To What Extent Has Progress Been Made by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) In Reducing CO2 Emissions from Global Shipping?Bayley-Craig, Lisa 04 May 2020 (has links)
90% of global trade is transported by cargo ships, with fossil fuel being the dominant energy source used. As global trade increases, shipping will be in greater demand resulting in increased emissions of carbon dioxide and other pollutants negatively impacting the environment and human health. Carbon dioxide (CO2), our area of interest, is the number one contributing gas to global warming. We, therefore, examine the role of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in reducing CO2 emissions from shipping, and determine the progress made so far. Our research reveals that progress in this area is on a slow trajectory. The current IMO regulations focus solely on energy efficiency measures that do not appear to be as successful as envisioned in reducing CO2 emissions. In addition, the concept of decarbonization of the sector, which would lead to zero emissions, is delayed. With this in mind, we provide recommendations regarding future IMO actions.
An analysis of the performance of certification schemes in the hotel sector in terms of CO2 emissions reductionHoulihan-Wiberg, Aoif January 2010 (has links)
In assessing the impact of global tourism on climate change, emissions from transport receive the most attention although emissions associated with accommodation account for more than 20% of the total. A plethora of hotel certification schemes have been established worldwide that assess various environmental performance indicators, among them energy use. However, none explicitly quantify CO2 emissions, and in many, energy is poorly accounted for, or other non-energy related factors are weighted so that the overall impact of energy use (and hence CO2 emission) is weak. The main thrust of the research is to ascertain the effect of certification on CO2 emissions. The research questions whether the certification schemes are robust and rigorous and whether the results are credible. First, four widely used certification schemes are compared Nordic Swan (Scandinavia), Green Globe (Worldwide), EU Flower (European) and Green Hospitality Award (Ireland). The key issues are identified such as performance and process related criteria, use of benchmarks, and the weighting of different categories. A comparison is made with LEED-EB, a well-established environmental certification scheme, not dedicated to the hotel sector. Secondly, the way in which emissions from electricity, including so-called green electricity and carbon offsetting, are accounted for is examined since it is found that in obtaining certification, this often plays an important part. Actual annual energy use data is desperately needed as feedback to designers, managers and owners in order to give confidence that certification schemes have true validity. Results are presented from large multi-hotel data samples and for detailed results from the quality, illustrative in-depth studies which provided invaluable insight into the technical realities of a multitude of causes and effects which can often be masked in large data samples. An analysis was carried out for four In-depth studies located in Sweden (Nordic Swan), Maldives (Green Globe), Malta (EU Flower) and Ireland (Green Hospitality Award). Global CO2 emissions were compared and calculated from the delivered electricity and fuels consumption data from seventy selected certified hotels worldwide. No corrections were made in the calculations for climate, quality of services, existence of services etc. The performance indicator used is kgCO2 per guest night. The analyses shows no clear pattern. CO2 emissions show a wide variance in performance for 8 hotels certified under different schemes, as well as for 28 hotels certified under the same scheme. In some cases emissions reduced after certification in others no change. Certified hotels do not necessarily have lower emissions than uncertified hotels and a comparison of before – and after – certification shows no significant improvement prior to certification. Most dramatically emissions from certified hotels widely vary by a factor of 7. Although it is arguable a number of corrections should be made to account for different climates, the research highlights that hotels with high CO2 emissions are being awarded certification and it questions what message‘certification’ gives to guests and other stakeholders. At worst it appears ‘business as usual’ can achieve certification with no obvious improvement in performance. The overall conclusion is that existing certification schemes do not properly account for CO2 emissions and do not produce more energy efficient (or less CO2 intensive) buildings. Hotel accommodation was found to be more CO2 intensive than domestic emissions. The findings also uncovered inconsistencies in current methods of certification and indicate a vital need for improved methods. The results also challenge prevailing aesthetic stereotypes of sustainable hotels. The author concludes a simple CO2 accounting method is needed as the first step of a diagnostic process leading to a solution i.e. reduced emissions, to the problem i.e. high energy consumption and/or emissions, thus reducing the environmental impact (in terms of emissions reduction) of the hotel. This method of accounting can be adopted universally by using a Regional, European (O.475 kgCO2/kWh) or Universal (0.55 kgCO2/kWh) conversion factor. In relation to the proper calculation of energy and CO2 emission, sub-metering is a key factor, and with current technological developments, realistic and affordable. Furthermore, apart from certification itself, an essential quality with any monitoring system is that the user can obtain results easily and understandably, in order to get feedback from their actions. This could be facilitated by incorporating sub-metering as part of the building environmental management system software. This ensures that the certification activity is not simply a benchmark, but is also part of a diagnostic and educational process, which will continue to drive emissions down. Only then should it be ethically justified to use as a marketing tool providing diagnostic support in existing buildings, and design and operational guidance for new designs.
