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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Microglial-mediated inflammatory responses and perturbed vasculature in an animal model of inflamed Alzheimer's disease brain

Ryu, Jae Kyu 05 1900 (has links)
Chronic inflammation in response to Aß peptide deposits is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The inflammatory environment includes populations of reactive and proliferating microglia and astrocytes and perturbed vasculature. However, the association between activated glial cells and cerebrovascular dysfunction remain largely unknown. This study has used Aß1-42 intrahippocampal injection as an animal model of inflamed AD brain to characterize mechanisms of glial-vasculature responses as a basis for chronic inflammation. Preliminary findings suggested Aß1-42-injected brain demonstrated vascular remodeling including evidence for formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). This result led to study of the effects of the anti-angiogenic/anti-inflammatory compound, thalidomide on activated glial cells and perturbations in the vasculature in an Aß1-42 peptide-injected rat model. First, Aß1-42 injection was found to cause perturbations in vasculature including new blood vessel formation and increased BBB leakiness. Second, thalidomide decreased the vascular perturbations and the glial reactivity and conferred neuroprotection. Overall, these results suggest that altered cerebral vasculature is integral to the overall inflammatory response induced by peptide. Experiments then examined the level of parenchymal plasma proteins in brain tissue from AD and nondemented (ND) individuals. AD, but not ND, brain tissue demonstrated high levels of fibrinogen immunoreactivity (ir). Aß1_42 injection into the rat hippocampus increased the level of parenchymal fibrinogen, which was reduced by treatment with the defibrinogenating agent, ancrod. In addition, ancrod also attenuated microglial activation and prevented neuronal injury. Overall, these results demonstrate that extravasation of blood protein and a leaky BBB are important in promoting and amplifying inflammatory responses and causing neuronal damage in inflamed AD brain. Microglial chemotactic responses to VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) receptor Flt-1 were next studied. Treatment with a monoclonal antibody to Flt-1 (anti-Flt-1 Ab) in the peptide-injected hippocampus diminished microglial reactivity and provided neuroprotection. Secondly, anti-Flt-1 Ab inhibited the AI3142-induced migration of human microglia. These results suggest critical functional roles for Flt-1 in mediating microglial chemotaxis and inflammatory responses in AD brain. The overall conclusion from my work is that AP deposits induce microglial reactivity which subsequently causes vascular remodeling resulting in an amplified inflammatory microenvironment which is damaging to bystander neurons.
2

Microglial-mediated inflammatory responses and perturbed vasculature in an animal model of inflamed Alzheimer's disease brain

Ryu, Jae Kyu 05 1900 (has links)
Chronic inflammation in response to Aß peptide deposits is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The inflammatory environment includes populations of reactive and proliferating microglia and astrocytes and perturbed vasculature. However, the association between activated glial cells and cerebrovascular dysfunction remain largely unknown. This study has used Aß1-42 intrahippocampal injection as an animal model of inflamed AD brain to characterize mechanisms of glial-vasculature responses as a basis for chronic inflammation. Preliminary findings suggested Aß1-42-injected brain demonstrated vascular remodeling including evidence for formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). This result led to study of the effects of the anti-angiogenic/anti-inflammatory compound, thalidomide on activated glial cells and perturbations in the vasculature in an Aß1-42 peptide-injected rat model. First, Aß1-42 injection was found to cause perturbations in vasculature including new blood vessel formation and increased BBB leakiness. Second, thalidomide decreased the vascular perturbations and the glial reactivity and conferred neuroprotection. Overall, these results suggest that altered cerebral vasculature is integral to the overall inflammatory response induced by peptide. Experiments then examined the level of parenchymal plasma proteins in brain tissue from AD and nondemented (ND) individuals. AD, but not ND, brain tissue demonstrated high levels of fibrinogen immunoreactivity (ir). Aß1_42 injection into the rat hippocampus increased the level of parenchymal fibrinogen, which was reduced by treatment with the defibrinogenating agent, ancrod. In addition, ancrod also attenuated microglial activation and prevented neuronal injury. Overall, these results demonstrate that extravasation of blood protein and a leaky BBB are important in promoting and amplifying inflammatory responses and causing neuronal damage in inflamed AD brain. Microglial chemotactic responses to VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) receptor Flt-1 were next studied. Treatment with a monoclonal antibody to Flt-1 (anti-Flt-1 Ab) in the peptide-injected hippocampus diminished microglial reactivity and provided neuroprotection. Secondly, anti-Flt-1 Ab inhibited the AI3142-induced migration of human microglia. These results suggest critical functional roles for Flt-1 in mediating microglial chemotaxis and inflammatory responses in AD brain. The overall conclusion from my work is that AP deposits induce microglial reactivity which subsequently causes vascular remodeling resulting in an amplified inflammatory microenvironment which is damaging to bystander neurons.
3

