• Refine Query
  • Source
  • Publication year
  • to
  • Language
  • 8
  • 4
  • 3
  • 1
  • 1
  • Tagged with
  • 19
  • 19
  • 6
  • 4
  • 4
  • 4
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Ex vivo chemosensitivity of melanoma and other solid tumours

Neale, Michael Howard January 2001 (has links)
No description available.
2

Endometriosis and naevus-associated gene variants in relation to risk of cutaneous melanoma

Marina Kvaskoff Unknown Date (has links)
ABSTRACT Background Cutaneous melanoma is a potentially lethal cancer for which incidence rates have risen dramatically in white-skinned populations worldwide over the past decades. While some risk factors for melanoma have been clearly established, such as pigmentary characteristics, sun exposure, and familial history of the disease, emerging evidence suggests that other factors, such as hormonal and genetic factors, may play a role in the aetiology of this cancer. The present work aimed at 1) examining the relationships between hormonal factors, benign gynaecological conditions, and the risk of melanoma, and 2) to explore shared risk factors for endometriosis and melanoma in a large French prospective cohort; and 3) to study the potential associations between novel naevus-associated gene variants and the risk of melanoma in a large Australian population-based study. Methods The E3N prospective cohort includes 98,995 French women insured by a national scheme mostly covering teachers, and aged 40-65 years at inclusion. Women were followed-up approximately every two years starting in 1990 through self-administered questionnaires. A first investigation focused on the potential association between a personal history of endometriosis or of other benign gynaecological conditions and the risk of melanoma, which was examined in the E3N cohort using Cox proportional hazards regression models. A second study explored the potential relationships between cutaneous phenotypic factors associated with melanoma and the risk of endometriosis in the E3N cohort, using unconditional logistic regression models. A third investigation used data from the Q-MEGA (an Australian study that followed-up four population-based samples of melanoma patients in Queensland, diagnosed between 1987 and 1995), as well as from the BTNS (a study including adolescent twins and their parents), from which the parents of the twins served as healthy controls in the present investigation. The association between novel naevus-associated gene variants and the site- and subtype-specific risk of melanoma was assessed using unconditional multinomial logistic regression models. Results A significantly positive association was observed between a personal history of endometriosis and the risk of melanoma in the E3N cohort, as well as a significantly positive association between a personal history of uterine fibroma and melanoma risk. The association between endometriosis and melanoma was even stronger when restricting to endometriosis reported as treated or diagnosed by laparoscopic surgery. However, a history of ovarian cyst, uterine polyp, breast adenoma/fibro-adenoma or breast fibrocystic disease was not significantly associated with the risk of melanoma. Also, significantly positive dose-effect relationships were found in the E3N cohort between the risk of endometriosis and skin sensitivity to sun exposure, number of naevi, and number of freckles, while no significant associations were found with hair or skin colour. Finally, variants of MTAP, PLA2G6 and IRF4 were significantly associated with the propensity to develop naevi in the Q-MEGA study. There was also a statistically significant association between MTAP rs10757257 and the risk of melanoma. Although there was no evidence that this association varied according to anatomical site of the tumour, the risk alleles of this polymorphism were more common in patients with superficial spreading melanoma or nodular melanoma than in controls, while patients with melanoma of the lentigo maligna type were no more likely than controls to carry these alleles. In contrast, no association was found between PLA2G6 and IRF4 variants and the risk of melanoma, globally or by site or type of melanoma. Conclusion The present findings suggest a positive association between endometriosis and melanoma, for which they constitute the strongest evidence to date. This finding may reflect the existence of shared risk factors between endometriosis and melanoma, which is supported by the finding of significant associations between endometriosis and some cutaneous phenotypic traits that are established risk factors for melanoma. Because these traits are mostly genetically determined, it can be speculated that endometriosis and melanoma share similar genetic characteristics. More research will be needed in order to clarify common pathways between endometriosis and melanoma. The finding of a positive association between uterine fibroma and melanoma risk had not been previously reported and warrants further investigation. The presented results also confirm an association between MTAP, PLA2G6 and IRF4 variants and naevus propensity, as well as an association between MTAP and melanoma. The findings suggest that the relationship is subtype-specific, which confirms and further refines the overarching “divergent pathways” model. Since MTAP is located at the same locus as CDKN2A, which has also been associated with naevus counts, further research will be necessary to determine whether these results can be attributed to MTAP independently of CDKN2A.
3

