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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
11

Public dimensions of private contracting : the institutional ordering of trans-sectoral exchange in the NHS

Harries, Andrew William January 2002 (has links)
Socio-legal studies of the role of legal institutions in ordering contracting behaviour in both commercial and government sectors are in broad agreement that exchange is effected by a variety of legal, extra-legal and economic norms and modes of enforcement. The present study evaluates the adequacy of current socio-legal analyses of the use, function and relevance of legal institutions in contracting practice in the particular trans-sectoral context of NIHS purchasing of cleaning, catering, and computing services involving a regional health authority in the North of England. Rejecting an instrumentalist conception of the relationship between law and social action, the thesis analyses the static and dynamic dimensions of order in these transactions with reference to an institutionalist theoretical model distinguishing: first, institutional environment (formal structure); second, institutional arrangements (relational structure); and third, the processes through which these institutional levels are mediated and negotiated. The case studies demonstrate in depth how the NHS policy-regulatory context affected the form and degree of performance and risk planning; how the planning of contract contents was oriented to both rights-in-law and the business deal; how different co-operative outcomes resulted from the use, displacement and supplementation of contract in the governance of the transactions; and how decisionmaking in regard to the various uses and non-uses of contract was guided by common understandings ('norms about norms') about the institutional environment and governance of institutional arrangements. Two types of contractual orientation with different governance implications are distinguished: first, circumstances where contracting was regarded as part of NHS administration, and where the contract was supplemented mainly by administrative hierarchical norms; and second, where contract management occurred more independently of hierarchical influences, and where the contract was supplemented by norms more akin to those of ordinary commercial dealing. Generally, the key factor accounting for the quality of the newly established exchange relationships in the case studies is shown to be the influence of the NHS as a public purchasing organisation on the institutional environment of trans-sectoral exchange and on the institutional arrangements made within it.
12

Contract of mandate in Roman law

Watson, Alan January 1959 (has links)
No description available.
13

Australian estoppel and the protection of reliance

Spence, Michael January 1995 (has links)
This thesis focuses upon recent Australian developments in the law of estoppel. It provides a justification and basis in principle for the doctrine of estoppel described in cases such as Waltons Stores (Interstate) Ltd v Maher (1987-1988) 164 C.L.R. 387 and Commonwealth of Australia v Verwayen (1990) 170 C.L.R. 394. This basis is found in the principle that we ought all to take reasonable steps to ensure the reliability of the assumptions that we induce in others. Ensuring the "reliability" of an induced assumption means ensuring that a party who relies upon the assumption does not thereby suffer harm: harm in the sense that he is worse off because the assumption has proved unjustified than he would have been had it never been induced. The thesis suggests a pattern for the development of the Australian law of estoppel reflecting that basis in principle. It further demonstrates the potential usefulness of the doctrine with specific reference to (i) pre-contractual negotiations and letters of intent, (ii) firm offers to contract, (iii) variations of contract unsupported by consideration, and (iv) the "battle of forms".
14

Fundamental principles of insurance contract law and practice in the People's Republic of China : a comparative study with English and Australian counterparts

Jing, Zhen January 2001 (has links)
The Insurance Law 1995 (PRC) is the first comprehensive insurance legislation since the foundation of the People's Republic of China in 1949. It consists of insurance contract law and insurance regulation. This study concerns only the insurance contract law, focusing on three fundamental principles, namely the principles of insurable interest, utmost good faith, and subrogation. The main theme of this study is that, through examination and analysis, and by comparative methodology, of the provisions relating to the three principles, problems in these provisions are to be found and recommendations on how to amend them are to be proposed. It is intended this study will also help us to understand other similar problems in the whole Chinese insurance contract law. Many concepts adopted in the Insurance Law (PRC) are English in origin. This research attempts to trace the origin and the evolution of these concepts in England and to seek their real meanings in order to find and solve problems of confusions, ambiguities, contradictions and unfairness in Chinese insurance law. The Australian Insurance Contracts Act 1984 codifies the common law and insurance practice in Australia and mitigates the common law for its harshness to consumers and is regarded as a model for insurance law reform. So many Australian approaches are suggested as suitable to follow in order to amend Chinese law. This thesis starts with a brief introduction stressing the purpose and methodology of this research. Then the background is laid down concerning China's politics, economic reform, legal system and the development of China's insurance industry, under which the Insurance Law has been shaped. This is followed by three chapters - the main part of this study dealing with the three fundamental principles of the insurance contract law by examining and comparing the Chinese approach with the English and Australian counterparts. By doing so, problems in the Insurance Law are identified and better solutions are figured out. This research concludes with an emphasis on the urgency for amendment of the Chinese insurance contact law by summarising the preceding examination and analysis of the three principles. It finally ends with a number of proposed amendments of relevant provisions of the Insurance Law which it is hoped will provide useful models for the improvement of the whole Chinese insurance law.
15