Rôle du TNFR2 exprimé à la surface des lymphocytes T régulateurs dans l’inflammation dépendante du TNFα / Role of TNFR2 on Tregs in TNF-α-mediated inflammation

Santinon, François 04 April 2018 (has links)
La polyarthrite rhumatoïde (PR) est une maladie inflammatoire chronique d’étiologie inconnue. L’inflammation présente dans cette pathologie est fortement dépendante de la cytokine pro-inflammatoire qu’est le TNFα. Cette molécule possède deux récepteurs : le TNFR1 et le TNFR2. Le TNFR1 est un récepteur exprimé à la surface de toutes les cellules. L’activation de sa voie de signalisation déclenche la mort cellulaire et elle est souvent associée à des phénomènes inflammatoires. Le TNFR2, quant à lui, est exprimé à la surface des cellules immunitaires, des cellules endothéliales et des cellules neuronales. L’activation de la signalisation du TNFR2 conduit à la survie et à la prolifération cellulaire. Le TNFR2 est de plus, associé à des mécanismes anti-inflammatoires. Les lymphocytes T régulateurs (Treg), cellules clé dans le contrôle de la réponse immunitaire, sont caractérisés par l’expression du facteur de transcription Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) et sont défectueux chez des patients atteints de PR. Ces cellules expriment les deux récepteurs du TNFα et sont capables d’inhiber l’action des cellules inflammatoires et particulièrement des T effecteurs par différents mécanismes d’immunosuppression. Les Treg exprimant le TNFR2 représentent la population la plus immunosuppressive actuellement recensée. L’objectif de notre travail a été de mieux comprendre le rôle des Treg exprimant le TNFR2 dans le contrôle de l’inflammation dépendante du TNFα. Tout d’abord, nous avons montré que la signalisation TNFα-TNFR2 sur les Treg augmentait le maintien de l’expression de FoxP3 ainsi que la prolifération de ces cellules. L’expression du TNFR2 est en outre liée à une stabilité accrue de ces cellules. Ces résultats peuvent expliquer le rôle important que pourraient jouer les Treg TNFR2+ dans le contrôle de l’inflammation dépendante du TNFα. Afin de confirmer cette hypothèse, nous avons démontré, dans deux modèles expérimentaux d’inflammation dépendants du TNFα (arthrite et psoriasis), que les Treg TNFR2+ jouaient un rôle prépondérant dans le contrôle de l’inflammation. Enfin, des expériences effectuées chez des patients atteints de PR ont mis en évidence que les traitements anti-TNFα conduisaient à une augmentation de la fréquence des Treg TNFR2+ circulants chez des patients répondeurs. En démontrant le rôle prépondérant des Treg TNFR2+ dans la résolution de l’inflammation, ce travail ouvre la voie vers l’élaboration de thérapies ciblant le système TNFα/TNFR plus spécifiques pour le traitement de la PR et d’autres pathologies dépendantes du TNF. / Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. In this pathology, inflammation is mainly dependent on the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα. This molecule acts through two receptors: TNFR1 and TNFR2. TNFR1 is expressed on almost all cell types. Activation of this pathway mainly leads to cell death and is often associated with pro-inflammatory response. In contrast, TNFR2 is expressed on immune, epithelial and neuronal cells. Activation of TNFR2 signaling triggers cellular survival and cell proliferation. Furthermore, TNFR2 pathway is associated with anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a pivotal role in the control of inflammation and are defective in RA. They are characterized by the expression of transcriptional factor Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3). Tregs express both TNFα receptors and are able to inhibit inflammatory cells, specifically effector T cells using various immunosuppressive mechanisms. Treg expressing TNFR2 have been identified as the most suppressive Treg population. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of TNFR2+ Tregs in TNFα mediated - inflammation by. Firstly, we have shown that TNFα-TNFR2 signaling on Tregs increased their proliferation and helped to maintain FoxP3 expression. Moreover, TNFR2 expression was associated with increased Treg stability. These results could explain the potential role of TNFR2+ Tregs in control of TNFα mediated - inflammation. To confirm this hypothesis, we demonstrated, in two models of inflammation mediated by TNFα (arthritis and psoriasis), that TNFR2+ Tregs play a major role in the control of inflammation. Finally, our experiments in RA patients highlighted that anti-TNFα treatments increased circulating TNFR2+ Treg frequency in responder RA patients. By demonstrating the major role of TNFR2+ Tregs in resolution of inflammation, our work paves the way for therapies targeting more specifically TNFα/TNFR system to cure RA and others TNFα - mediated pathologies.
4

