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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Potential contribution of a carbon offset scheme to the costs of greenhouse gas emissions reductions in developing countries

Partridge, Ian Alexander 22 February 2013 (has links)
The energy sector in the developing world is expected to account for 27% of global emissions of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion in 2035 – in 1990 it accounted for 7%. The increase is concentrated in rapidly growing countries in Asia that depend on coal for power generation. Maximizing electricity generation using renewable technologies in these countries provides an obvious approach to slowing global emissions growth. A barrier to increased use of renewable generation is cost: financial incentives could help to increase its use in developing countries. The principal objective of this research is to examine the practicability and potential scale of an offset scheme aimed at providing this incentive. Offset schemes have a poor reputation due to problems experienced with the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). I identify the CDM’s failure to ensure the additionality of projects as a key issue and propose an approach to the assessment of additionality specific to grid connected generation projects. I present case studies of wind and small hydro projects in China and India in which I calculate the marginal abatement cost of emissions cuts and use the new approach to additionality to draw conclusions regarding the eligibility of projects to receive offsets in some hypothetical future scheme. My analysis shows that the proposed approach offers advantages over methodologies permitted by the CDM. I analyze the supply and demand for credits from existing schemes during 2013-2020 and show that oversupply will continue to impact their price, removing any incentive for investment in renewable generation. Using an original approach based on IEA forecasts for the energy sector, I estimate the maximum availability of offsets from a post-2020 scheme based on renewable generation, and assess the potential global demand. / text

CDM Leakage Quantification Methods : A content analysis of CDM methodologies linked to 15 sectoral scope

Jia, Ruoyu January 2014 (has links)
The paper sheds light upon a specific issue: carbon leakage. Leakage can be understood as an unanticipated net carbon loss or gain, attributable to a climate policy, or reduction activities. Benign leakage effects are harmless. Unsettling are the ones that pose a threat to project’s environmental integrity. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is no exception to such risk. In order to investigate leakage and the corresponding leakage calculation methods addressed in the CDM projects, a qualitative content analysis is conducted on 203 methodologies. Methodology documents serve as ideal textual data for examining CDM related leakage because the development of any new project must be based on methodologies. In relation to the research question, the content analysis synthesizes 11 types of leakage sources. Excluding the case where no leakage is considered, 10 type of leakage sources are then broadly classified as Activity Shift, Market Effects and Life Cycle Leakage. Their corresponding leakage calculation methods are described and reviewed in terms of their geographic reach, and leakage characteristics. A percentage pattern is presented in relation to each sector. The findings are that the vast majority of the CDM leakage calculation methods address primary leakage specific to each individual project at a localized scale, among which, methods addressing Life Cycle Leakage are in the predominant majority. Market Effects as secondary sources are acknowledged as a potential threat to the overall benefit, but the CDM methodologies offer no quantitative method.

Chronic disease services patients in the Northern Alliance Hospital Admission Risk Program-Chronic Disease Management