Immunization of melanoma patients with tumor antigens recognized by T lymphocytes, using peptides and a recombinant protein encoded by MAGE-A3

Marchand, Marie 23 October 2006 (has links)
Although melanoma accounts for only 4% of skin cancers, it is responsible for 80% of deaths from skin cancers and its incidence in Caucasians has been increasing steadily during the last 30 years. So far, no treatment - except surgery at the earliest stages of the disease - has been shown to significantly improve survival. New treatments are thus clearly needed. The interest of immunologists for melanoma is based on particular features of this tumor. Rare spontaneous regressions have been described, which are possibly mediated by immune responses. Moreover, melanoma cell lines are relatively easy to obtain, providing essential tools for laboratory studies. The first melanoma vaccines involved inoculations of patients with autologous or allogeneic melanoma cells, as well as a variety of immunological adjuvants. Since the beginning of the nineties, the identification of antigens recognized on human tumors by autologous T lymphocytes has opened the way for new vaccination strategies involving molecularly defined tumor antigens. An important group of antigens recognized by T lymphocytes is encoded by “cancer-germ line genes”, which are expressed in tumors of various histological types, but are silent in normal tissues, with the exception of testis germinal cells and placental trophoblast. Since the latter do not express the HLA molecules required to present these antigens to the T lymphocytes, cancer-germ line genes encoded antigens are only present on tumors, which should limit the risk of generating autoimmune diseases as a consequence of vaccination. Therefore, these widely shared tumor specific antigens should represent good targets for the development of cancer vaccines. Our clinical research program of therapeutic vaccinations focuses on antigens encoded by the MAGE family of cancer-germ line genes. Most of the patients included in our phase I/II immunization trials had measurable metastatic melanoma. Several MAGE peptides as well as a recombinant MAGE-3 protein have been tested, while several additional trials are ongoing, including immunizations with a recombinant poxvirus coding for 2 MAGE epitopes. No major toxicity was reported. Tumor regressions have been observed in a minority of patients, mainly those who had regional or distant metastases without visceral involvement. Some of these regressions have been complete and long lasting. Although the rate of objective tumor response observed is low, it is clearly higher than the rate of spontaneous tumor regression observed in melanoma. Other immunization modes against T-cell defined epitopes are currently being explored by several groups in human clinical trials. Vaccines include peptides presented by class I or class II HLA molecules, proteins given alone or mixed with immunological adjuvants or cytokines, recombinant viral or bacterial vectors, dendritic cells and DNA encoding the antigen. Adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes selected for their capacity to recognize defined epitopes presented by the tumor represents another type of approach aiming at the destruction of the tumor by the immune system. It is difficult to predict whether and when therapeutic vaccination against cancer will reach an efficacy that will be sufficient for a standard cancer treatment. Provided their low toxicity, these vaccines should be tested in an adjuvant setting, at earlier stages of the disease.
4

Proposing Molecularly Targeted Therapies Using an Annotated Drug Database Querying Algorithm in Cutaneous Melanoma