Microglial-mediated inflammatory responses and perturbed vasculature in an animal model of inflamed Alzheimer's disease brain

Ryu, Jae Kyu 05 1900 (has links)
Chronic inflammation in response to Aß peptide deposits is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The inflammatory environment includes populations of reactive and proliferating microglia and astrocytes and perturbed vasculature. However, the association between activated glial cells and cerebrovascular dysfunction remain largely unknown. This study has used Aß1-42 intrahippocampal injection as an animal model of inflamed AD brain to characterize mechanisms of glial-vasculature responses as a basis for chronic inflammation. Preliminary findings suggested Aß1-42-injected brain demonstrated vascular remodeling including evidence for formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). This result led to study of the effects of the anti-angiogenic/anti-inflammatory compound, thalidomide on activated glial cells and perturbations in the vasculature in an Aß1-42 peptide-injected rat model. First, Aß1-42 injection was found to cause perturbations in vasculature including new blood vessel formation and increased BBB leakiness. Second, thalidomide decreased the vascular perturbations and the glial reactivity and conferred neuroprotection. Overall, these results suggest that altered cerebral vasculature is integral to the overall inflammatory response induced by peptide. Experiments then examined the level of parenchymal plasma proteins in brain tissue from AD and nondemented (ND) individuals. AD, but not ND, brain tissue demonstrated high levels of fibrinogen immunoreactivity (ir). Aß1_42 injection into the rat hippocampus increased the level of parenchymal fibrinogen, which was reduced by treatment with the defibrinogenating agent, ancrod. In addition, ancrod also attenuated microglial activation and prevented neuronal injury. Overall, these results demonstrate that extravasation of blood protein and a leaky BBB are important in promoting and amplifying inflammatory responses and causing neuronal damage in inflamed AD brain. Microglial chemotactic responses to VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) receptor Flt-1 were next studied. Treatment with a monoclonal antibody to Flt-1 (anti-Flt-1 Ab) in the peptide-injected hippocampus diminished microglial reactivity and provided neuroprotection. Secondly, anti-Flt-1 Ab inhibited the AI3142-induced migration of human microglia. These results suggest critical functional roles for Flt-1 in mediating microglial chemotaxis and inflammatory responses in AD brain. The overall conclusion from my work is that AP deposits induce microglial reactivity which subsequently causes vascular remodeling resulting in an amplified inflammatory microenvironment which is damaging to bystander neurons. / Medicine, Faculty of / Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Department of / Graduate
5

Vulvar vestibulitis syndrome : an ultrastructural and epidemiological investigation