Rasekaba, Tshepo Mokuedi January 2009 (has links)
This study was a cross-sectional epidemiologic evaluation of the clinical, sociodemographic, lifestyle and hospital utilisation characteristics of patients with diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic heart failure. Patients were enrolled in chronic disease management services of the Northern Alliance Hospital Admission Risk Program-Chronic Disease Management (Northern Alliance HARP-CDM Program). The program was established in accordance with the Department of Human Services’ (Victoria, Australia) initiative to intervene against increasing acute hospital demand by patients with chronic disease and complex needs. Amongst others, the Northern Alliance HARP-CDM Program provides services for patients with diabetes, chronic heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patient cohorts with these three chronic diseases were the focus of this study. The Northern Alliance HARP-CDM Program catchment comprises of a culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) population in the northern part of metropolitan Melbourne. Patients in this region mainly access acute hospital services at the Northern Hospital. The study sought to explore whether the CDM services enrolled patients whom based on their characteristics, fit the risk profile of the intended HARP-CDM target patient population. / The study cohorts demonstrated a CALD make up of above Victorian state averages. The majority (60%) were born overseas, preferred a language other English and were over 60 years old. In contrast to previously published studies, CALD did not demonstrate a significant contribution to disease control, quality of life or level of hospital utilisation. Place of residence for these patients showed clusters within some Local Government Areas. This has implications for service location, access and disease surveillance. Also, it presents opportunities for area targeted health promotion and prevention and overall service location. The majority (77%) of those with chronic heart failure had an abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction. The diabetes cohort was characterised by higher HbA1c (9%) than the target of less than 8%. Similarly the patients had greater than recommended waist circumferences (Males 106cm vs. 94cm; Females 106 vs. 80cm) places them at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. For those with COPD, 42% had severe pulmonary impairment (FEV%predicted ≤ 40%) while 36% were moderate in the moderate category. / There was increased hospital utilisation with increasing age for those with COPD. With the exception of the diabetes cohort, there was no significant evidence as to the role of ethno-cultural factors in the study cohorts’ health, quality of life or level of hospital utilisation. However, ethno-cultural factors may contribute to the complexity of patient management processes and warrants further investigation. / Prior to enrolment in the Northern Alliance HARP-CDM Program, patients who could be considered high users of emergency department services made up 20% of those in the diabetes service, 43% in the COPD service and 50% amongst those in the CHF service. Similar figures for hospital admissions ranged from 20% for the diabetes services to 56% for the CHF service cohorts respectively. Although the diabetes service was the biggest of the three the majority of patients in the service had no previous history of acute hospital utilisation. Members of the diabetes service cohort were characterised by hospital utilisation rates lower than the Northern Hospital’s (ED: 34 vs. 72 per 100 patients, Admissions: 33 vs. 68 per 100 patients in the Pre HARP-CDM Period). Patients in the COPD service (ED: 115 Pre and 158 during HARP-CDM) and CHF service (160 Pre and 159 during HARP-CDM) had ED presentation rates per 100patients that were higher than the hospital’s (72 and 69). / The rates suggest the first 14 months of the Northern Alliance HARP-CDM Program were associated with increased hospital utilisation by patients enrolled the Northern Alliance HARP-CDM Program. The increments were greater than increases for the Northern Hospital for the same periods. Contrary to the intended goal of reducing acute hospital utilisation, the majority of the clientele did not fit the primary HARP-CDM Program criteria of high acute hospital users. But patients who were enrolled following previous hospital utilisation were well-targeted. However there are several patients who are likely HARP-CDM Program candidates who fall though the gaps between the acute hospital services and the program. / It is recommended the program and services increase enrolments and access for the target patient populations. There is a need for early intervention chronic disease management and health promotion. This service would cater for clients who by virtue of having a chronic disease are at risk but are currently not high acute hospital users. Such a service would free up vacancies in the Northern Alliance HARP-CDM Program, thus enabling increased intake and equitable access for the target patient population, especially those who fall though the gaps as referred to earlier. Funding for such a service is available through DHS. In light of strong evidence for exercise rehabilitation and its ability to positively impact patient outcomes, quality of life, survival and hospital utilisation, consideration needs to be given to this as part of the Northern Alliance HARP-CDM Program chronic disease management care model.

Cooperación, innovación, y productividad : estimación de un modelo CDM para Chile

Bravo, Sergio 09 1900 (has links)
Tesis para optar al grado de Mag ster en An alisis Econ omico / Usando datos de rmas chilenas de la Octava Encuesta de Innovaci on 2013, este estudio analiza emp ricamente el efecto de la cooperaci on en actividades de innovaci on sobre la inversi on en innovaci on, as como su efecto sobre el desempe~no en innovaci on y productividad. El an alisis se basa en la extensi on de un modelo multiecuaci on propuesto en Cr epon, Duguet y Mairesse (1998) que considera los determinantes de la inversi on en innovaci on, los resultados en innovaci on y sus efectos en productividad. Los resultados indican que en el sector transable (manufacturas, agricultura, ganader a, miner a y pesca) la cooperaci on incrementa la inversi on en innovaci on en un 118 %, y estimula la introducci on de tecnolog as al proceso productivo que aumentan la productividad en un 43 %. La evidencia muestra la importancia de la cooperaci on para las rmas {como una soluci on al margen del mercado{ para disminuir los desincentivos a invertir en innovaci on.