Essai critique sur la théorie de l'accessoire en droit privé / The "accessoire" theory in French private law

Cottet, Marion 02 December 2011 (has links)
Viciée d’incohérences, la théorie de l’accessoire en droit privé mérite d’être repensée. De fait, la recherche des mécanismes à l’œuvre derrière cette théorie permet d’établir deux constats : en premier lieu, l’inopportunité de recourir à la théorie de l’accessoire pour fonder le mécanisme de l’accession ainsi que la dépendance substantielle des sûretés accessoires, quant à leur étendue et quant à leurs modalités, envers la créance qu’elles garantissent ; en second lieu, l’utilisation de la notion de fonction, latente en droit positif, sur laquelle repose la théorie de l’accessoire. Définie comme la contribution à l’accomplissement d’une finalité, la notion de fonction permet, notamment, en matière de contrat ou de clause contractuelle, de traduire l’intérêt économique de l’élément envisagé. Or, il apparaît nécessaire de recourir à cette notion de fonction pour fonder un renouvellement de la théorie de l’accessoire. En effet, d’une part, un raisonnement fondé sur la notion de fonction peut être substitué à la théorie de l’accessoire dans le rôle normatif qu’endosse celle-ci, c’est-à-dire pour justifier la dépendance existentielle de l’accessoire envers le principal : l’accessoire doit s’éteindre ou survivre à la disparition du principal, selon que sa fonction disparaît ou demeure. La notion de fonction permet, d’autre part, de renforcer le seul rôle de la théorie de l’accessoire qui devrait être maintenu en droit positif : son rôle conservatoire. Celui-ci consiste à conserver le lien d’accessoriété, afin que l’accessoire continue de remplir sa fonction auprès du principal. Cela se traduira notamment par une transmission simultanée de l’accessoire et du principal ou, en certains cas, par un dédoublement de la titularité ou de la propriété de l’accessoire. En définitive, le renouvellement de la théorie de l’accessoire devrait passer par une redéfinition des critères de l’accessoriété permettant, notamment, d’inclure dans le champ de la notion d’accessoire les dettes qu’il paraît souhaitable de voir circuler avec la propriété d’un bien. / The accessoire theory is used in French private law in an inconsistent way, due to its multiple applications. Therefore, it was necessary to study this theory and try to give it back some consistency so that it could be used predictably. In order to do that, we tried to identify the rules that are hiding behind the accessoire theory. We came to the conclusion that this theory should not be used to explain the mechanism of accession nor the dependence of the accessoire to the principal, especially in security law. We also brought to light the latent existence of a notion which is able to explain the accessoire theory in most of its applications, that is, the notion of function. This notion, which would allow judges to introduce the economic analysis into their reasoning, designates how a contract or a clause or an obligation contributes to achieve a certain economic result. If it was implemented in positive law, this notion of function could replace the accessoire theory in its normative role, which is to make the accessoire disappear along with the principal. The accessoire theory could then be confined to its preservative role, which is to maintain the link between the accessoire and the principal, in other words, to allow the accessoire to fulfil its function beside the principal. It appears thus that the accessoire theory can be renewed in a consistent way thanks to the notion of function. While carrying out such a renewal, we suggested to include personal burdens into the scope of the notion of accessoire, so that burdens responding to certain criteria can be transferred along, as accessories, with a property, as principal.
16

La constitutionnalisation du droit colombien des contrats : contribution à l'étude du droit transnational des contrats / The constitutionalization of colombian contract law

