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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
31

Elektronisk signatur : Hur säkra är elektroniska signaturer ur avtalsrättslig synpunkt?

Levén, Malin January 2005 (has links)
<p>Communication between parties in an important process in their relationship can be based on a contract. This communication can for exemple be composed by a handwritten contract or an electronic contract. Contract law makes no difference between these two forms. to create more favourable requirements for commencing a contract or an ongoing contract there are possibilities to use standard agreements. Therefore a contract can be based on the will of the parties or on a standard agreement.</p><p>An electronic signature shall secure that electronic transferred information has not been altered and also to identify the sender of the information. By way of encryption information in a document is guarded from unauthorized acess. Electronic signatures are produced by using encryption technology which is devided into two groups, symmetrical and asymmetrical encryption. It is possible to secure this encryption in a "smart card" which functions like a charge card. To verify a signature is just as important as using encryption to secure information. A third party can be engaged by both parties. A company or a public authority can be engaged as long as they have no interest in the intermediary information. Who this third party is can be confirmed in a certificate. This certificate can also consist of details about the sender confirming that it is the right party.</p><p>Existing legislation is available since swedish contract law is applicable on electronic contracts and signatures. Two EC-directives concerning this area are also available for the parties to apply when using electronic contracts. Both directives are acknowledging electronic contracts and signatures the same legal effect as other forms of contracts, like handwritten and oral ones. Further they do not accept national laws that are making it difficult or that are forbidding the use of electronic communication.</p>
32

Viljeförklaring vid elektroniska avtal : Utredning av lagmodellens tillämplighet

Bromander, Sandra January 2010 (has links)
Sammanfattning Syftet med denna kandidatuppsats är att utreda huruvida det föreligger viljeförklaringar vid elektroniska avtal samt utreda om den svenska lagmodellen för avtalsslut går att till-lämpa på sådana avtal. Regler om avtals uppkomst på förmögenhetsrättens område, finns att finna i avtalslagen. I motiven till avtalslagen framkommer det att avtal uppkommer genom sammanfallande viljeförklaringar. På senare tid har dock viljeförklaringsbegreppet inom doktrinen på förmögenhetsrättens område utgjort grunden för många och djupa diskussioner. Vid av-talsslut genom dagens elektroniska medel kan det ibland vara svårt att urskilja en vilja, då kommunikationen är automatiserad. Detta har inneburit utmaningar för rättsordning-en och det har diskuterats huruvida viljeförklaringar är och borde vara ett grundrekvisit för att ett avtal ska anses kunna uppkomma. För att utreda huruvida det kan anses föreligga en viljeförklaring vid elektroniska avtal, är det av vikt att veta vad lagstiftaren har avsett med begreppet. Det har uttryckts att en viljeförklaring är en ensidig manifesterad vilja som har till syfte att grundlägga, föränd-ra eller upphäva ett rättsförhållande. Enligt mig kan avtal via elektroniska medel uppkomma främst genom tre olika model-ler. Första modellen är genom elektronisk post och chatt, där båda parterna agerar ak-tivt. Andra modellen är där ena parten agerar aktivt medan andra parten verkar genom automatiserade meddelanden, så som vid exempelvis webbutiker. Den tredje avtalsmo-dell är där båda parterna verkar genom automatiserade viljeförklaringar. De olika modellerna innehåller olika krav av svårighet att sammankoppla den faktiska viljan med ett givet uttryck. För mig är det dock möjligt att se en viljeförklaring i samt-liga modeller. Även om kommunikation via helt automatiserade rutiner inte helt sam-manfaller med viljeförklaringsbegreppet, är förfarandet för mig så pass nära besläktat, att det ändå bör behandlas som sådant. Efter genomförd utredning har jag kommit till den slutsatsen att avtalslagen enligt dess nuvarande utformning, fortfarande går att tillämpa på elektroniska avtal. Lagen har ett brett tillämpningsområde då den är teknikneutral och dess bakomliggande tanke om vil-jeförklaringar, är fortfarande applicerbar.
33

