Murphy, Stephen C.
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Wisconsin--Madison. / Typescript. eContent provider-neutral record in process. Description based on print version record. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 107-111).
Myers, Gilbert H.
Thesis--Wisconsin. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 72-75).
Jolley, William Ronald
03 January 1973
Excystation of coccidian oocysts is accomplished in vitro by altering wall permeability with CO2 and a reducing agent, then activating the enclosed sporozoites with a solution of trypsin and bile. Elucidation of the mechanism of action of the CO2-reducing agent treatment was the basic intent of this study. Oocysts of Eimeria stiedae (rabbit) and E. tenella (chicken) were tested for the presence of an excystation-associated enzyme by incubating sporulated oocysts in fluids extracted from variously treated oocysts, and by carbon-14 labelling; the effect of CO2 -reducing agent treatment on oocyst walls was investigated by titration with acid or base for secondary bonding groups, or with dithionitrobenzoate (DTNB) for sulfhydryl groups. Electron microscopy was used to observe some effects of the excystation treatment. An excystation-associated enzyme was not found. Sulfhydryl groups appear to be present in the walls of both species. The DTNB titration indicated an increase in such groups with E. stiedae after outer wall removal and/or exposure to CO2-reducing agent treatment. A similar increase was not seen with E. tenella. Carbon dioxide probably acts as an allosteric affector, enabling the reducing agent to attack wall-stabilizing disulfide bonds in oocyst walls, thereby altering the permeability of the walls by reducing such bonds to sulfhydryl groups.
Matjila, Paul Tshepo.
Thesis (MSc. (Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Veterinary Science)--University of Pretoria, 2000. / Also available in print format.
Effects of dietary enzyme supplementation on performance, bone ash, small intestinal morphology, and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of broilers exposed to a live coccidia oocyst vaccineWalk, Carrie L. 22 September 2009 (has links)
A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary enzyme supplementation in broilers exposed to a live coccidia oocyst vaccine. In each experiment, Cobb 500 broilers were obtained at day of hatch from a commercial hatchery. Half of the chicks were sprayed with Coccivac BTM and housed in battery brooders in experiment (EXP) 1 and 2 or floor pens (EXP 3). Experimental diets were formulated according to Cobb 500 nutrient recommendations (positive control; PC) with the exception of Ca and available P (aP), which were reduced in the negative control (NC) diets approximately 0.1% (EXP 1), 0.11 and 0.13%, respectively (EXP 2), and 0.13% (EXP 3). Negative control diets in EXP 1 were supplemented with phytase (PHY), protease (PRO), xylanase (XYL), and the combination of PHY+PRO, PHY+XYL, and PHY+PRO+XYL. Negative control diets in EXP 2 were supplemented with PHY A, PHY B, and PHY C. In EXP 3, PC diets were supplemented with PHY at 1000 FTU/kg, and NC diets were supplemented with PHY at 1000 or 5000 FTU/kg. In all three experiments PHY supplementation generally improved (P â ¤ 0.05) broiler performance and bone ash. Vaccination reduced (P â ¤ 0.05) broiler performance in EXP 1 and 3, but increased (P â ¤ 0.05) broiler performance in EXP 2. Xylanase and/or PHY supplementation tended to improve (P = 0.10) ileal amino acid digestibility (IAAD) in vaccinated broilers in EXP 1 and EXP 3. Phytase supplementation improved (P â ¤ 0.05) IAAD and vaccination reduced (P â ¤ 0.05) IAAD in EXP 3. Small intestinal morphology and goblet cell numbers were affected by enzyme supplementation and vaccination, which resulted in significant (P â ¤ 0.05) interactions. In general, vaccination increased (P â ¤ 0.05) small intestinal crypt depth and reduced (P â ¤ 0.05) goblet cell numbers in EXP 3. Phytase supplementation of the NC diets fed to vaccinated broilers ameliorated the reduction in ileal goblet cells associated with vaccination (EXP 3). Enzyme supplementation tended to improve nutrient digestibility and altered small intestinal morphology in vaccinated broilers. Vaccination reduced broiler performance but nutrient digestion and dietary enzymes may improve nutrient utilization during a coccidia vaccination. / Ph. D.
Hassan, Sherif Mohamed
15 May 2009
Three saponin-rich extracts (20, 60, 100% methanol), four 100% methanol subfractions and seven independently acquired fractions (A-G) from guar meal, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. (syn. C. psoraloides), were evaluated for antimicrobial and hemolytic activities. These activities were compared against quillaja bark (Quillaja saponaria), yucca (Yucca schidigera), and soybean (Glycine max) saponins in 96-well plates using eight concentrations (0.01 to 1.0 and 0.1 to 12.5 mg extract/mL). Initial guar meal butanol extract was 4.8 ± 0.6% of the weight of original material dry matter (DM). Butanol extract was purified by preparative reverse-phase C-18 chromatography. Two fractions eluted with 20, and one each with 60, and 100% methanol with average yields of 1.72 ± 0.47, 0.88 ± 0.16, 0.91 ± 0.16 and 1.55 ± 0.15% of DM, respectively. Further purification of the 100% methanol fraction using normal-phase silica gel preparatory high pressure liquid chromatography eluted 4 peaks at 16, 39, 44 and 46 min. Only the 100% methanol fraction, its 16 min peak, F and G fractions, and quillaja saponin, exhibited both hemolytic and antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli, but 20 and 60% methanol fractions stimulated Lactobacillus spp. growth. Guar meal (0 or 5%) was added to diets fed to chicks from 1 to 21 days of age. Chicks fed both diets were unchallenged or challenged with 5 x 103 Eimeria tenella sporulated oocysts at 10 days. Guar meal diets reduced oocysts shed per gram of feces, body weight, and feed efficiency. Adding 2.5% guar meal, 1% guar gum, or 0.125% saponin-rich guar meal extract to diets fed to chicks to 21 days of age showed that guar meal increased the cfu concentrations of digesta more than controls following a challenge with 107 cfu of Clostridium perfringens at 14 days. Body weights of chicks fed guar meal and saponin-rich extract were significantly lower than control body weights at 21 days of age, whereas the weekly feed to gain ratio of chicks fed saponin-rich extract was higher than controls. Guar meal reduced severity of Eimeria tenella infection and guar saponin-rich extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against several common poultry pathogens.
