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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Training for optimising internal task transfer in the acquisition of process control skills

Kontogiannis, Thomas January 1989 (has links)
The aim of this thesis is to investigate the acquisition of different elements of process control skills and how the transfer between task elements contributes to the acquisition of the overall task. Process control tasks are very complex cognitive tasks consisting of a number of subordinate task elements such as procedure-following, diagnosis, & monitoring, whose execution must be planned carefully in order to meet the system goal. In the past, research emphasis has focused upon training these subordinate tasks separately, ignoring the possibility that performance at one element would benefit from or interfere with mastery of another. Understanding these possible 'internal transfer' phenomena will influence training design. It would also influence issues of work design, including allocation of functions, since tasks designed to enable practice of the constituent elements to support each other would counterbalance problems associated with infrequent use of skills in automated plants. This thesis has focused upon the development of training methods to optimise transfer of knowledge and skills, assisting trainees to integrate different task elements within the overall process control task they need to master. The transfer of training literature was reviewed in order to identify major variables influencing transfer. To provide a framework for utilising previous empirical findings in examining transfer of complex process control skills, a model of Hierarchical Task Analysis was developed which described the task in terms of a limited number of operations and plans. A major hypothesis put forward in the thesis is that 'task elements with similar forms of plans and operations may prompt an individual to adopt similar cognitive processes and transfer will be observed'. The size of transfer, however, would be determined by the learning conditions under which the original task elements were acquired. To examine the influence of learning conditions upon transfer of task elements, four training methods were developed based upon a theoretical model of transfer which was integrated with the hierarchical task analysis. A large scale experiment was conducted in order to investigate the effects of the four training methods upon learning two similar tasks, in the context of starting-up a distillation column. This task was simulated in a microcomputer. The two tasks were designed to share common task elements but were different in terms of the required product specifications. Twenty-eight postgraduate students took part in a training course which lasted for eight hours approximately. The subjects were assigned to the following four experimental conditions: (i) the procedures-group which was provided with efficient procedures; (ii) the analysis-group which received additional explanations about the interaction of goals described in the procedures; (iii) the model-group which was provided with a structural model of the plant, but with no procedures; and (iv) the practice-group which learned the tasks by practice and which was used as a control condition. The model of learning was used to make transfer predictions and generate five experimental hypotheses which were tested in the main study; one hypothesis was concerned with the acquisition of the original task, two of them with the transfer of task elements and the other two with nonspecific transfer effects. For a number of performance measures such as speed, control performance and economy of operation, the procedures- and analysis- groups performed the original task better than the other groups. The model-group was faster than the practice-group; however, their control and economy aspects of performance were equivalent. An 'in-depth' analysis of the control actions and verbal protocols showed that the model-group continued to experiment with' the process, putting into practice the theory of plant which was taught to them. Performance at the transfer task indicated that all groups performed better than the practice-group, which provides support for the hypothesis that 'task elements similar in form may prompt an individual to adopt similar cognitive processes and transfer may occur'. However, the procedures-group degraded its performance and appeared to be inferior to both the analysis- and modelgroups, which may indicate that some kind of extrinsic information in the form of planning or conceptual knowledge would be required to optimise transfer. On the other hand, the analysis-group was faster than the model-group, but no significant differences were reported with respect to other measures of performance. On practice with a successive transfer task of the same kind, the observed patterns of performance changed. Only the analysis-group was significantly better than the practice-group, the other groups having scored in between these two groups. This finding has highlighted the role of practice in an interactive learning environment provided by the plant simulator. Although the experimental design attempted to control for nonspecific transfer effects by maximising the number of 'common' task elements between the original and transfer tasks, the individual differences observed and the changes in the kind of plans developed by trainees have indicated that such transfer effects have actually taken place. This was expected to occur to a certain extent, and two hypotheses had been formulated in order to examine this issue by looking into the types of planning and conceptual knowledge which supported transfer. As it was expected, the analysis- and model- groups achieved higher nonspecific transfer scores than the other groups which were measured in terms of the amount of disturbance caused to previously established parameters and the number of questions answered in a questionnaire administered in the end of the study. An interesting result, however, was that the practice-group appeared to be better than the procedures-group in this respect; this may be accounted for by the fact that the former group was more actively engaged in learning the original task. Finally, the thesis has investigated the transfer of the three subordinate goals common to both the original and transfer tasks. An important factor which has influenced the different degrees at which these goals were transferred was the degree of flexibility entailed in their performance. The thesis concludes with an evaluation of its own approach and suggestions for future research.
2