Sargeant, Penelope January 1996 (has links)
Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome (VVS) is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the vestibular epithelium of the vulva, which has been estimated to affect 15% of the female population (Goetsch, 1991). Many studies have attempted unsuccessfully, to elucidate the cause of this condition, and few advancesh ave beenm adet owards the understandingo f the associatedin flammatory responseT. he initial, and principal aim of this investigation was to characterise normal vestibular epithelium using electron microscopy. The ultrastructural characteristics of normal vestibular epithelium were compared with closely related epithelia, and with vestibular epithelia from VVS patients. Other aims included an investigation of the epidemiological characteristics of VVS; an assessmenot f vulvar sensitivity over several months, and an evaluation of ketoconazole as a non-invasive treatment for VVS. Transmission electron microscopy, confirmed that vestibular epithelium was non-keratinised, and closely resembled oral and vaginal mucosae. Intermediate cells were predominant, characterised by pale staining cytokeratin filaments and glycogen deposits. Leukocytes were present in small numbers. Using SEM, superficial cells were characterised by an interlacing network of rounded microridges. By comparison, vestibular epithelium from VVS patients demonstrated the presence of numerous, intensely staining, apoptotic-like cells. These cells were associated with membrane bound cytoplasmic lobules and leukocytes of varying types. A similar ultrastructural appearance was observed in post-treatment biopsies. However, apoptotic-like cells appeared heavily vacuolated, and the number of cytoplasmic bodies present was increased. Mature plasma cells, NK-like cells and macrophages were common in the dermis. Leukocyte counts, demonstrated a significantly greater number of leukocytes in the VVS biopsies compared with the controls, however, there was no statistical difference in the number of leukocytes in pre and post-treatment samples. The presence of apoptotic-like cells accompanied by a significant inflammatory cell infiltrate, may suggest a cell signalling defect, resulting in the pain associatedw ith VVS. Treatment with ketoconazolec ream was found to have very little effect on either the number of leukocytes or the frequency of apoptotic-like cells as quantified using image analysis. The epidemiological characteristics of VVS patients were investigated using a structured questionnaire interview. All of the VVS patients interviewed fulfilled the diagnostic criteria established by Friedrich (1987), and epidemiological findings were generally consistent with previous epidemiological reports. Unique to this study, HPV infections were rare, however recurrent Candida infections and cystitis were commonly reported. The 'Vulvar Algesiometer', was designed and developed in Plymouth, to assist diagnosis and assessmenot f VVS patients. Using this equipment, VVS patients demonstrate heightened vestibular sensitivity when compared with control patients. The utilisation of a pain measuring device the 'Vulvar Algesiometer', in accordance with the questionnaire and ultrastructural investigation has formed a novel and balanced approach to the study of VVS. This study has demonstrated several distinct features of VVS which have not previously been described, features which may be important in elucidating the cause of this condition. These features centre around the presence of apoptotic-like cells and associated cytoplasmic bodies which have not previously been described in association with VVS.
6

Porphyromonas gingivalis innate immune evasion contributes to site-specific chronic inflammation

Slocum, Connie 08 April 2016 (has links)
Several successful pathogens evade host defenses resulting in the establishment of persistent and chronic infections. One such pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, induces chronic low-grade inflammation associated with local inflammatory oral bone loss and systemic inflammation manifested as atherosclerosis. The pathogenic mechanisms contributing to P. gingivalis evasion of host immunity and chronic inflammation are not well defined. P. gingivalis evades host immunity at Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 through expression of an atypical lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that contains lipid A species that exhibit TLR4 agonist or antagonist activity or fail to activate TLR4. By utilizing a series of P. gingivalis lipid A mutants we demonstrated that expression of antagonist lipid A structures resulted in weak induction of proinflammatory mediators. Moreover, expression of antagonist lipid A failed to activate the inflammasome, which correlated with increased bacterial survival in macrophages. Oral infection of atherosclerotic prone apolipoprotein E (ApoE) deficient mice with the antagonist lipid A strain resulted in vascular inflammation characterized by macrophage accumulation and atherosclerosis progression. In contrast, a P. gingivalis strain expressing exclusively agonist lipid A augmented levels of proinflammatory mediators and activated the inflammasome in a caspase-11 dependent manner, resulting in host cell lysis and decreased bacterial survival. ApoE deficient mice infected with the agonist lipid A strain exhibited diminished vascular inflammation. Notably, the ability of P. gingivalis to induce local inflammatory oral bone loss was independent of lipid A expression, indicative of distinct mechanisms for induction of local versus systemic inflammation by this pathogen. We next investigated the role of TLRs and lipid A on bacterial trafficking by the autophagic pathway. Originally characterized as a cell autonomous pathway for recycling damaged organelles and proteins, autophagy is now recognized to play a critical role in innate defense and release of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β. We demonstrated that P. gingivalis suppresses the autophagic pathway in macrophages for pathogen survival and intercepts autophagy-mediated IL-1β release. P. gingivalis-mediated suppression of autophagy was independent of lipid A expression but partially dependent on TLR2 signaling. Collectively, our results indicate that P. gingivalis evasion of innate immunity plays a role in chronic inflammation.
7

An investigation of the interconnections between aging, chronic inflammation, and anti-viral immunity