ABSTRACT At a time where the planet is facing one of its major global crises, re-thinking of systems in every sector is needed. In the field of energy at its global meaning, various ways of action are considered. In this context, housing sector represents a key point of new conception of our society. Nowadays buildings are no longer considered only as designed housing "objects". Comfort, consumption, environmental impacts are part of the words which appear utterly linked to every single building. Thermal behaviour tends to be as much important as architectural and structural concerns. Indeed, energy savings have become one of the most talked about parameters of a building. Through this paper, key parameters of a building will be compared in order to obtain the most effective houses depending on their location. Nevertheless, comfort will be studied too because of its increasing importance in modern society. The results will be obtained according various aspects: technical ones, environmental ones and financial ones. For all those houses meeting the French standards, similar comparison will be made. Thus the approach will not be organised one house after another but through the impact of one parameter after another to draw the final comparison between the three houses according to the same parameters. Keywords: energy consumption, CO2 emissions, sustainable systems, bioclimatic buildings
Energy and cost analysis of household electricity efficiency improvements in a rental apartment buildingPanigrahi, Manaswita January 2012 (has links)
In this thesis potential for (final and primary) energy and CO2 emission reductions and cost effectiveness of replacing existing household electric appliances and light bulbs with most popular or most energy efficient appliances in a multifamily apartment building in Växjö city is studied. The results showed that there is significant potential to reduce electricity demand and thereby to reduce primary energy use and CO2 emissions. The greatest potential lies with replacing existing incandescent bulbs with LED bulbs, while the lowest savings seem to be with replacement of microwave ovens. Assuming that reduced electricity demand reduces electricity generation in coal-based steam turbine (CST) technology, annually about 63 MWh of primary energy and 25 ton CO2 emissions could be reduced from the investigated building if the existing refrigerator/freezer, stove/oven, microwave oven, televisions and light bulbs are replaced with the most energy efficient alternatives available in the market today. Also, the results from ‚discounted payback period‛ and ‚cost of conserved energy‛ analyses also showed that it is cost-effective to install the most energy efficient appliances. This study for a single building is based on limited number of interviews, selected appliance types, and number of assumptions about marginal electricity production systems. To generalize the results more such studies in different conditions with measurement of actual energy use of all the household appliances should be conducted, which would help to fully understand the potential of primary energy savings and CO2 emission reductions in Swedish apartment buildings.