A computer method for the induction of concrete operational thought in mentally retarded or learning disabled persons

Pollicina, Carmelo January 1999 (has links)
No description available.
3

Grit and Second Language Acquisition: Can Passion and Perseverance Predict Performance in Japanese Language Learning?

Yamashita, Takuhiro 12 July 2018 (has links)
This paper examines the relationship between grit and learners’ performance in Japanese language learning. Grit is one’s personality trait which is defined as “perseverance and passion for long-term goal” (Duckworth et al., 2007). The purpose of this quantitative study is to determine whether there were relationships between learners’ grit scores and their performance in two different types of Japanese language classrooms:teacher-centered beginning and intermediate Japanese language courses and student-centered Japanese extensive reading courses. Regarding the study of extensive reading courses, students’ subjective evaluation were used to observe their performance instead of an objective achievement test. There were 78 students who agreed to participate in total. Of all participants, 34 students were taking introductory level Japanese, 27 students were taking the intermediate level, and 17 students were taking a Japanese extensive reading course. The results revealed that participants’ grit scores did not appear to be related to their performance in the introductory language course. Interestingly, in the intermediate course, perseverance subscores of grit measured by the 10-item grit scale were negatively correlated with the students’ performance, with no connection apparent between their grades and grit scores. The results might be attributed to some external factors: such as the process of language learning and students’ academic majors. On the other hand, in the student-centered Japanese extensive reading course, some tendencies of positive correlation were seen between participants’ grit scores and the changes of their subjective evaluation between the beginning and the end of the semester. These findings suggest the possibility that individuals’ grit scores are related to their performance in different ways between teacher-centered and student-centered Japanese language learning.
4

The role of executive functioning and perspective-taking in facilitating children's socially competent behaviours

Huyder, Vanessa January 2010 (has links)
Behaving in a socially competent manner (i.e., interacting with other social actors in an effective manner by adjusting one’s goals and behaviours according to the demands of various social situations) is a complex process that requires various cognitive skills. The purpose of the current study was to determine the unique contributions of executive functions, theory of mind and verbal skills to socially competent behaviours in either a cooperative or a competitive context. The impact of manipulating children’s perspective-taking (e.g., taking the perspective of another person) on their socially appropriate behaviours was also investigated. Pairs of children completed a cooperative and a competitive social task together and were assigned to either focus on their own or another’s perspective. Children then completed measures of executive functioning, theory of mind, and verbal skills. Results revealed that executive functioning was related to more appropriate social behaviours in the cooperative task, even when controlling for theory of mind and verbal skills; however, this relation was not found in the competitive task. Furthermore, there was no significant effect of the manipulation of perspective-taking on children’s behaviours. These findings indicate that executive functions make a unique contribution to children’s socially competent behaviours in a cooperative social context.
5

Cognition in orienteering

Eccles, David January 2001 (has links)
No description available.
6

Towards a universal model of reading investigations into Persian monolingual and English-Persian bilingual speakers