UNIDROIT Principles, PECL och DCFR i svensk rättspraxis

Mahal, Mandip January 2010 (has links)
International Contract Law presently offers three sets of principles: the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts (the UNIDROIT Principles), the Principles of European Contract Law (the PECL) and the Draft Common Frame of Reference (the DCFR). These sets of principles contain general principles which are intended to serve as model rules. The three sets of principles have been published, but they have not been adopted. The UNIDROIT Principles and the PECL are not meant to be adopted either. There are different opinions as to whether the sets of principles can be considered to be a source of legal status at all. The sets of principles have been referred to in Swedish law. Swedish case law – in which the principle collections are mentioned – serves as guidance to when these sets can be expected to be part of Swedish law since the UNIDROIT Principles, the PECL and the DCFR not are regulations. Four cases from the 21st century have been found in which the sets of principles have been mentioned. A principle from the DCFR was applied by the Swedish Supreme Court in the case NJA 2009 s. 672 – which was one of the four cases that were found. An analysis was made in order to identify similarities and differences as to when the UNIDROIT Principles, the PECL and the DCFR previously have been mentioned in Swedish case law. It has been difficult to find similarities in the four cases that were found. Neither the form of contract, the contract-type, nor the presence of any international dimension in the proceedings were common denominators. One common denominator was however the Justice Council named Torgny Håstad. Håstad being one of the judges in each of the four cases – he was also one of the judges in the case NJA 2009 s. 672. It is particularly noteworthy since Håstad has been involved in the European project which resulted in the DCFR. The absence of a clear pattern on when the principle collections are mentioned in Swedish case law shows that the legal certainty might be at risk. The legal certainty is endangered since it in present time seems to be necessary to see to which judges and referees are ruling in the case and their respective personal attitude towards the UNIDROIT Principles, the PECL and/or the DCFR.
34

Vyčíslování nároků u výstavbových projektů realizovaných podle smluvních vzorů FIDIC / Assessment of claims in construction projects implemented using FIDIC contract templates

Jegorova, Anastázie January 2017 (has links)
The aim of this thesis is to put the liability obligations arising from the FIDIC contract templates into the context of the current Czech legislation, while uncovering potential conflict areas and evaluating the pros and potential risks arising from the use of these contract templates in the Czech construction industry. The first part of the thesis contains characteristics of all components of civil liability, defines its role in the legal and theoretical field and lays the basis for the practical conclusion in the second part, which focuses in more detail on the treatment of liability obligations under the FIDIC contracts. To illustrate these conclusions, the comparison is made on a particular narrow issue of the quantification of the claims of the parties arising from the above-mentioned liability obligations.
35

Srovnání institutů consideration a kauzy v smluvním právu / Comparison of contract law institutes - consideration and cause

Šebeková, Veronika January 2008 (has links)
This master thesis focuses on a comparison of two contract law institutes -- consideration and cause. While the former is an Anglo-American legal concept, the later is of civil law origin. The goals of this comparative study are as follows: 1. to analyze consideration and cause with the emphasis on the problematic aspects; 2. to compare the institutes with regard to their function in contracts formation; 3. to assess their reasonableness and consider alternative solutions which could better comply with the requirements of modern contract law. The structure of the paper corresponds to the above-mentioned aims.
36

Internacionalizační tendence v závazkovém právu se zaměřením na smluvní právo / Internationalization tendencies in obligation law with a focus on contract law

Svoboda, Martin January 2021 (has links)
Internationalization tendencies in obligation law with a focus on contract law Abstract This thesis deals with the harmonisation and unification of the law of obligations, mainly contract law at international, European as well as at national level. Emphasis is placed on the historical context, the current regulation at all three levels and the identification of individual problems. The first part of this thesis is devoted to a general introduction of the topic. It is divided into four parts, first explaining the concept of internationalisation in general and then introducing the different kinds. The first chapter introduces the concept of private international law, including European private international law. The second chapter is devoted to legal unification and harmonization at the international level. The third chapter deals with the Europeanization of the law of obligations, and the fourth and final chapter outlines the issue of comparative jurisprudence. The second part is devoted to the need and feasibility of legal unification, again both at the international and European levels. This part discusses the various individual problems, such as the ways of implementation, and the problems posed by efforts to harmonise legal systems and unify the regulation of contract law. The individual problems are...
37