Günther, Edeltraud, Klauke, Ines
17 January 2008
(has links) (PDF)
Die Energieerzeugung aus fossilen Brennstoffen trägt weltweit erheblich zum Treibhauseffekt bei. So entfielen 2005 24 % der gesamten CO2-Emissionen in der Europäischen Union auf die Stromerzeugung aus Kohle . Recherchen im Rahmen eines Forschungsvorhabens an der Professur für Betriebliche Umweltökonomie der TU Dresden ergaben, dass öffentliche Gebietskörperschaften einen Anteil von ca. 7,8 % am Stromverbrauch in Deutschland haben. Bisher berücksichtigen jedoch nur wenige Kommunen die CO2-Emissionen als Entscheidungskriterium bei der Ausschreibung von Strom. Damit wird deutlich, welches Potenzial in der Ausschreibung von Strom liegen kann. Hierbei stellt sich allerdings nicht nur die Frage, welche Herausforderungen öffentliche Ausschreibungen mit sich bringen, sondern auch wie diese Möglichkeiten den Markt aus der Sicht des Nachfragers eingrenzen, d. h. ob überhaupt ein entsprechendes Angebot am Markt verfügbar ist. / Energy supplies on the basis of fossil fuels contribute significantly to the global greenhouse effect. In 2005, for example, 24 % of the total CO2 emissions in the EU were attributable to coal-fired power generation. The work of a research project at TU Dresden revealed that public administrative bodies account for approx. 7.8 % of electricity consumption in Germany. To date, however, only few communities have made CO2 emissions a decision criterion in their electricity procurement. It is thus clear, just how much potential lies in the procurement process for electricity. At the same time, however, consideration must be given not only to the challenges arising from the appraisal of public procurement, but also to how these options limit the market scope from the point of view of the community, i.e. whether corresponding offers are actually available on the market.
Environmental concerns about the effect of greenhouse gases have led governments to regulate industrial CO2 emissions, including through emissions caps, trading and penalties, thus creating economic incentives to reduce CO2 emissions. This research focuses on strategies to reduce CO2 emissions from energy systems in the context of the process industries. In the process industries, energy systems consume fuel to generate steam and power for site process units. Improving energy efficiency can reduce costs of energy generation and use, as well as CO2 emissions. This research develops an integrated design and optimisation methodology for energy systems, allowing effective capture and control of carbon dioxide emissions. The first focus of this study is to develop a systematic approach to evaluate combinatorial strategies for reducing CO2 emissions, based on a techno-economic analysis. A conceptual design procedure with hierarchical decision-making is introduced to combine CO2 emissions reduction strategies, accounting for interactions between site components, including the heat exchanger network and utility system. CO2 emissions reduction options considered in development of this procedure include process integration techniques for improving the energy efficiency of the site and fuel switching. The proposed approach considers trade-offs between the economy of energy retrofit and CO2 emissions penalties. Opportunity for reducing the CO2 penalty is included in the economic evaluation of the combined emissions reduction strategies. A mathematical model for simultaneous optimization of emissions reduction strategies is developed. In addition to emissions reduction strategies, options for trading CO2 allowances are considered in the model. The proposed mathematical method applies Mixed Integer Non Linear Programming (MINLP) optimization, which employs a superstructure of the strategies for CO2 reduction. The proposed mathematical model relates the selected options to their operating and capital costs and to their associated CO2 emissions, allowing the optimizer to search for the optimal combination of emissions reduction strategies. While the reduction in CO2 emissions through process integration techniques is based on the existing configuration of a site and the associated structural limitations, integration of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies can provide greater mitigation of CO2 emissions from a site. However, important challenges of implementing CCS in the process industries are the energetic and economic impact of the CCS plant on the integrated site. In the second part of this study, these energy-economic issues are explored. The CCS technologies addressed in this thesis include post- and pre-combustion CO2 capture techniques. Simulation of each capture technique is carried out in process simulation software to characterize the energy performance of the CO2 capture plant. Sensitivity analyses are carried out for key parameters of the CO2 capture plant. The relationship between these key parameters and the energy balance of the capture plant is represented using a simple energy performance model for the CO2 capture plant. This model allows the integration of the CO2 capture plant with the site utility system to be explored. Interactions between the utility system and CO2 capture plant are considered. The site utility system, together with the CO2 capture plant, is optimized for minimum operating cost. The proposed procedures are illustrated by application to a case study of a medium-scale oil refinery. The results illustrate that to reduce CO2 emissions, heat integration, utility system optimization and fuel switching provide more cost-effective solutions than integrating CCS technologies. The mathematical model allows more cost-effective solutions to be identified than using sequential, conceptual methods, but the value of the conceptual method for developing insights is also illustrated. The results demonstrate that, depending on the potential of the site for increasing heat recovery and the type of fuel used on site, solutions that combine energy efficiency and fuel switching can provide up to 40% reduction in site CO2 emissions. Integrating a post-combustion CO2 capture plant with the site utility system can provide up to 90 mol% pure CO2 for sequestration; however, the high capital cost of the capture plant reduces the economic performance of the integrated site. The high heat demand of post-combustion CO2 capture for solvent regeneration increases the fuel consumption of the site and its utility system, which in turn reduces the recovery of CO2. The results reveal that pre-combustion CO2 capture can provide opportunities for heat and power generation to improve the techno-economic performance of the overall integrated site.
