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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

A comparative analysis of cultural influences on knowledge management approaches in Western and Eastern corporations : a preliminary study

Liu, Nan 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MComm)--Stellenbosch University, 2000. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Knowledge is generally regarded as a new competitive business resource in the information age. The leveraging of this resource has therefore become a significant concern of knowledge management. Knowledge management is not culturally neutral, however, and there seem to be differences between Western and Eastern knowledge management practices. In order to address these differences and determine their cultural roots, a comparative analysis of the cultural influences on knowledge management approaches in Western and Eastern corporations is needed. To fulfil this objective, it was firstly necessary to clarify the basic concept of knowledge, knowledge management and some relevant cultural issues. Secondly, specific Western and Eastern corporations were chosen as case studies, and their knowledge management approaches were analysed. In a third step, a comparative analysis was done between Western knowledge and Eastern knowledge management practices. The culturally determining factors are presented. In the second part of the study, the relationship between knowledge management and cultural issues was discussed. Since knowledge management is still in its infancy, this means that a common language is being established. Although the importance of corporate culture has been recognised, national cultural influences on knowledge management practices still need considerable scholarly attention. In the third part of the study, three national cultures were chosen to represent the Western and Eastern cultures. America and Sweden represent Western culture, while Japan represents Eastern culture. Several corporations, including IBM, Skandia, Toshiba, Sharp, were presented as case studies and their knowledge management approaches were analysed, e.g. tacit knowledge management focus, explicit knowledge management focus, knowledge creation, knowledge reuse, internal acquirement of knowledge, external acquirement of knowledge, etc. Based on the analysis of the Western and Eastern corporations' knowledge management practices, a comparative analysis was conducted to identify the role that national culture plays in corporate knowledge management. In the last part of the study, the conclusions indicated that national cultures do influence knowledge managers in their choice or omission of certain approaches to knowledge management. Following from this conclusion, several future research suggestions were proffered. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Kennis word oor die algemeen as 'n nuwe mededingende bron van die inligtingsera beskou. Die invloed van hierdie bron het dus 'n betekenisvolle aangeleentheid vir kennisbestuur geword. Kennisbestuur is egter nie kultureel-neutraal nie en daar is toenemende bewyse van verskille tussen Westerse en Oosterse kennisbestuurpraktyke. 'n Vergelykende analise van kultuurinvloede op die kennisbestuurbenaderings van Westerse en Oosterse ondernemings is nodig om hierdie verskille te bepaal en hul grondslae te ondersoek. Om aan hierdie doelstelling te voldoen was dit nodig om eers die basiese kennis- en kennisbestuurbegrippe en fundamentele kultuurdimensies te verklaar. Tweedens is spesifieke Westerse en Oosterse ondernemings gekies as gevallestudies en is hul onderskeie kennisbestuurbenaderings geanaliseer. Derdens is 'n vergelykende analise van Westerse en Oosterse kennisbestuurpraktyke gemaak. In die tweede gedeelte van hierdie studie word die verhouding tussen kennisbestuur en kulturele kwessies ontleed. Aangesien kennisbestuur nog in sy kinderskoene staan beteken dit dat 'n gemeenskaplike terminologie gebou moet word. Alhoewel die belangrikheid van korporatiewe kultuur al herken is, benodig die invloede van 'n nasionale kultuur op bestuurspraktyke nog aandag. In die derde gedeelte van hierdie studie word drie lande as die verteenwoordigers van Westerse en Oosterse kulture gekies. Amerika en Swede verteenwoordig Westerse kultuur, terwyl Japan Oosterse kultuur verteenwoordig. Verskeie ondernemings soos IBM, Skandia en Toshiba word as gevallestudies behandel en hul kennisbestuurbenaderings word geanaliseer, bv. onuitgesproke kennisbestuurfokus, eksplisiete kennisbestuurfokus, kennisskepping, kennisherverbruik, interne kennisverkryging en eksterne kennisverkryging. 'n Vergelykende analise, gebaseer op die onderskeie analises van Westerse en Oosterse kennisbestuurpraktyke, word gedoen om die rol van nasionale kultuur in korporatiewe kennisbestuur te identifiseer. Die bevindings, gevolgtrekkings en aanbevelings van die studie toon dat kennisbestuurders wel deur hul nasionale kultuur beïnvloed word in hul keuse, al dan nie, van sekere benaderings tot kennisbestuur. Verskeie voorstelle vir toekomstige navorsing, afgelei van die gevolgtrekkings en aanbevelings, word hierna voorgelê.