Yuen, Rachel Ruby 15 March 2022 (has links)
Global lifespans are longer than ever before and there is an increasing shift towards a more aged global population. Also, the majority of severe disease and deaths in the recent and ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is found in individuals over 60 years of age. Therefore, there is an urgent need to gain insight into how the immune system changes with age; specifically: (1) what are the drivers of chronic, systemic inflammation (‘inflammaging’) that occur in some but not all older individuals and (2) how, in turn, numerical aging and chronic inflammation collide to impact anti-viral immunity and lead to poor infection outcomes. In this body of work, two focused research questions were addressed as part of an overarching goal to determine the links between numerical age, chronic inflammatory status, and immune cell function. First, the role of iNKT cells in the inflammation found with ART-suppressed HIV infection and aging was studied, and second, connections between age and pre-existing immunity to SARS-CoV-2 were investigated. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a unique, innate-like T cell subset known to bridge innate and adaptive immune responses and can exert inflammatory and immunosuppressive effector functions. The role of iNKT cells in the chronic inflammation found with ART-suppressed HIV infection and/or normal aging is unclear. Therefore, iNKT cell frequencies and surface phenotypes were measured from a HIV and Aging cohort comprised of ART-suppressed HIV+ subjects and matched uninfected controls stratified by age into younger and older groups and iNKT cell signature were correlated with plasma markers of chronic inflammation. Specific characteristics of iNKT cells were associated with aviremic HIV infection and/or advanced age, and distinct links between iNKT cell signatures and markers of chronic inflammation were found. Further, multivariate analysis (PLS-DA) of the collected dataset revealed that iNKT cell and plasma markers stratified younger from older subjects within both the uninfected and aviremic HIV+ groups. Older age is arguably the strongest predictor of severe clinical outcomes and mortality after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The role of pre-existing, cross-reactive immunity in COVID-19 outcomes is unclear to date. A newly developed, highly sensitive serological assay (the BU ELISA) was used to elucidate links between pre-existing immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and age. We found SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) and/or nucleocapsid protein (N) reactive antibodies (IgG, IgM, and/or IgA isotypes) in all pre-pandemic subjects tested, with a wide range in antibody levels. SARS-CoV-2 reactive immunoglobulin levels tracked with antibodies specific for analogous viral proteins from endemic coronavirus strains and were lowest in subjects over 70 years of age compared with younger counterparts. In sum, these findings provide evidence of lower pre-existing immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in elderly individuals, and this may account for their poor infection outcomes. In conclusion, the findings in this work provide new insight into the impact of age and chronic inflammation on productive and protective immune responses. These results underscore the need for further investigations into the immune cell mechanisms and inflammaging pathways that subvert healthy aging.
8

Discovery of an Allosteric Site on Furin, contributing to Potent Inhibition: A Promising Therapeutic for the Anemia of Chronic Inflammation

Gross, Andrew Jacob 01 July 2014 (has links)
Release Date: October 2017 Anemia of chronic inflammation (ACI) is a condition that develops in a setting of chronic immune activation. ACI is characterized and triggered by inflammatory cytokines and the disruption of iron homeostasis. Hepcidin, a small peptide hormone, is the master regulator of iron homeostasis, and rapidly responds to iron supply and demand. Under conditions of chronic inflammation, hepcidin is elevated, and alters the way that iron is absorbed and disrupted throughout the body, resulting in disrupted iron homeostasis through inhibition of the iron exporter protein ferroportin. Anemia arises when insufficient erythropoietic activity combined with inadequate iron supply abrogates the healthy development of mature red blood cells (RBCs). The proprotein convertase (PC) known as furin is a serine protease capable of cleaving peptide precursors into their active state. Furin is critical for normal activation of proteins and enzymes but recently, furin has been implicated in critical roles within cancers, viral and pathogenic infections, and arthritis through activating precursors novel to the disease type. Furin has previously been identified as being the sole PC responsible for generating active hepcidin. Hepcidin is initially synthesized as a larger precursor protein, before undergoing furin cleavage. Furin is known to form mature, bioactive hepcidin, with the removal of this pro-region. Our discovery of a novel regulatory site on Furin has led to potent inhibition using small molecules. This inhibition is shown with the use of in vitro fluorogenic assays, in vivo cell tissue cultures, and within an animal model of ACI. Our results demonstrate that in using these small molecules we can decrease hepcidin levels even in the presence of potent inflammatory cytokines. The inhibition of hepcidin by these small molecules causes an increase in stably expressed ferroportin on cell surfaces and the restoration of the ability to mobilize iron from storage tissues and absorption from the diet. The ability to "fine-tune" inhibition of furin in targeting its allosteric site along with its catalytic domain designates these small-molecule inhibitors as promising therapeutics for treatment of diseases ranging from Alzheimer's and cancer to anthrax and Ebola fever.
9