Aaron Pavlik, Schneider, Phillip, Cropp, Cheryl January 2015 (has links)
Class of 2015 Abstract / Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop a computational process capable of hypothesizing potential chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of skin cutaneous melanoma given an annotated chemotherapy molecular target database and patient-specific genetic tumor profiles. Methods: Aberrational profiles for a total of 246 melanoma patients indexed by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) for whom complete somatic mutational, mRNA expression, and protein expression data was available were queried against an annotated targeted therapy database using Visual Basic for Applications and Python in conjunction with Microsoft Excel. Identities of positively and negatively associated therapy-profile matches were collected and ranked. Results: Subjects included in the analysis were predominantly Caucasian (93%), non-Hispanic (95.9%), female (59%), and characterized as having stage III clinical disease (37.4%). The most frequently occurring positive and negative therapy associations were determined to be 17-AAG (tanespimycin; 42.3%) and sorafenib (41.9%), respectively. Mean total therapy hypotheses per patient did not differ significantly with regard to either positive or negative associations (p=0.1951 and 0.4739 by one-way ANOVA, respectively) when stratified by clinical melanoma stage. Conclusions: The developed process does not appear to offer discernably different therapy hypotheses amongst clinical stages of cutaneous melanoma based upon genetic data alone. The therapy-matching algorithm may be useful in quickly retrieving potential therapy hypotheses based upon the genetic characteristics of one or many subjects specified by the user.
5

Etude de la méthylation de l’ADN dans l’agressivité du mélanome cutané / DNA methylation and cutaneous melanoma aggressiveness