Distributional Impact of an Ethanol-Based Clean Development Mechanism Project In Brazil

de Souza, Roberta Haikal 19 April 2005 (has links)
No description available.

Implementation of A-CDM - A pilot study at Bromma Airport / Implementering av A-CDM - En förstudie åt Bromma flygplats

Skoglund, Daniel January 2016 (has links)
Syftet med denna rapport har varit att författa en förstudie åt Bromma flygplats, förstudien har inletts med en nulägesanalys av Bromma flygplats nuvarande organisation och flygoperativa process. Detta för att utreda hur Bromma flygplats nuvarande rutiner och organisation ser ut. Därefter har en genomgång av Bromma flygplats informationsdelning rutiner gjorts. En sammanfattning har även gjorts av Eurocontrols implementeringsmanual, en tidigare implementeringsstudie av A-CDM samt en intervju genomförts med avsikten att presentera vad som generellt krävs för att kunna implementera A-CDM på en flygplats. Granskningen av Bromma flygplats informationsdelning och hur det generella implementeringsarbetet ska gå till, har legat till grund för att kunna presentera de rekommendationer som Bromma flygplats bör åtgärda och genomför för att kunna implementera A-CDM. Till sist har även de troliga effekter som Bromma flygplats kan förvänta sig av ett implementerat A-CDM presenterats.

Firm innovation and productivity : A regional analysis

Bladh, Sandra January 2017 (has links)
This thesis studies the effect of innovation activities and productivity by using the CDM-model and extend the existing knowledge by using the CIS-dataset in combination with official statistics performing a such detailed regional analysis that have not been done before. By using the different labour market codes interacted with the industry codes I can capture informative deviations between different industries in different regions. The results show a significant variation between the different regions and industries, and that the urban and metropolitan areas are more innovative and more productive than the rural areas. However, the financial sector and health sectors showed a steady innovation input activity across most regions while the metropolitan areas showed to invest less in innovation inputs in the real estate sector compered to rural and urban areas.

A questão dos créditos de carbono e sua viabilidade econômica ambiental / The issue of carbon credits and their economic and environmental viability

Calestini, Eduardo Del Nery 26 October 2012 (has links)
As mudanças climáticas provocadas pelo Homem induziram a formação de um mercado que segue atividades que afirmam contemplar aspectos de desenvolvimento sustentável. O mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo (MDL) é um dos instrumentos de flexibilização estabelecido pelo protocolo de Quioto com o objetivo de facilitar o cumprimento das metas de redução de emissão de gases de efeito estufa (GEE), definidas para os países que o ratificaram, tratando do desenvolvimento e da implantação de projetos visando à redução de emissões de gases de efeito estufa nos países em desenvolvimento, financiado pelos países desenvolvidos, em troca de créditos para serem abatidos dos seus compromissos de redução de emissões. Os projetos que se habilitarem à condição de projeto de MDL deverão cumprir uma série de procedimentos até receber a chancela da ONU e, consequentemente, certificar as reduções alcançadas. O presente trabalho tem o objetivo de analisar quais são os requisitos para a implantação de um MDL e discutir a real promoção da sustentabilidade do dispositivo, bem como a viabilidade econômica e ambiental, conforme preconiza o artigo 12 do Protocolo de Quioto. Para o cumprimento da presente tarefa foi necessária a análise dos antecedentes do Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo, a saber: As mudanças climáticas globais, a Convenção-Quadro das Nações Unidas sobre Mudança do Clima e o Protocolo de Quioto. Em seguida foram analisados dois projetos utilizando MDL sob dois aspectos diferenciados. O primeiro advindo de reduções de emissões em um aterro sanitário, na cidade de São Paulo, o segundo relacionado à silvicultura, no interior do mesmo Estado. / Climate change caused by man induced the formation of a market that follows activities that claim to include elements of sustainable development. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of the Kyoto Protocol flexibilization instruments in order to facilitate the achievement of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission reducing goals defined for the countries which have ratified it, treating of development and implementation of projects in order to reduce GHGs emission in developing countries, financed by developed countries, in exchange for credits to be deducted from their commitments to reduce emissions. Projects that qualify for CDM project status must meet a series of procedures to receive the United Nation (UN) approval and consequently, certify the achieved reductions. This study aims to examine which are the requirements for implementation of a CDM and discuss the actual promotion of the device sustainability as well as economic and environmental viability, as defined in article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol. In fulfillment of this task it was necessary to analyze the background of the CDM, as follows: Global climate changes, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. Next, two projects were analyzed using CDM under two different aspects. The first about emission reductions in a landfill, in the city of Sao Paulo, the second related to growing eucalyptus, in the countryside of the same state.