Improving estimates of CO2 emissions under REDD+ in the Colombian Amazon : better understanding for climate change mitigationNavarrete Encinales, Diego Alejandro January 2016 (has links)
Land-cover change is the second most important source of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, generating around 7-14% of the total carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions around the world. More than one million km2 of tropical forests were lost during the period 2000-2012 around the world, from which forests-to-pasture conversion was the most common land-use change in key regions such as the Amazon. Strategies to mitigate climate change by reducing deforestation and forest degradation (e.g. REDD+) require country- or region-specific information on carbon (C) stocks in forests and their dynamics with land-cover change, in order to develop accurate Forest Reference Emission Levels (FRELs) to be submitted to the UNFCCC as benchmarks for assessing the performance of countries participating in REDD+ activities. Nevertheless, FREL development is incipient and their elaboration is mostly based on highly uncertain Tier 1 information from IPCC. In this research I present the first region-specific Tier 3 information and emission factors on soil, dead wood and below-ground biomass C pools and their dynamics during 20 years of forest-to-pasture conversion under different management practices in the Colombian Amazon. Based on these region-specific Tier 3 emission factors on C stocks in forests and their change after pasture establishment, I report for the first time the net CO2 emissions from forest-to-pasture conversion in the Colombian Amazon. The results also demonstrate that Tier 3 region-specific information is 70% higher and is substantially more accurate than estimates based on using IPCC Tier 1 information, which emphasizes the urgency for countries implementing REDD+ to develop improved data and methodologies. The information reported here will contribute to strengthening the REDD+ National Strategy of Colombia, by supplying accurate data and models that can be included within the next Colombian FREL.
Transportation is one of the areas where Sweden could not yet manage to reduce the CO2 emissions. One solution that has been suggested to reduce the CO2 emissions in this sector is through the mass adoption of electric vehicles (EVs). However, mass EV adoption brings complications with it. Drivers behavior is a critical aspect since people often charge their car at home after work. This could negatively affect the evening load peak and thus cause a high impact on the electricity system. A survey was sent out to current private EV owners in Sweden, to learn about their charging schedules, driving patterns and battery capacity. 226 of 403 replied to the survey which gave a survey reply rate of 56 %. The goal of this work was to estimate the future adoption of EVs, based on the current trends and national targets in order to develop different scenarios. With the scenarios in mind, the projected consumption of EVs for different periods of the day, the magnitude and time of the peak load as well as the overall consumption and CO2 reduction per year were calculated. Three scenarios were analyzed with 96 000, 650 000 and 1 000 000 electric vehicles where 25 % are defined to be running entirely on electricity in the middle and high penetration scenario since even plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, PHEV where included. The scenarios are estimated as the possible situation in 2030 and a simulation is done in MATLAB for summer and winter cases as well as weekdays and weekends. Results showed that the charging pattern of the EV drivers would cause a peak load at around 20.00 where the peak load from the overall household consumptions also takes place. The highest consumption takes place during the weekend cases but there were no significant difference between summer and winter. For