Carrier, Arnaud 28 September 2016 (has links)
Le mélanome cutané est le cancer de la peau le plus agressif. Il représente moins de 5% des cancers de la peau mais sa forme métastatique est responsable de 60 à 80% des décès. La médiane de survie des patients atteints d’un mélanome métastatique n’est que de 6 à 9 mois avec les chimiothérapies classiques ou ciblées. L’immunothérapie a été un grand progrès thérapeutique, néanmoins la prise en charge du mélanome métastatique souffre encore de trois points négatifs, tous les patients ne répondent pas aux différents traitements, l’efficacité des chimiothérapies ciblées est limitée par l’apparition rapide de résistances, les cliniciens manquent de marqueurs prédictifs de l’évolution dès les stades précoces pour la prise en charge. Dans ce contexte, notre groupe s’intéresse à la méthylation de l’ADN associées à l’agressivité du mélanome. La méthylation est catalysée par les méthyltransférases de l’ADN (DNMTs). Lorsque celle-ci est présente au niveau d’îlots CpGs localisés dans les promoteurs des gènes, elle empêche la machinerie transcriptionnelle de se mettre en place et inhibe l’expression du gène correspondant. Le profil de méthylation globale de l’ADN étant altéré dans le cancer, elle a donc un rôle fonctionnel dans le processus tumoral mais peut aussi être utilisée en tant que biomarqueur, chaque cancer ayant un profil de méthylation différent. De plus, au sein d’un même cancer, ce profil évolue avec la progression de la tumeur. Au cours de cette thèse, j’ai identifié des modifications du profil de méthylation de l’ADN associées à l’agressivité du mélanome et j'ai sélectionné 9 loci hyperméthylés candidats biomarqueurs. J’ai d’abord comparé les profils de méthylation au niveau du génome entier de lignées cellulaires de mélanome correspondant à des stades d’agressivité différents. À partir de ces informations, des loci candidats ont été choisis par une analyse de la répartition de ces loci hyperméthylés sur le génome couplée à une analyse bioinformatique des fonctions et interactions des gènes associés. Ensuite, leur statut de méthylation a été validé par une technique différente (collaboration avec le Dr. J. Tost, CNG, Evry). Une fois leur hyperméthylation confirmée, j’ai entrepris l’analyse de la méthylation de l’ADN au niveau de ces gènes dans des échantillons de tumeurs primaires issues de patients montrant des survies différentes (Collaboration : L. Lamant, N. Meyer, IUCT, Toulouse, France; L. Lanfrancone IFOM, Milan, Italie). Notre étude confirme le statut hyperméthylé des gènes retenus dans les échantillons métastatiques par rapport aux échantillons de tumeurs primaires. De plus il apparaît un lien entre le niveau de méthylation de la tumeur primaire et le délai d’apparition de métastases ainsi que la survie globale des patients. Parmi les loci sélectionnés, j’ai déterminé si le statut hyperméthylé de ces loci est corrélé à leur sous- expression dans le but d’étudier leur rôle dans l’agressivité du mélanome, et si ces loci peuvent être déméthylés et ré-exprimés par un inhibiteur de DNMTs. Cela a amené à l’identification d’un gène et d'un miR peu décrits dans la littérature, dont les expressions sont corrélées au statut de méthylation et modulées par un traitement déméthylant l'ADN. J’ai entrepris de comprendre leur rôle dans l’agressivité du mélanome et évaluer leur intérêt potentiel en tant que cibles anti-tumorales. Pour cela, j’ai utilisé des tests fonctionnels pour étudier les conséquences de la surexpression dans la lignée métastatique ou de l’inhibition dans la lignée primaire. Les résultats suggèrent une régulation épigénétique fine de ce miR et de ce gène pendant la progression du mélanome, retrouvée indépendamment par notre analyse des tumeurs de patients de la banque TCGA. / Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer and represents less than 5% of skin cancers but its metastatic form is responsible for 60-80% of the deaths. The median survival for patients with metastatic melanoma is only 6 to 9 months with conventional chemotherapy or targeted therapy. Despite recent therapeutic advances with the immune-therapies, the treatment of metastatic melanoma still suffers from three negatives drawbacks: 1) All patients do not respond to the different treatments. 2) The effectiveness of the targeted chemotherapy is limited by the rapid emergence of resistance. 3) Predictive biomarkers of the evolution of the disease are lacking for the clinicians. In this context, we studied the epigenetic regulations associated with the aggressiveness of melanoma, particularly in DNA methylation. DNA methylation is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). When CpGs islands are methylated and located in the promoters of genes, expression of the corresponding gene is inhibited. Commonly, DNA methylation profile is altered in cancer and plays a role in tumorigenesis and tumor maintenance. In addition, the alterations of the DNA methylation profile can be used as biomarkers for prognostic and diagnostic. Here, I identified changes in the DNA methylation profile associated with the aggressiveness of melanoma and selected 9 candidates loci that are hypermethylated in the most aggressive forms of melanoma. First, I compared the methylation patterns genome-wide (450K BeadChip methylation) of melanoma cell lines bearing different aggressiveness. The loci biomarker candidates were selected by combining an analysis of the distribution of these hypermethylated loci on the genome and a bioinformatic analysis of the functions and interactions of the associated genes. Their methylation status was validated by a different technique in collaboration with Dr. J. Tost, CNG, Evry. Once confirmed their hypermethylation, I started to analyze the DNA methylation of the selected genes in the pairs of cell lines of different aggressiveness, such as the primary tumor compared to the metastasis from the same patient, and in patients samples of primary tumors (Collaboration L. Lamant, N. Meyer, iUCT, Toulouse, France; L. Lanfrancone IFOM, Milan, Italy). A total of twenty samples were analyzed. Our study confirms the status of selected hypermethylated genes in metastatic samples compared to primary tumors. Moreover there is a link between the level of methylation of the primary tumor and the overall survival. A patent is being filed in and new samples are collected in order to extend the patient cohort to validate the biomarkers in prognosis of the evolution of the disease. Among the selected loci, I determined whether their hypermethylated status is correlated with their under-expression. For this, I measured their level of expression in a couple of cell lines WM115 / WM266-4 by RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. Then, I chose the loci for which I observed a correlation between methylation and expression. In addition, I studied whether these loci can be demethylated and re-expressed by a DNMTs inhibitor. This led to the identification of a microRNA and gene not fully described in the literature, of which the expression is correlated to DNA methylation status and are reactivated upon treatment with demethylating agents. I explored the role of the microRNA and the gene in the aggressive features of the metastatic melanoma suggesting a tumor suppressive function. These data were further comforted by the data analysis of patient samples.
6