The seasonality of parasites in Illinois house sparrows (Passer domesticus) : effect of stress on infection parameters /Gibson, Tiffany C. M., January 2010 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (M.S.)--Eastern Illinois University, 2010. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 55-64).
The master thesis is aimed to evaluate intestinal parasites occurrence in a goat breeding. A herd of goats chosen for this survey was kept by a private enterprise focused on milk production. The practical research was conducted during two years, 2009 and 2010. Samples of feaces were collected during that period and analyzed for parasites occurrence. The analyses proved presence of the following parasites: Trichuris ovis, parasites from the order Strongylida, Fasciola hepatica, Dicrocellium lanceatum and coccidia. Total prevalence was significant; 85% of the samples were found to be positive. Species from the order Strongylida were identified as the most often 41,46 %, which meant 199 cases from the total of 509. During the examined period, the highest prevalence of parasites was detected in summer 2009, the second highest then in spring 2010.
Validação da técnica TF-Test Coccidia para detecção de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp. em crianças de pré-escola e seus respectivos cães (Canis familiaris) /Nagata, Walter Bertequini. January 2019 (has links)
Orientador: Sílvia Helena Venturoli Perri / Resumo: A criptosporidiose e a giardíase são doenças gastrointestinais, com distribuição cosmopolita, causada, respectivamente, por um protozoário coccídio intracelular obrigatório e um parasito flagelado, que pode afetar humanos e animais. O objetivo neste projeto foi detectar por meio da técnica TF-Test Coccidia e pela reação em cadeia da polimerase (RCP), a ocorrência do Cryptosporidium spp. e a Giardia spp. em crianças de pré-escola e seus respectivos cães (Canis familiaris) do Município de Araçatuba, São Paulo, de maneira inédita. Para a identificação dos oocistos do parasito supramencionado foi empregada a nova técnica parasitológica TF-Test Coccidia e RCP. A partir da análise destas amostras, verificou-se que 35,00% (35/100) das crianças estavam infectadas por alguma espécie de parasito intestinal, sendo que 5,00% eram positivas microscopicamente para Cryptosporidium spp. e 30,00% para Giardia spp. Nos cães, 3,13% (1/32) foram considerados positivos para Giardia spp., embora nenhum animal apresentasse oocisto de Cryptosporidium spp. nas fezes. Pela PCR 3,00% das crianças foram positivas para Cryptosporidium spp. e 35,00% para Giardia spp.. Enquanto que para os cães, pela mesma técnica molecular, nenhum animal foi considerado positivo para Cryptosporidium spp. e apenas 6,25% foram positivos para Giardia spp.. Dessa forma, foi verificado que a técnica parasitológica TF-Test Coccidia apresentou boa concentração e morfologia dos parasitos encontrados, com baixa quantidade de debri... (Resumo completo, clicar acesso eletrônico abaixo) / Abstract: Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are gastrointestinal diseases with cosmopolitan distribution, caused respectively by a compulsory intracellular coccidial protozoan and a flagellated parasite, which can affect humans and animals. The objective of this project was to detect by the technique TF-Test Coccidia and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in pre-school children and their respective dogs (Canis familiaris) from the Municipality of Araçatuba, São Paulo. For the identification of oocysts of the parasite the new parasitological technique TF-Test Coccidia and PCR were used. From the analysis of these samples, it was verified that 35.00% (35/100) of the children were infected by some kind of intestinal parasite, and 5.00% were microscopically positive for Cryptosporidium spp. and 30,00% for Giardia spp.. In dogs, 3.13% (1/32) were considered positive for Giardia spp., although no animal presented Cryptosporidium spp. Oocyst. in the stool. By PCR 3.00% of the children were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. and 35.00% for Giardia spp.. While for dogs, by the same molecular technique, no animals were considered positive for Cryptosporidium spp. and only 6.25% were positive for Giardia spp.. Thus, was verified that the parasitological technique TF-Test Coccidia presented good concentration and morphology of the parasites found, with a low amount of debris in the fecal smear. For the first time, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia... (Complete abstract click electronic access below) / Doutor
Brown, James Carson
01 August 1976
Isospora canis (Protozoa:Nemeseri, 1959) is an important coccidian parasite of domestic dogs. Ingestion of the sporulated oocysts causes the release of sporozoites which invade the epithe-lial lining of the intestine. Schizogony and gametogony take place in the epithelial tissue resulting in a massive proliferation of the parasite and extensive destruction of the intestinal cells (Lepp and Todd, 1974). Severe infections cause loss of appetite, diarrhea and dysentery (Levine, 1973).
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