example the peak consumption of the EVs was 150 MWh during winter and weekends at 20.00. The annual consumption of the EVs would be 238 GWh, 342 GWh and 616 GWh for the low, middle and high penetration scenario. By analyzing the current installed power of renewable energy sources in Sweden, it was found that the demand for EVs could be met by renewables entirely today. It was also found that using EVs instead of conventional fossil fueled cars can save up to 264 Mton CO2 for the low penetration scenario, 447 Mton for the middle penetration scenario and 688 Mton for the high penetration scenario. Different assumptions could have caused deviation from the actual result and it was found during the implementation of the simulation that the survey questions could be improved for future surveys. It was concluded that mass adoption of EVs is possible in terms of electricity production and installed power. However, increase in the evening peak led to the conclusion that balancing of the grid is necessary for example through Vehicle-to-grid (V2G), controlled charging or energy storage. Keywords: MATLAB, electricity consumption, EV, CO2 emissions, simulation, 2030, Scenario, penetration level
31 August 2012
Die fünf Essays dieser Dissertation behandeln Themen aus dem Bereich der Entwicklungs- und Umweltökonomie. Alle Essays analysieren wie die Produktion von CO2 Emissionen beeinflusst oder reguliert werden kann. Das Treibhausgas CO2 ist eine der größten Externalitäten der Geschichte menschlicher Entwicklung. Die einzelnen Essays zeigen wie lokale Klimaveränderungen das menschliche Wohlbefinden beeinflussen und welche monetären Kosten mit einem Anstieg der Durchschnittstemperatur in Lateinamerika verbunden sind. Außerdem betrachten die Essays Hauptdeterminanten von CO2 Emissionen auf haushalts- oder nationalem Niveau, und bestimmen den Erfolg aktueller Klimapolitik um CO2 Emissionen zu reduzieren. Das letzte Essay betrachtet die momentane und zukünftige Verteilung von CO2 Emissionen wenn verschiedene Politikszenarien realisiert werden würden. Das erste Essay befasst sich mit dem Effekt von klimatischen Veränderungen auf das Wohlfahrtsniveau in Lateinamerika. Als Wohlfahrtsmaß kommen dabei subjektive Selbstaussagen zum Einsatz. Subjektive Wohlfahrt erfasst nicht nur Veränderungen im Einkommen, sondern auch Veränderungen in anderen Lebensbereichen wie dem Zugang zu Bildung oder Gesundheitseinrichtungen. Generell kommt die Studie zu dem Schluss, dass eine Temperatur im Bereich von 20 Grad Celsius und Niederschlag bis 247mm optimal sind. Höhere monatliche Durchschnittstemperaturen oder Niederschläge sind mit Wohlfahrtsverlusten verbunden. Eine globale Erwärmung von mehr als 2 Grad Celsius wird mit Wohlfahrtsverlusten in Lateinamerika einhergehen. Das zweite Essay analysiert Haushaltsemissionen in Form des Kohlenstoff-Fußabdrucks in Indien. Dabei liegt das Augenmerk auf dem Effekt von Einkommenswachstum und sozio- ökonomischen Veränderungen innerhalb der Haushalte. Ein höheres Haushaltseinkommen führt zu einem stärkeren Konsumverhalten aber gleichzeitig auch zu weniger CO2- intensiven Konsummustern. Dennoch kann der Mehrkonsum an CO2-armen Gütern, wie zum Beispiel Bildung, den Anstieg der Haushaltsemissionen, aufgrund höheren Einkommens, nicht kompensieren. Das dritte Essay betrachtet in wie fern aktuelle internationale Klimapolitik einen Einfluss auf CO2 Emissionen genommen hat. Dabei zeigt sich, dass Länder, welche Verpflichtungen im Rahmen des Kyoto Protokolls eingegangen sind, im Durschnitt 6.5% weniger CO2 emittiert haben, als vergleichbare Länder mit ähnlichem Einkommens- und Bevölkerungswachstum aber ohne Verpflichtungen. Das vierte Essay geht auf die Hauptdeterminante des CO2 Emissionswachstums ein, nämlich Einkommen. Dabei wird aber nicht nur der Effekt von Veränderungen im Einkommen, sondern auch der Effekt von Veränderungen in der Einkommensverteilung auf CO2 Emissionen untersucht. Einkommensungleichheit wirkt sich