Zebrafish models of uveal and cutaneous melanoma for preclinical studies

Precazzini, Francesca 06 December 2019 (has links)
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary cancer of the eye and its prognosis is strongly influenced by the occurrence of metastases, which are both rapidly developing and mostly fatal. The most frequent driver mutations occur in a small number of genes including GNAQ, GNA11, BAP1, CYSLTR2 and SF3B1. Due to a lack of suitable animal models, the mechanism through which mutations in these genes cause or cooperate in UM initiation and progression is still largely unknown. We aimed at generating transgenic strains expressing the human mutant proteins in zebrafish uveal melanocytes, using the kita promoter. We used the binary Gal4/UAS system to express the mutant genes mentioned above. Moreover, we performed xenotransplantation experiments with uveal melanoma human and zebrafish cell lines in optically-clear, immunocompromised, zebrafish larvae. Transplanted fish developed melanoma near the site of transplantation in two weeks and showed metastatic growth within one month of age. This approach could be used for short-term assays in larvae, and be further developed for long-term uveal melanoma studies. In parallel, we performed a chemical screen using a transgenic model previously generated in our laboratory, where oncogenic RAS is expressed under the kita promoter. As adults transgenic kita:RAS develop cutaneous melanoma with high frequency and uveal melanoma with a much lower percentage. Larvae showed an increased number of melanocytes already at 3 days post fertilization (dpf) as the earliest evidence of abnormal melanocyte growth. Using this model we performed a chemical screen based on automated detection of a reduction of melanocytes number caused by any of the 1280 FDA or EMA approved drugs of the Prestwick library. The analysis showed that 55 molecules were able to reduce by 60% or more the number of melanocytes per embryo. We identified clotrimazole, as the best candidate. The molecule is an azole derivative acting on the energetic metabolism of melanoma cells. We further tested two compounds for each of the 5 pharmacological classes, and a farnesyltransferase inhibitor (lonafarnib), that inhibits an essential post-translational modification of HRAS and suppresses the hyperpigmentation phenotype. Combinations of clotrimazole and lonafarnib showed the most promising results in zebrafish embryos, allowing a dose reduction of both drugs. We performed validation of these observations in the metastatic human melanoma cell line A375M, and in normal human epithelial melanocytes (NHEM) as control cells, in order to investigate the mechanism of action of clotrimazole in blocking the proliferation of transformed melanocytes. Viability assay and analysis of energy metabolism in clotrimazole treated cells show that this drug specifically affects melanoma cells in vitro and transformed melanocytes in vivo, having no effects on NHEM or wild type larvae. Similar effects were observed with another hit of the antifungal class, miconazole. Furthermore, we show that the effects of clotrimazole are mediated by the inhibition of hexokinase activity and suggest further testing of clotrimazole in combinatorial treatments. In conclusion, this thesis investigated different possibilities of modeling the rare cancer uveal melanoma in zebrafish, using both transgenic and transplantation approaches, and developed a pipeline for a high-throughput, semi-automated chemical screen in a zebrafish melanoma that identified clotrimazole and miconazole as targeting a metabolic vulnerability in melanoma cells.
7