Sadeghi, Amir January 2013 (has links)
The research reported in this thesis aimed to investigate potential cognitive-linguistic predictors of reading comprehension levels amongst Persian monolingual and Persian-English bilingual primary school children. The Persian orthography, unlike English, is written from right to left. It is cursive and most of the letters change their shape when connecting to letters on one or both sides. The orthography also has the feature of using marks to represent sounds within the language. These marks are not always included in written text, particularly when the text is targeted at more experienced readers. Over 200 school-children in Iran from grades 2 to 5 were given measures of text reading comprehension involving Cloze completion or passages followed by questions. Comprehension levels were compared to scores on measures of language competence, phonological ability, orthographic processing and speed of processing. Analyses indicated that Persian reading comprehension levels, consistent with English models of reading, were predicted by measures of linguistic competence and word decoding, with the latter being predicted by phonological and orthographic processing skills. However, orthographic skills and speed of processing showed predictions of Persian reading comprehension independent of word decoding processes, findings that differed to those predicted from the English-language derived models. These findings were examined among over 150 Persian-English bilingual children in Persian grades 2 to 5 who attending mainstream schools in New Zealand or Australia. These children were being educated in an English medium context, but with Persian as their home language. Analyses of predictors of reading levels verified the findings reported from the monolingual data. In addition, comparisons of good and poor reading comprehenders argued for deficits in either language or word decoding skills to potentially produce different sub-groups of poor readers, with the findings also being consistent with deficits in phonological decoding and/or orthographic processing skills consistent with dual-route or triangle models of literacy learning disabilities. The thesis findings were used to derive a model of Persian reading comprehension similar to the simple view of reading. The findings can also inform the development of cross-language models of reading and global theories of reading comprehension.
7

The role of executive functioning and perspective-taking in facilitating children's socially competent behaviours

Huyder, Vanessa January 2010 (has links)
Behaving in a socially competent manner (i.e., interacting with other social actors in an effective manner by adjusting one’s goals and behaviours according to the demands of various social situations) is a complex process that requires various cognitive skills. The purpose of the current study was to determine the unique contributions of executive functions, theory of mind and verbal skills to socially competent behaviours in either a cooperative or a competitive context. The impact of manipulating children’s perspective-taking (e.g., taking the perspective of another person) on their socially appropriate behaviours was also investigated. Pairs of children completed a cooperative and a competitive social task together and were assigned to either focus on their own or another’s perspective. Children then completed measures of executive functioning, theory of mind, and verbal skills. Results revealed that executive functioning was related to more appropriate social behaviours in the cooperative task, even when controlling for theory of mind and verbal skills; however, this relation was not found in the competitive task. Furthermore, there was no significant effect of the manipulation of perspective-taking on children’s behaviours. These findings indicate that executive functions make a unique contribution to children’s socially competent behaviours in a cooperative social context.
8

The immigrant experience : networks, skills and the next generation

Bonikowska, Aneta Kinga 11 1900 (has links)
This thesis explores several issues in the adaptation process of immigrants and their children in Canada. Chapter 2 investigates why second-generation immigrants are better educated than the remaining population. Using a standard human capital framework where individuals choose how much to invest in both their children's and their own human capital, I show that a gap in education can arise in the absence of differences in unobservable characteristics between immigrants and the native born. Rather, it can arise due to institutional factors such as imperfect transferability of foreign human capital and credit constraints. The model's key implication is a negative relationship between parental human capital investments and children's educational attainment, particularly in families with uneducated parents. I find strong empirical evidence of such tradeoffs in human capital investments occurring within immigrant families. Chapter 3 re-assesses the effect of living in an ethnic enclave on labour market outcomes of immigrants. I find evidence of cohort effects in the relationship between mean earnings and the proportion of co-ethnics in the CMA which vary by education level. Next, using information on the proportion of one's friends who share one's ethnicity, I test a common assumption that the enclave effect is a network effect. I find that traditional, geography-based measures of the ethnic enclave effect capture the impact of factor(s) other than social networks. In fact, the two effects generally offset each other to some degree in determining immigrant employment outcomes. Neither measure has a statistically significant effect on average immigrant earnings, at least in cross-sectional data. Chapter 4, co-authored with David Green and Craig Riddell, tests two alternative theories about why immigrants earn less than native-born workers with similar educational attainment and experience - discrimination versus lower skills (measured by literacy test scores). We find that immigrant workers educated abroad have lower cognitive skill levels (assessed in English or French) than similar native-born workers. This skills gap can explain much of the earnings gap. At the same time, foreign-educated immigrants receive no lower returns to skills than the native born. These results offer strong evidence against the discrimination hypothesis.
9