Size at birth and postnatal growth and development, morbidity and mortality

張賢彬, Cheung, Yin-bun. January 2000 (has links)
published_or_final_version / Paediatrics / Doctoral / Doctor of Philosophy


SCHLESSMAN-FROST, AMY C. January 1987 (has links)
Both the public and private sectors currently encounter the telescoping urgency for effective cross-cultural coventuring in business, educational and personal arenas. Existing descriptive models for organizing cultural information are either simplistic and superficial or so complex as to be inaccessible or overwhelm the user. This study uses Saunders' theory of model construction as an informing hypothesis to develop a model for cross-cultural coventuring. An integral part of this conception is a definition of culture which uses Villemain's insightful concept of qualitative meaning. Integrating this type of meaning within Saunders' Inquiry Cube allows for categories through which even the most subtle and unarticulated variables making up the human enterprise and the value base of those cherished and celebrated human ideals can be sorted, classified, and set into a taxonomic design. This hierarchical pattern provides direction and parameters for greater cross-cultural exploration. The methodological sequence of the Cultural Inquiry Cube is further translated to a psychological sequence which is more readily comprehensible to the learner. The greatest potential for widespread use of this model seems to be in microcomputer applications. Compact disc technology including CD-ROM and CD-I promises accessibility not possible heretofore.

Divine sovereignty

Ragbourn, Brian Forbes January 2004 (has links)
Various traditional cultures around the world used to subscribe to a reality of Divine Sovereignty, ie. that the Earth ultimately belongs to the Creator. Modern politics and disciplines within Western science have become detatched from this humble spiritual perspective. Yet when reexamined at source, mainstream religious, scientific and legal theories which appear to discredit Divine Sovereignty are found to be tainted by contemporabeous vested interests. Spirtual luminaries, who have interpreted Divine Sovereignty within the political context of distributive justice and economic democracy, have been mercilessly persecuted. Evidence indicates that Jesus was a classic example, and that his original universal teachings have been adulterated. By exploring the work, and substantiating the spiritual philosophy of the 20th century polymath Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, the thesis assembles past and present knowledge into a new coherent paradigm, which encompasses Divine Creation, the divine nature of matter, plus a spiritual explanation of human and social evolution. The research elucidates the relevance of the latter to the current conflict in the Middle East and concludes by outlining Sarkar's principles for establishing a just sustainable post-sexist society which operates in accordance with Divine sovereignty.

On photography and movement : bodies, habits and worlds in everyday photographic practice

Forrest, Eve January 2012 (has links)
This study is an exploration of everyday photographic practice and of the places that photographers visit and inhabit offline and online. It discusses the role of movement, the senses and repetition in taking photographs. Ultimately it is about photographers and their photographic routines and habits. Since the advent of photography, numerous texts on the subject have typically focused on photographs as objects. This trend has continued into the digital age, with academic writing firmly focusing on image culture rather than considering new issues relating to online practice. Although various technological innovations have given the photographer flexibility as to how and what they do with their images, the contention of this thesis is that analogue routines have been mostly transposed into the digital age. Nevertheless, there remains a lack of empirical enquiry into what photographers actually do within online spaces. This study is one of the first to address this knowledge gap. Taking a unique approach to the study of photography, it draws upon work in various fields, including phenomenology, social anthropology, human geography and sensory ethnography, to produce an innovative conceptual and methodological approach. This approach is applied in the field to gain an in-depth understanding of what ‘doing’ photography actually entails. An in-depth analysis of interviews with and observations of North East photographers reveals how they engage with everyday life in a distinctive way. Habitually carrying a camera allows them to notice details that most would ignore. Online and offline movements often become entangled, and when photographers explore Flickr there is a clear synergy with the way in which they explore their local city space. This research is a call to others to give serious consideration to online and offline photography practices, and an attempt to stimulate new discussions about what it means to be a photographer in the world.