Exécution en nature du contrat - Etude comparative du droit français et du droit vietnamien / Specific performance – A comparative study of French and Vietnamese Law

Thai, Thanh hien 08 December 2014 (has links)
Le contrat constitue l’un des facteurs clés qui permet aux parties qui y expriment leur volonté d’obtenir chacune un gain dans l’échange. Considéré comme l’un des principaux mécanismes juridiques d’organisation de la vie économique, le contrat contribue effectivement au développement économique d’un pays. Les échanges économiques, qu’il s’agisse de marchandises ou de services, dépassent largement aujourd’hui les frontières des Etats. Ce phénomène nécessite incontestablement la connaissance réciproque des droits nationaux respectifs par les cocontractants de nationalités différentes. L’étude comparative des droits français et vietnamien se limite à l’exécution en nature du contrat, au besoin, sous la contrainte judiciaire. Plusieurs problématiques émergent autour cette sanction de l’inexécution du contrat : Existe-il un principe général d’exécution en nature du contrat, au besoin, sous la contrainte judiciaire ? Le juge est-il obligé d’ordonner une exécution en nature lorsque cette dernière est sollicitée par la partie envers laquelle l’engagement n’a pas été exécuté ? Quelle décision prendra le juge lorsque le créancier – victime d’une obligation inexécutée –, à sa requête, désire obtenir soit une exécution en nature soit une résolution du contrat ? Quelle décision prendra le juge lorsque l’exécution en nature du contrat est devenue impossible ou interdite par la loi ? Les réponses à ces questions permettent de parvenir à résoudre le problème de l’articulation entre l’exécution en nature et d’autres remèdes à l’inexécution du contrat. Apparaissent également d’autres questions notamment de savoir quelles sont les solutions permettant de renforcer l’exécution en nature du contrat, comment est mise en œuvre l’exécution en nature du contrat, quels sont les moyens de défense que les droits français et vietnamien mettent à la disposition des parties contractantes lors de la mise en œuvre de l’exécution en nature du contrat, bien d’autres encore au-dessus desquelles il faudra toujours se demander lequel, des systèmes français et vietnamien, répond le mieux à ces interrogations.C’est donc à tous ces questionnements que cette étude « Exécution en nature du contrat – étude comparative du droit français et du droit vietnamien » va tenter d’apporter des réponses. Ils seront repris dans chaque système juridique afin de faire ressortir les points de convergence, de divergence et dégager ainsi les perspectives pour les droits français et vietnamien en la matière. Plus largement, l’étude des droits français et vietnamien sur l’exécution en nature du contrat, s’il forme la matière même de ce travail de recherche, ne seront pas les seuls à être envisagés. Dans le vaste mouvement mondial d’intégration économique, la référence à d’autres systèmes juridiques peut également apporter des expériences, des réflexions et des enrichissements législatifs et juriprudentiels au profit des droits français et vietnamien relatifs à l’exécution en nature du contrat. / Economic exchange, whether it is goods or services, goes far beyond today’s borders. This phenomenon undoubtedly requires mutual understanding of respective national laws by the co-contractor parties of various nationalities. The comparative study of French and Vietnamese Law is limited to specific performance and legal measures of constraint. Therefore, several issues emerge around the sanction applied for a breach of contract: - Is there a general principle of specific performance? And, if needed, can legal measures of constraint be imposed? - Is the judge obliged to order specific performance when the party for whose benefit an undertaking has not been performed requests it?- What decisions will the judge take about the creditor’s request, party that is victim of the breach, who is seeking either for a specific performance or to have the contract rescinded?- What decisions will the judge take when specific performance has become impossible or prohibited by the law?The answers to these questions will help solve the problem of relationship between specific performance and other remedies for breach of contract. Other issues are also raised regarding the solutions to enhance and implement specific performance, the defences that French and Vietnamese Law provide to the contracting party to implement specific performance… In order to answer those questions, and many others, we should ask ourselves which of French and Vietnamese Law best applies. Therefore, this study entitled “Specific performance – a comparative study of French and Vietnamese Law” will attempt to provide answers to these questions. These matters will be taken up in each legal system in order to bring out the points of convergence, divergence and thus identify opportunities for French and Vietnamese Law on the subject. This comparative study shows that French and Vietnamese law face a number of points in which solutions converge. At first, we can notice that these two legal systems favor specific performance to other sanctions for breach of contract, namely the price reduction, contract termination or damages. In order to protect the creditor, French and Vietnamese contract law allow to combine specific performance with other sanctions provided they are compatible, which is notably the case for damages. In the name of contractual freedom, specific performance and its combination with other sanctions can also be appointed by mutual agreement of the parties.More broadly, the study of French and Vietnamese Law on specific performance, which is the very substance of this research, will not only be the ones to be considered. In the vast movement of global economic integration, referring to other legal systems can also provide better insights on contract law and, thus, will permit to update legislation and judicial interpretation in favor of French and Vietnamese Law related to specific performance.
38