The immigrant experience : networks, skills and the next generation

Bonikowska, Aneta Kinga 11 1900 (has links)
This thesis explores several issues in the adaptation process of immigrants and their children in Canada. Chapter 2 investigates why second-generation immigrants are better educated than the remaining population. Using a standard human capital framework where individuals choose how much to invest in both their children's and their own human capital, I show that a gap in education can arise in the absence of differences in unobservable characteristics between immigrants and the native born. Rather, it can arise due to institutional factors such as imperfect transferability of foreign human capital and credit constraints. The model's key implication is a negative relationship between parental human capital investments and children's educational attainment, particularly in families with uneducated parents. I find strong empirical evidence of such tradeoffs in human capital investments occurring within immigrant families. Chapter 3 re-assesses the effect of living in an ethnic enclave on labour market outcomes of immigrants. I find evidence of cohort effects in the relationship between mean earnings and the proportion of co-ethnics in the CMA which vary by education level. Next, using information on the proportion of one's friends who share one's ethnicity, I test a common assumption that the enclave effect is a network effect. I find that traditional, geography-based measures of the ethnic enclave effect capture the impact of factor(s) other than social networks. In fact, the two effects generally offset each other to some degree in determining immigrant employment outcomes. Neither measure has a statistically significant effect on average immigrant earnings, at least in cross-sectional data. Chapter 4, co-authored with David Green and Craig Riddell, tests two alternative theories about why immigrants earn less than native-born workers with similar educational attainment and experience - discrimination versus lower skills (measured by literacy test scores). We find that immigrant workers educated abroad have lower cognitive skill levels (assessed in English or French) than similar native-born workers. This skills gap can explain much of the earnings gap. At the same time, foreign-educated immigrants receive no lower returns to skills than the native born. These results offer strong evidence against the discrimination hypothesis.
10

The relationship between achievement on the test of cognitive skills and the Stanford-Binet intelligence scale : fourth edition for elementary school students / Achievement on the test of cognitive skills and the Stanford-binet intelligence scale.

Blood, Beverly A. January 1989 (has links)
For many school psychologists the constraints of time create a need to identify an instrument that can be used to screen students referred for comprehensive psychoeducational evaluations. This study examined the relationship between scores students obtained on the group-administered Test of Cognitive Skills (TCS) and those they obtained on the individually administered Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition (SB:FE). Comparisons were made between the Cognitive Skills Index (CSI) and Sattler's Factor scores from the SB:FE, and between the CSI and the SB:FE Composite score.The subjects were 75 elementary public school students who were enrolled in regular education classes at least 50% of their school day. The students were referred for comprehensive evaluations because of concern about their academic progress. Archival data from tests administered during the 1987-1988 school year were gathered from the students' cumulative school files.Pearson product moment correlations indicate that (in the sample studied) there was a significant positive correlation between the CSI scores and each of the Factor scores and the Composite scores. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures were used to test mean differences. The data indicate that there was no statistically significant difference between the mean score of the CSI and the Verbal Comprehension Factor score, nor between the CSI and Memory Factor. However, the Nonverbal Reasoning/Visualization and Composite means differed significantly from the CSI mean.The results of this study suggest that the CSI can make a worthwhile contribution to referral information. Correlational and mean difference data derived from this study demonstrate the need for caution when interpreting and applying statistical findings. Additional research is needed to clarify further the relationship among group-administered and individually administered intelligence tests, and between the SB:FE and other individually administered intelligence tests. / Department of Educational Psychology

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