A case study approach to some features of cross-cultural social work practice with Indian families

Gower, Myrna Zoe 22 January 2015 (has links)
No description available.

Specters of the subaltern : a critique of representations of rural women in contemporary China

SIT, Tsui 01 January 2005 (has links)
China has speeded up modernization since the reform and open-door policy was introduced in 1978. After accession to the World Trade Organization in 1999, China has been further incorporated into the global track. The national policy of economic development requires a continuing exploitation of natural resources and intensive labor from the rural sector, and over the last few decades, there has been a ceaseless wave of rural women going to the cities and working mainly as assembly-line workers, domestic helpers and sex workers. Developing a subaltern and feminist perspective, this thesis examines representations of rural women in academic research and literary works, as well as in films, documentaries, TV dramas, photography and popular magazines. The thesis attempts to outline and invoke a spectral figure of the subaltern as the rural woman demonstrably haunting dominant regimes of representations of modernization. In the prevailing mentality of development, a mega-city is portrayed as the ultimate destination; meanwhile, the rural is depicted as residual and as a repository of the past. There is a system of negative equivalences attached to the rural, which is always positioned as the unspoken, invisible or stereotyped other of overwhelming cosmopolitan values. The thesis reviews how urban intellectuals represent rural women in the contemporary cosmopolitan settings. Drawing on Gayatri Spivak’s discussion of the two kinds of representation—proxy and portrait—the thesis aims to read how urban intellectuals speak for as well as draw a portrait of rural women. The thesis also tries to read against the grain of the texts to trace the irreducible figure of the rural woman. As the readings will demonstrate, there are contradictions, paradoxes and ambivalences in narrating and portraying rural women as actors of modernization, victims of industrialization, agents of proletarian struggle, consumers purchasing commodities, and as the residual from agrarian society. From such incongruities within the texts, one can posit the figure of the rural woman as a symbol of resistance to the predominant discourse of modernization. This is not necessarily to suggest a nostalgic return to the past, that is, to the statist industrialization of Mao Zedong’s period and the patriarchal tradition; or an orthodox ruralism that everyone should go back to ancient society; or a romanticization of the primitive. Rather, this figure operates like Stuart Hall’s concept of “black”, referring to a way of referencing the widespread experience of marginalization in contemporary China, and an organizing category of a new politics of resistance among different groups. This research not only negotiates but also re-adjusts the notion of urban superiority by exploring the spectral figure of the rural woman. Gendering the rural vision means not only making a difference from the present capitalist and patriarchal values and practices, but also taking the excluded majority into serious consideration. It is hoped that this exercise, in the end, will help us to imagine a communal society in which we can recognize the practice of care of others as care of the self.

當代中國文化明星的製造 : 變動的文化生產場

HUANG, Weizi 01 January 2010 (has links)
本文借助並修訂了布爾迪厄(Pierre Bourdieu)的理論框架,透過對中國大陸二十世紀九十年代以來文化明星的製造進行研究來理解變動中的文化生產場 (field of cultural production),並探討在其間知識分子作為的新可能。文化明星問題之所以值得特別研究,首先是由於它處於當代中國文化生產的中心,涉及到電視、圖書、平面媒體、互聯網等不同的文化生產次場域(sub-field),以及製作人、 出版人、文化明星本人、“粉絲” (fans) 和批評者所代表的不同力量。考察圍繞著製造文化明星的複雜的關係網絡,正可以勾勒出當代中國變動的文化生產場域的概貌。其次,文化明星的產生和生產是對九十年代以來知識分子危機的一種回應,是知識分子問題的變奏。理解了文化明星的製造機制,有助於尋找在當下的文化生產場中知識分子作為的新可能。 本文選取余秋雨、易中天、于丹和韓寒四個個案進行深入分析。余秋雨是公認的第一個最成功的文化明星,對其案例進行研究揭示了文化明星產生的歷史轉變。易中天和于丹的案例則代表著著一種可以複製的成熟的文化明星製造模式的出現。韓寒的形象及製造是一種有別于以上主流文化明星的另類模式。 本文綜合運用多種研究方法,包括對十幾名相關的文化生產者進行訪問,組織了一個針對粉絲的焦點小組(focus group),並且到電視節目錄製現場、出版 社和大型書店進行參與式觀察。此外亦有歷史檔案梳理和文本、話語分析。 最終,本文繪製出了不同的文化明星在當代中國文化生產場中的位置,反思了現有文化明星生產模式的後果,並對知識分子/文化生產者參與文化生產提出有針對性的建議。