abhängig vom gegenwertigen Ungleichheitsniveau auf CO2 Emissionen aus. Für Länder mit einer hohen Einkommensungleichheit ist der Effekt positiv, das heißt mit sinkender Einkommensungleichheit sinken CO2 Emissionen. Für Länder mit niedriger Ungleichheit ist der Effekt negativ. Ein weiterer Abbau der Einkommensungleichheit würde dort mit steigenden CO2 Emissionen einhergehen. Das fünfte Essay befasst sich mit der globalen Verteilung von pro Kopf CO2 Emissionen. Dabei geht es darum inwiefern der Energiemix und der sektorale Aufbau einzelner Volkswirtschaften zu dieser ungleichen Verteilung von pro Kopf CO2 Emissionen beigetragen haben. Der Abbau schwerer Industrie in OECD Ländern und der verstärkte Einsatz von Kohle in nicht-OECD Ländern haben dabei zu einem Rückgang der globalen Ungleichheit in CO2 Emissionen geführt. Langfristig gesehen kann es sein, dass die Emissionsungleichheit ab 2040 wieder steigen wird. Jedes Essay trägt in seinem Feld zur betreffenden Literatur bei. Die Essays analysieren wie jegliche ökonomische Aktivität (hauptsächlich Konsum) CO2 Emissionen verursachen, welche wiederum für Veränderungen im Klima verantwortlich gemacht werden. Diese Veränderungen im Klima gehen mit lokalen Wohlfahrtsverlusten einher. Nationale Politikmaßnahmen wie zum Beispiel Maßnahmen zur Einkommensumverteilung können einen ambivalenten Einfluss auf CO2 Emissionen haben. Politikmaßnahmen um das Konsumverhalten und Konsummuster zu beeinflussen könnten ein effizientes Mittel zur Regulierung von CO2 Emissionen in reichen Ländern darstellen. Generell könnten internationale Klimapolitikmaßnahmen nationale Politikmaßnahmen katalysieren.
Possibilities and consequences of deregulation of the European electricity market for connection of heat sparse areas to district heating systemsAmiri, Shahnaz, Moshfegh, Bahram January 2010 (has links)
The objective of the study is to analyse the conditions for connection of residential buildings in heat sparse areas to district heating systems in order to increase electricity production in municipal combined heat and power plants. The European electricity market has been assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of heat sparse areas, increased electricity and heat production as well as electricity prices, fuel prices and emissions rights is investigated. The results of the study show that there is potential to expand the district heating market to areas with lower heat concentrations in the cities of Gavle, Sandviken and Borlange in Sweden, with both economic and environmental benefits. The expansion provides a substantial heat demand of approximately 181 GWh/year, which results in an electricity power production of approximately 43 GWh/year. Since the detached and stand-alone houses in the studied heat sparse areas have been heated either by oil boiler or by direct electricity, connection to district heating also provides a substantial reduction in emissions of CO2. The largest reductions in CO2 emissions are found to be 211 ktonnes/year assuming coal-fired condensing power as marginal electricity production. Connection of heat sparse areas to district heating decrease the system costs and provide a profitability by approximately 22 million EURO/year for the studied municipalities if the price of electricity is at a European level, i.e. 110 EURO/MWh. Sensitivity analysis shows, among other things, that a strong relation exists between the price of electricity and the profitability of connecting heat sparse areas to district heating systems. / Original Publication:Shahnaz Amiri and Bahram Moshfegh, Possibilities and consequences of deregulation of the European electricity market for connection of heat sparse areas to district heating systems, 2010, Applied Energy, (87), 7, 2401-2410.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.02.002Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam.http://www.elsevier.com/
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