A evolução da teoria contratual e os seus reflexos na teoria do risco : a hipótese do risco econômico imprevisto como integrante autônomo do conteúdo do contrato

Rohenkohl, Caio Eduardo January 2017 (has links)
O trabalho estuda a evolução da teoria geral dos contratos e os seus reflexos na teoria do risco contratual, tendo como ponto de partida o direito contratual clássico do século XIX e o paradigma da autonomia da vontade. No novo direito contratual do século XX em diante, a análise toma como fio condutor as obras de Emilio Betti e de Karl Larenz, dentro do que se pode considerar o novo paradigma do direito contratual: a regulação e a satisfação de interesses privados mediante critérios de autonomia e heteronomia. O objetivo específico desse estudo é verificar a hipótese de que a teoria atual tenha (ou não) enfrentado o problema econômico dos riscos imprevistos dentro da idéia de "economia interna do contrato", tratando o risco econômico imprevisto como um integrante do conteúdo do contrato com autonomia diante da prestação. O caminho percorrido pelo trabalho identifica que o direito contratual tem sua estrutura teórica construída sobre uma concepção formalista de contrato, segundo a qual essa figura jurídica é uma entidade com existência própria, a qual está centrada na noção jurídica-formal de "obrigação de prestar". Mesmo que, com a evolução do direito contratual, tal estrutura tenha passado a contar com uma função a ser desempenhada na vida real, o trabalho conclui que a teoria continua sem tratar adequadamente o risco econômico imprevisto, porque tal função permanece limitada pela noção jurídico-formal de "obrigação de prestar". / This dissertation studies the evolution of contract law theory and its influences on the legal theory of contractual risk. It begins with the classic theory of the 19th century and the will theory paradigm within it; from the 20th century onwards, the main analysis is based on the works of Emilio Betti and Karl Larenz, alongside with the new paradigm that pursues concrete interests through the combination of private autonomy and private heteronomy. The specific purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that the current theory may have (or may have not) dealt with the economic problem of unforeseen risks by utilizing the idea of economic balance of contract, insofar as to consider the unforeseen economic risk as an autonomous factor in the content of contracts. The research identifies that the theoretical structure of contract law is built over a formalist conception of contract, according to which the contract is an entity with selfexistence, one that is exclusively centered on the notion of "duty to pay". Although the evolution of contract law has given a function to this structure to perform in society and between parties to a given contract, the dissertation concludes that the current theory is still limited by the notion of "duty to pay", and that the unforeseen economic risk has not yet been provided with an adequate legal treatment.
39

A evolução da teoria contratual e os seus reflexos na teoria do risco : a hipótese do risco econômico imprevisto como integrante autônomo do conteúdo do contrato