Acosta, Joaquin emilio 25 November 2016 (has links)
Traditionnellement, le droit des contrats de tradition romaniste a eu, pour l’essentiel, sa source dans la loi et notamment dans le Code civil. Ainsi les contractants ont disposé d’une grande liberté d’action juridique, car la plupart des lois régissant les contrats présentaient un caractère supplétif de la volonté individuelle. Cependant, cette primauté du législatif a été limitée par la promulgation des Constitutions d’après-guerre. En effet et incontestablement, les droits de l’homme sont à la mode, et cette vogue laisse son empreinte dans le droit des contrats. Désormais, il n’est plus possible au législateur de porter atteinte à certains principes ayant valeur constitutionnelle. De plus, ce système permet au juge constitutionnel contemporain d’annuler des dispositions législatives portant atteinte à des tels impératifs. De même, les gardiens des nouvelles constitutions s’octroient le pouvoir d’indiquer l’interprétation que les juges ordinaires doivent retenir des textes législatifs. De cette façon le juge constitutionnel devient un acteur important du droit des contrats dans la famille romaniste. Il émerge ainsi un évènement qui marque une nouvelle étape dans le développement du droit privé des contrats : sa constitutionnalisation. Or ce nouvel épisode donne lieu au débat sur une éventuelle remise en cause de l’ordre contractuel civiliste. / Traditionally, the law of contracts of Romani tradition has basically had its source in the law and in particular in the Civil Code. Thus the contracting parties had a great deal of legal discretion, since most of the laws governing contracts had a residual character of the individual will. However, this primacy of the legislature has been limited by the promulgation of the post-war Constitutions. Indeed and incontestably, human rights are the fashion, and this vogue leaves its imprint in the law of contracts. From now on, it is no longer possible for the legislator to violate certain principles having constitutional value. Moreover, this system allows the contemporary constitutional judge to annul statutory provisions that violate such imperatives. Similarly, the guardians of the new constitutions give themselves the power to indicate the interpretation that ordinary judges must adopt of the legislative texts. In this way the constitutional judge becomes an important actor of contract law in the Romanist family. Thus, an event marks a new stage in the development of private contract law: its constitutionalization. This new episode gives rise to the debate on a possible questioning of the contractual civil order.
17

Är en analogitillämpning av konsumenttjänstlagen möjlig på kollektivtrafik på väg och järnväg?

Rabe, Tore January 2006 (has links)
<p>I förarbetena till Konsumenttjänstlagen (1985:716) framförs att det är nödvändigt med lagstiftad reglering inom transporttjänster, däribland persontransporter. Det nämns även att att KtjL senare skulle kunna utökas till att gälla fler typer av tjänster än de i början avsedda. Lagstiftat konsumentskydd finns angående persontransporter i sjöfart, järnvägstrafik och luftfart samt paketresor. I dessa trafikslag samt i sjöfart har transportören ett lagstiftat ansvar gentemot passageraren vid förseningar, medan ett sådant ansvar saknas vid järnvägsbefordringar. Det saknas vidare i dagens läge lagstiftning som ger resenärer konsumentskydd vid vägtransporter. Reglering har istället utformats i form av resevillkor uppställda av de olika transportörer som finns inom persontransportområdet, det vill säga av motparten till resenären i avtalet om personbefordran. För att ett förtroende för, och ökning av, resor i kollektivtrafik skall finnas är det viktigt att resenärerna vet att de har vissa grundläggande rättigheter när de reser och att hänsyn tas till dessa rättigheter.</p><p>Syftet med denna magisteruppsats är att utreda om KtjL kan vara analogiskt tillämplig på avtal om personbefordran vad gäller kollektivtrafik på väg och järnväg. Förutsättningarna för en analogitillämpning av KtjL utreds för att kunna bedöma om en sådan tillämpning är tillämpbar på avtal om personbefordran på väg och järnväg. Uppsatsen avslutas med en bedömning av huruvida en analogitillämpning av KtjL är mer fördelaktig för resenärerna i jämförelse med det skydd som transportörernas resevillkor gör.</p>
18

Är en analogitillämpning av konsumenttjänstlagen möjlig på kollektivtrafik på väg och järnväg?

Rabe, Tore January 2006 (has links)
I förarbetena till Konsumenttjänstlagen (1985:716) framförs att det är nödvändigt med lagstiftad reglering inom transporttjänster, däribland persontransporter. Det nämns även att att KtjL senare skulle kunna utökas till att gälla fler typer av tjänster än de i början avsedda. Lagstiftat konsumentskydd finns angående persontransporter i sjöfart, järnvägstrafik och luftfart samt paketresor. I dessa trafikslag samt i sjöfart har transportören ett lagstiftat ansvar gentemot passageraren vid förseningar, medan ett sådant ansvar saknas vid järnvägsbefordringar. Det saknas vidare i dagens läge lagstiftning som ger resenärer konsumentskydd vid vägtransporter. Reglering har istället utformats i form av resevillkor uppställda av de olika transportörer som finns inom persontransportområdet, det vill säga av motparten till resenären i avtalet om personbefordran. För att ett förtroende för, och ökning av, resor i kollektivtrafik skall finnas är det viktigt att resenärerna vet att de har vissa grundläggande rättigheter när de reser och att hänsyn tas till dessa rättigheter. Syftet med denna magisteruppsats är att utreda om KtjL kan vara analogiskt tillämplig på avtal om personbefordran vad gäller kollektivtrafik på väg och järnväg. Förutsättningarna för en analogitillämpning av KtjL utreds för att kunna bedöma om en sådan tillämpning är tillämpbar på avtal om personbefordran på väg och järnväg. Uppsatsen avslutas med en bedömning av huruvida en analogitillämpning av KtjL är mer fördelaktig för resenärerna i jämförelse med det skydd som transportörernas resevillkor gör.
19