Assessment of Ascorbic Acid Effects on the Properties of Cell-Derived Tissue Rings

Hu, Jason Z 24 June 2010 (has links)
"We have developed a system to rapidly create three-dimensional tissue rings from aggregated cells. The ability to use cell-derived tissues to screen the effects of culture conditions on tissue mechanical function has not previously been reported. The first goal of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of cell-derived tissue rings in response to ascorbic acid, which has been shown to increase collagen content, resulting in increased mechanical strength. The second goal was to develop quantitative methods to evaluate the structure and composition of cell-derived tissue rings. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells (1.33x10^6 cells/ring) were seeded in agarose wells with 4 mm post diameters in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS and ascorbic acid (0, 50, 150 ug/ml). After 7 days, the average thickness of the constructs reached 0.72 +/- 0.03 mm with no statistical differences between groups. Ultimate tensile strength values were higher in the ascorbic acid-treated groups compared to untreated controls. However, there was no significant difference between tissue rings treated with 50 and 150 ug/ml ascorbic acid. Biochemical analysis showed that ascorbic acid did not significantly affect total protein, collagen content or cell number. Image analysis of polarized light micrographs suggested that collagen fibril coverage increased in response to ascorbic acid treatment, although the differences between groups were insignificant. In addition to ascorbic acid treatment, we also subjected tissue rings to DTPA treatment to prolong ascorbic acid availability in culture medium, which resulted in weak and necrotic tissue rings. Reduced serum was also investigated in order to decrease cell proliferation, which resulted in decreased tissue thickness and increased mechanical strength. Overall, we successfully demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the tissue rings could be altered by ascorbic acid treatment, and developed a series of quantitative methods to measure tissue mechanics, composition and organization. The results of this study further support the potential to use the tissue ring system as a high throughput screening method for studying the functional properties of three-dimensional engineered tissues."

Dark energy and modified theories of gravity

Lima, Nelson Daniel de Aguiar January 2017 (has links)
It is now a consolidated fact that our Universe is undergoing an accelerated expansion. According to Einstein's General Relativity, if the main constituents of our Universe were ordinary and cold dark matter, then we would expect it to be contracting and collapsing due to matter's attractive nature. The simplest explanation we have for this acceleration is in the form of a component with a negative ratio of pressure to density equal to -1 known as cosmological constant, Λ , presently dominating over baryonic and cold dark matter. However, the Λ Cold Dark Matter (Λ CDM) model suffers from a well known fine tuning problem. This led to the formulation of dark energy and modified gravity theories as alternatives to the problem of cosmic acceleration. These theories either include additional degrees of freedom, higher-order equations of motion, extra dimensionalities or imply non-locality. In this thesis we focus on single field scalar tensor theories embedded within Horndeski gravity. Even though there is currently doubt on their ability to explain cosmic acceleration without having a bare cosmological constant on their action, the degree of freedom they introduce mediates an additional fifth force. And while this force has to suppressed on Solar system scales, it can have interesting and observable effects on cosmological scales. Over the next decade there is a surge of surveys that will improve the understanding of our Universe on the largest scales. Hence, in this work, we take several different modified gravity theories and study their impact on cosmological observables. We will analyze the dynamics of linear perturbations on these theories and clearly highlight how they deviate from Λ CDM, allowing to break the degeneracy at the background level. We will also study the evolution of the gravitational potentials on sub horizon scales and provide simplified expressions at this regime and, for some models, obtain constraints using the latest data.

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