (Xc), rigid fraction (RF), and rigid amorphous fraction (RAF). The correlation between RAF vs Xc, Tg, and Tg broadening are discussed. / Ph. D.
Adsorption of Bisphenol-s (BPS) from Water Using Activated CarbonAl-Mashhadani, Suhaib Abdulsattar 24 May 2017 (has links)
No description available.
THE INTERACTION OF CHEMICAL AND NATURAL STRESSORS ON CARDIOVASCULAR DYNAMICS OF TELEOST FISHCypher, Alysha D. January 2017 (has links)
No description available.
Adsorption of Bisphenol S from Water Using Natural SorbentsSamineni, Keerthi January 2017 (has links)
No description available.
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