Investigation of key non-coding and coding genes in cutaneous melanomagenesis

Xu, Yan January 2011 (has links)
Cutaneous melanoma is associated with significant morbidity and mortality representing the most significant cutaneous malignancy. As it is known that early diagnosis and treatment are the most efficient approaches to cure cutaneous melanoma, an improved understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of melanoma and exploration of more reliable molecular biomarkers are particularly essential. Two different types of molecular biomarker for melanoma have been investigated in this thesis. microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNA molecules of 20-23 nucleotides in length that are found in both animal and plant cells. miRNAs are involved in the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery to regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally. miRNAs have important roles in cancer: by controlling the expression level of their target genes they can affect cell signalling pathways and have been shown to have both prognostic and therapeutic potential. Importantly for melanoma research, reproducible miRNA expression profiles from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues can be obtained that are comparable to those from fresh-frozen samples. The aims of the miRNA project were: first, to identify a melanoma-specific miRNA expression profile; secondly, to investigate roles of some of the melanoma-specific miRNAs identified in melanomagenesis. Using miRNA microarray on FFPE samples, I obtained a melanoma-specific miRNA expression profile. 9 of these differentially expressed miRNAs between benign naevi and melanomas (7 downregulated, 2 upregulated in malignancies) were verified by qRT-PCR and the functions of four of these miRNAs were studied. Ectopic overexpression of miR- 200c and miR-205 in A375 melanoma cells inhibited colony forming ability in methylcellulose, an in vitro surrogate assay for tumourigenicity. Moreover, elevation of miR-200c resulted in increased expression levels of E-cadherin through negative regulation of the zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) gene. Ectopic overexpression of miR-211 in A375 melanoma cells repressed both colony formation in methylcellulose and migratory ability in matrigel, an in vitro surrogate assay for invasiveness. These findings indicate that miR-200c, miR-205 and miR-211 act as tumour suppressors in melanomagenesis. The second biomarker investigated, mutated BRAF, has been seen in 50-70% of spontaneous cutaneous melanoma. The commonest mutation in melanoma is a glutamic acid for valine substitution at position 600 (V600E). Oncogenic BRAF controls many aspects of melanoma cell biology. The aim of this part of the work was: firstly, to study BRAF V600E mutation status in our melanoma tissue microarray (TMA) panel; secondly, to correlate this mutation to various clinicopathological features and evaluate its prognostic value through statistical analyses. BRAF V600E mutations were seen in 20% of the primary and 69% of the metastatic melanomas, respectively. More BRAF V600E mutations were seen in males relative to females. The mutation was also related to cell pigmentation, but not to age, ulceration or solar elastosis. Melanoma patients with the BRAF V600E mutation relapse earlier than patients without this mutation. However, no significant association between the BRAF V600E mutation and overall survival and melanoma specific survival was found.
8

Avaliação do potencial anticâncer do derivado benzotiazólico (E)-2-((2-(benzo[d]tiazo-2-ila)hidrazono)metil)-4-nitrofenol em células de melanoma humano