The impact of the China new work contract law on human resource management - the case of Taiwanese companies in Dongguan

Chen, Hsien-Hsiu 12 August 2008 (has links)
The labor costs and risk of law of industrial disputes in China will groundswell with the Labor Contract Law of the PRC which has been enforced on January 1st, 2008. After enforcing the law, the increasing costs such as severance pay, financial compensation fee, the earnest of staffing placement will be estimated; at present, the Taiwanese businessmen in Shanghai had estimated the labor costs of each employee will increase 50%. However, the invisible costs, impeding management, such as the employer¡¦s command will be negotiated from only hold in employers becomes on equal terms with employees, the employers perhaps turn to relative press, even operate the working time, time off arrangement, insurance and so on. All of these will increase difficulties on human resource management. The research attempts to analyze the Labor Contract Law of the PRC, evaluates strategies of legislation from reflecting background of draft to processing of adoption, and compares differences between the new and old Labor Contract Law of the PRC, especially the Taiwanese businessmen common usage logic of Labor Law to treat the relationship between employers and employees, all of these questions should be in new evaluation standards by legislation of the Labor Contract Law of the PRC. The research collected books, articles, literatures and practical opinions in recently years to compare and analyze the Labor Contract Law of the PRC, Labor Contract Law of R.O.C and Labor Contract Law in each Country. Otherwise, analyzing three traditional industries by ¡§Analytic Hierarchy Process¡¨ and the Pearl River Delta in Dongguan as an object practically to interview the directors of Taiwanese businessmen in department of human resource arrangement and realizes their opinions and defenses after executing the Labor Contract Law of the PRC. The results of research shows after executing the new Labor Contract Law, not only makes sure the setting procedure of the Collective Contract and emphasizes the efficacy of the Collective Contract and relationship with Labor Contract Law, but also firstly provides regulation for the regional and industrial Collective Contract and exclusively Collective Contract in Law. The regulation asserts and completes the Collective Contract system, and be more important consorting with relationship between employers and employees. It is the front burner that department of human resource arrangement should re-inspect whether the Labor Contract Law legal or not to avoid suddenly complication and compensation.
20

Kontraheringsplikt : juridiska förutsättningar för kontraheringsplikt på fjärrvärmemarknaden

Gustafsson, Anna January 2010 (has links)
Kontraheringsplikt är ett undantag från grundprincipen om avtalsfrihet och innebär att en part kan kräva att få ett avtal till stånd med en annan part utan att den andra parten har uttryckt sin vilja härom. Den innebär också att part kan kräva förnyelse eller fortsättning av ett avtalsförhållande, att det föreligger ett förbud att avbryta avtalsförbindelsen samt en viss standardisering av avtalsvillkoren, vilket oftast innebär att villkor som tillämpas på andra kunder ska gälla. Fjärrvärmemarknaden uppvisar likheter med andra områden där det föreligger kontraheringsplikt, men trots detta finns ingen lagstadgad kontraheringsplikt för fjärrvärme. Uppsatsens syfte är därmed att utreda huruvida det finns juridiska förutsättningar för att införa kontraheringsplikt på fjärrvärmemarknaden. Uppsatsen ger en allmän beskrivning av avtalsfriheten och dess begränsningar för att sedan smalna av i en av dessa begränsningar, kontraheringsplikten. Olika områden där det föreligger kontraheringsplikt har använts för att systematisera de juridiska förutsättningar som krävs för att kontraheringsplikt ska kunna föreligga. Dessa juridiska förutsättningar har sedan jämförts med fjärrvärmemarknaden och på ett objektivt sätt har det kunnat fastställas att det finns juridiska förutsättningar för att införa kontraheringsplikt på fjärrvärmemarknaden både vad gäller kontraheringsplikt för tredje parts tillträde till fjärrvärmeledning och kontraheringsplikt för kundens rätt till avtal om fjärrvärme.

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