Rohenkohl, Caio Eduardo January 2017 (has links)
O trabalho estuda a evolução da teoria geral dos contratos e os seus reflexos na teoria do risco contratual, tendo como ponto de partida o direito contratual clássico do século XIX e o paradigma da autonomia da vontade. No novo direito contratual do século XX em diante, a análise toma como fio condutor as obras de Emilio Betti e de Karl Larenz, dentro do que se pode considerar o novo paradigma do direito contratual: a regulação e a satisfação de interesses privados mediante critérios de autonomia e heteronomia. O objetivo específico desse estudo é verificar a hipótese de que a teoria atual tenha (ou não) enfrentado o problema econômico dos riscos imprevistos dentro da idéia de "economia interna do contrato", tratando o risco econômico imprevisto como um integrante do conteúdo do contrato com autonomia diante da prestação. O caminho percorrido pelo trabalho identifica que o direito contratual tem sua estrutura teórica construída sobre uma concepção formalista de contrato, segundo a qual essa figura jurídica é uma entidade com existência própria, a qual está centrada na noção jurídica-formal de "obrigação de prestar". Mesmo que, com a evolução do direito contratual, tal estrutura tenha passado a contar com uma função a ser desempenhada na vida real, o trabalho conclui que a teoria continua sem tratar adequadamente o risco econômico imprevisto, porque tal função permanece limitada pela noção jurídico-formal de "obrigação de prestar". / This dissertation studies the evolution of contract law theory and its influences on the legal theory of contractual risk. It begins with the classic theory of the 19th century and the will theory paradigm within it; from the 20th century onwards, the main analysis is based on the works of Emilio Betti and Karl Larenz, alongside with the new paradigm that pursues concrete interests through the combination of private autonomy and private heteronomy. The specific purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that the current theory may have (or may have not) dealt with the economic problem of unforeseen risks by utilizing the idea of economic balance of contract, insofar as to consider the unforeseen economic risk as an autonomous factor in the content of contracts. The research identifies that the theoretical structure of contract law is built over a formalist conception of contract, according to which the contract is an entity with selfexistence, one that is exclusively centered on the notion of "duty to pay". Although the evolution of contract law has given a function to this structure to perform in society and between parties to a given contract, the dissertation concludes that the current theory is still limited by the notion of "duty to pay", and that the unforeseen economic risk has not yet been provided with an adequate legal treatment.
40

A evolução da teoria contratual e os seus reflexos na teoria do risco : a hipótese do risco econômico imprevisto como integrante autônomo do conteúdo do contrato

Rohenkohl, Caio Eduardo January 2017 (has links)
O trabalho estuda a evolução da teoria geral dos contratos e os seus reflexos na teoria do risco contratual, tendo como ponto de partida o direito contratual clássico do século XIX e o paradigma da autonomia da vontade. No novo direito contratual do século XX em diante, a análise toma como fio condutor as obras de Emilio Betti e de Karl Larenz, dentro do que se pode considerar o novo paradigma do direito contratual: a regulação e a satisfação de interesses privados mediante critérios de autonomia e heteronomia. O objetivo específico desse estudo é verificar a hipótese de que a teoria atual tenha (ou não) enfrentado o problema econômico dos riscos imprevistos dentro da idéia de "economia interna do contrato", tratando o risco econômico imprevisto como um integrante do conteúdo do contrato com autonomia diante da prestação. O caminho percorrido pelo trabalho identifica que o direito contratual tem sua estrutura teórica construída sobre uma concepção formalista de contrato, segundo a qual essa figura jurídica é uma entidade com existência própria, a qual está centrada na noção jurídica-formal de "obrigação de prestar". Mesmo que, com a evolução do direito contratual, tal estrutura tenha passado a contar com uma função a ser desempenhada na vida real, o trabalho conclui que a teoria continua sem tratar adequadamente o risco econômico imprevisto, porque tal função permanece limitada pela noção jurídico-formal de "obrigação de prestar". / This dissertation studies the evolution of contract law theory and its influences on the legal theory of contractual risk. It begins with the classic theory of the 19th century and the will theory paradigm within it; from the 20th century onwards, the main analysis is based on the works of Emilio Betti and Karl Larenz, alongside with the new paradigm that pursues concrete interests through the combination of private autonomy and private heteronomy. The specific purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that the current theory may have (or may have not) dealt with the economic problem of unforeseen risks by utilizing the idea of economic balance of contract, insofar as to consider the unforeseen economic risk as an autonomous factor in the content of contracts. The research identifies that the theoretical structure of contract law is built over a formalist conception of contract, according to which the contract is an entity with selfexistence, one that is exclusively centered on the notion of "duty to pay". Although the evolution of contract law has given a function to this structure to perform in society and between parties to a given contract, the dissertation concludes that the current theory is still limited by the notion of "duty to pay", and that the unforeseen economic risk has not yet been provided with an adequate legal treatment.

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