後CEPA 時期香港電影懷舊想像中的「本土」身份書寫

SHEN, Dan 12 September 2014 (has links)
2003 年中國內地與香港簽訂《內地與香港關於建立更緊密經貿關係的安排》(Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement, 簡稱CEPA)。其中關於電影的條款放寬了香港電影進入內地的條件,加之龐大的市場需求,香港電影工業的跨境活動變得日益頻繁, 並開啟了新一輪的中港「合拍片」潮流。電影產業及其市場環境的轉變背後是更為深層的中港經濟、政治與文化的融合。香港從「九七」前後至今在新的政治空間及身份脈絡中不斷尋求「本土」位置顯得日益困難。電影作為流行文化文本和社會實踐曲折地表述「本土」、「自我」、「身份」,其中「懷舊」(nostalgia)便是近十年香港電影文化想像中一個顯著的憶述工具和路徑,亦即通過處理「過去」、歷史、集體記憶等來書寫「現在」的某種情感、經驗、欲望。 本論文以後CEPA 時期的香港電影為研究對象,檢閱以合拍片為主導的電影工業體制下,和香港近十年來文化政治脈絡中,不同類型、風格、主題,以及不同生產方式、製作規模、市場面向的香港電影懷舊想像與「本土」身份的互構關係。以及後CEPA 時代香港電影的懷舊想像與此前懷舊電影相比下的延續與新變。

Effects of expertise in face perception : processing configural information in own-race and other-race faces

Schuchinsky, Maria, n/a January 2006 (has links)
The effects of expertise, such as better recognition of own-race than other-race faces, have been attributed either to poor encoding of configural information (the dual-mode theory) or to representation of faces on dimensions attuned to own-race faces and, hence, inappropriate for coding of other-race faces (the ABC model). Neither framework alone has been able to account for the variety of past results. It is proposed that a composite account derived from the dual-mode theory and the ABC model may offer a more complete explanation of the effects of race. To evaluate the composite account, six experiments using perceptual paradigms were carried out. The structure of face space and the effects of expertise on configural processing were assessed in a dissimilarity perception task (Experiment 1). Caucasian and Chinese participants judged dissimilarity of own-race and other-race faces with various configural distortions relative to their unaltered versions. As predicted by the composite account, face spaces derived from the dissimilarity ratings for own-race and other-race faces were comparable. Consistent with the premise that expertise affects configural coding, Caucasian participants exhibited greater sensitivity to configural changes of own-race than other-race faces. The effects of expertise on configural encoding were further examined in a bizarreness perception paradigm (Experiments 2-4). Caucasian participants rated bizarreness of unaltered and distorted faces rotated from upright to inverted in 15� increments. The distortions involved either simple component alterations (i.e., whitened pupils and blackened teeth), global configural changes (i.e., inverted eyes and mouth), or more local configural transformations (e.g., moving the eyes closer together and upwards, and shifting the mouth down). Similar bizarreness ratings for all faces with component distortions confirmed that expertise does not affect processing of simple component information. Differences in the perceived bizarreness of own-race and other-race faces in the unaltered and global configural distortion conditions corroborated the hypothesis that expertise influences holistic configural encoding. Variations in the perceived bizarreness of faces with more local configural changes, however, indicated that expertise might also affect local configural coding. The effects of expertise on local configural processing were further examined in a discrimination paradigm (Experiments 5 and 6). Participants made same-different decisions with upright and inverted face pairs comprising either two identical faces (same trials) or unaltered and distorted versions of the same face (different trials). To distinguish between holistic and local processing of configural information, partial faces were created in addition to whole faces. Higher accuracy for own-race than other-race faces at both upright and inverted orientations in both whole and partial face conditions substantiated the argument that expertise modulates local configural encoding. Altogether, the present investigation offers direct evidence for the composite account of the effects of race. As ventured by the composite account, the own-race face bias in face perception was shown to be due to variations in configural processing. In addition, the reported experiments support the argument that configural information can be encoded both locally and holistically.

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