Non-resolving pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization by super-low doses of bacterial endotoxin

Rahtes, Allison Anne 10 January 2020 (has links)
Subclinical endotoxemia (low levels of circulating bacterial endotoxin) has been observed in patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and obesity. However, the link between this condition and chronic inflammation is poorly understood. Previous work from our lab has shown that chronic exposure to super-low doses of bacterial endotoxin (LPS) aggravates atherosclerosis resulting in increased plaque size and instability in a macrophage-dependent manner in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Further, we showed that super-low dose LPS (SLD-LPS) treatment was able to inhibit lysosomal fusion in immortalized macrophages. However, this was done under more acute treatment conditions. The aim of this project was to examine the molecular mechanisms by which chronic SLD-LPS may polarize macrophages to a non-resolving pro-inflammatory state consistent with chronic inflammation. This was carried out in two projects, the first a more broad phenotypic paper showing the disruption in homeostasis by chronic SLD-LPS in immortalized macrophages, while the second uses primary bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages to identify specific molecular signaling pathways used by chronic SLD-LPS. Here we show that chronic SLD-LPS led to the novel upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators p62 and ccl2 with simultaneous downregulation of homeostatic mediators Nrf2 and slc40a1 in immortalized wild-type mouse macrophages. Further we showed this effect was reversed using the homeostatic restorative agent sodium phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), a newly reported activity for this reagent in mouse macrophages. This indicated that a disruption in homeostasis, possibly involving autophagy, may be responsible for the non-resolving pro-inflammatory polarization of macrophages. Therefore, in our second project, we further explored the effect of chronic SLD-LPS treatment on the homeostatic arm of the response by focusing on the Nrf2 inhibitor Keap1. Here we show that chronic SLD-LPS results in an accumulation of Keap1 in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages, an effect specific to chronic SLD-LPS, as high doses of LPS failed to induce Keap1. We suggest that this effect may be related to a disruption in lysosomal fusion as evidenced by accumulation of autophagy flux markers MLKL and p62. Further, we show that these effects are dependent on the non-traditional TLR4 adaptor TRAM, suggesting an alternative dose-dependent signaling pathway for LPS. Together this work identifies novel signaling mechanisms involved in non-resolving pro-inflammatory polarization of murine macrophages, providing new insight behind how chronic super-low dose LPS exposure may lead to chronic inflammation. / Doctor of Philosophy / Inflammation is the body's natural response to injury or insult and can be beneficial in certain contexts such as pathogen clearance. However, left un-checked, chronic inflammation can exacerbate or even lead to disease pathology, such as is the case with modern diseases such as atherosclerosis, obesity, diabetes, etc. Despite the high prevalence of these diseases, effective treatments and therapies are still lacking. Recently it was discovered that many patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases had low levels bacterial endotoxin (LPS) in their circulation, a condition referred to as subclinical endotoxemia. However, possible links between this condition and chronic inflammatory disease remain poorly understood. Using a mouse model of atherosclerosis, previous research from our lab showed that persistent exposure to super-low doses of bacterial endotoxin (similar to those observed in humans) lead to aggravated atherosclerosis with both increased plaque size and instability. Further, we showed that this effect was primarily mediated by pro-inflammatory polarized immune cells called macrophages, but the molecular mechanism behind this polarization is still unclear. Further research into these molecular mechanisms may provide better targets for the development of future chronic inflammatory disease treatments. Here using a combination of mouse cell line and primary cell cultures, we discuss how chronic exposure to super-low doses of bacterial endotoxin leads to the chronic non-resolving pro-inflammatory polarization of macrophage immune cells, with particular emphasis on the distinct molecular signaling mechanisms induced by chronic super-low dose LPS.
10

IL-17A RNA aptamer: possible therapeutic potential in some cells, more than we bargained for in others?

Doble, R., McDermott, M.F., Cesur, O., Stonehouse, N.J., Wittmann, Miriam January 2014 (has links)
No

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