Vasconcelos, Zanair Soares 30 August 2013 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2015-04-11T13:54:29Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Zanair Soares Vasconcelos.pdf: 2858178 bytes, checksum: 6b26a0905110117fcff488bcc6f386c1 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2013-08-30 / CAPES - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior / Malignant melanoma is one of the few cancers has been increasing in prevalence and mortality worldwide. It affects mainly white populations, however, all ethnic groups are affected to some extent. Increased understanding of the causes, progression, and in particular, genes that affect the development of cancer enable improvements in tools for detecting and treating cancer, however, despite significant advances in understanding the biology of melanoma, no changes in practices involved in both approaches and therapies to treat advanced disease. Thus, malignant melanoma has been intensively investigated due to its high metastatic potential. Many patients, when diagnosed with metastatic melanoma have already, which is the leading cause of death among them. This tumor is almost insensitive to standard regimens of chemotherapy, and the chemotherapeutic agents available are limited. Some mutations are known in cutaneous melanomas and N-Ras, Tp16 and Tp53, however, changes in B-Raf significantly exceed the frequency of the other mutations (40-50%). In this context, this project explored the possible mechanisms of action of the derivative benzotiazólico (E)-2-((2-(Benzo[d] thiazole-2-ila)hydrazono) methyl)-4-nitrophenol on cell viability, the activity clonogenic, motility and invasiveness in melanoma cell lines SK-Mel-19, SK-Mel-28 and SK-Mel-103 that have different characteristics from mutations in the genes responsible for the control of cellular homeostasis, as Tp53 and B-Raf. The results of tests performed showed an IC50 at 72hours between (4.87and>10 um) and a possible selective toxicity to the gene mutated B-Raf. Other tests showed induction of cell death by apoptosis, impaired motility and invasiveness of cells treated with SK-Mel benzotiazolic derivative (E)-2-((2-(Benzo[d]thiazole-2-Ila)hydrazono)methyl)-4-nitrophenol. The obtained results make this target compound for more research to use against cancer. / O melanoma maligno é um dos poucos cânceres que vem aumentando em prevalência, bem como taxa de mortalidade em todo o mundo. Afeta principalmente populações brancas, no entanto, todos os grupos étnicos são afetados em alguma proporção. Os avanços na compreensão das causas, progressão e, em particular, dos genes que afetam o desenvolvimento do câncer possibilitam melhorias nas ferramentas para a detecção e tratamento câncer, no entanto, apesar dos avanços significativos na compreensão da biologia do melanoma e das abordagens para tratar a doença em estágio avançado agora se voltarem para inibidores de genes envolvidos nessa doença, houve poucas mudanças aprovadas nas terapias utilizadas. Assim, o melanoma maligno vem sendo intensamente investigado devido ao seu elevado potencial metastático. Muitos pacientes, ao serem diagnosticados com melanoma já tem metástases, o que é a principal causa de morte entre eles. Este tipo de tumor é quase insensível ao regime padrão de quimioterapia, e os agentes quimioterapêuticos disponíveis são limitados. Algumas mutações são conhecidas nos melanomas cutâneos como N-Ras, Tp16 e Tp53, entretanto, mutações em B-Raf excedem significativamente a frequência de outras mutações (40-50%). Nesse contexto, tratamentos mais eficazes são necessários e na constante busca por novos compostos, os derivados benzotiazólicos mostram-se como uma importante alternativa, já que tem sido apontados como possíveis agentes antitumorais. Nesse sentido, este projeto explorou os possíveis mecanismos de ação do derivado benzotiazólico (E)-2-((2-(Benzo[d]tiazo-2-ila)hidrazono)metil)-4-nitrofenol sobre a viabilidade celular, a atividade clonogênica, a motilidade e a capacidade invasiva em linhagens celulares de melanoma SK-Mel-19, SK-Mel-28 e SK-Mel-103 que possuem diferentes características de mutações nos genes responsáveis pelo controle da homeostasia celular, como Tp53 e B-Raf. Os resultados dos ensaios executados revelaram um CI50 em 72 horas entre (4,87 e >10 μM) e uma possível toxicidade seletiva para o gene B-Raf mutado. Outros testes evidenciaram indução de morte celular por apoptose, diminuição da motilidade e da capacidade invasiva das células SK-Mel tratadas com derivado benzotiazólico (E)-2-((2-(Benzo[d]tiazo-2-ila)hidrazono)metil)-4-nitrofenol. Os resultados obtidos tornam este composto alvo de mais pesquisas para sua utilização contra o câncer.
9

Targeting Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts: New Opportunity for Therapeutic Intervention in Cutaneous Melanoma

Yang, Kun 04 September 2018 (has links)
No description available.
10

ANÁLISE DA MUTAÇÃO V600E DO GENE BRAF EM MELANOMAS CUTÂNEOS PRIMÁRIOS

Sugita, Juliana Sayuri 24 August 2012 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-08-10T10:38:34Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 JULIANA SAYURI SUGITA INUMARU.pdf: 977119 bytes, checksum: dd9451c21f0c8b8df529c718c8cf5860 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2012-08-24 / Melanoma comprises about 4% of skin cancers, however, more than 95% of stage IV melanoma patients will die within five years and most patients will succumb in a year. The most commonly mutated gene in melanoma is BRAF V600E mutation, described in 40-70% of cutaneous melanomas. This mutation results in the substitution of valine for glutamic acid in codon 600, resulting in the active form of the protein. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of BRAF V600E mutation in patients diagnosed with melanoma in Goiânia, as well as the possible associations between this mutation and clinical-pathological aspects of the cases analyzed. Seventy seven cases of melanoma from the Pathology Departament of Araújo Jorge Hospital, in Goiânia, Goiás were analized. Molecular analysis was performed by PCR and RFLP. Descriptive and comparative statistical analysis with Chi-square test were used in this study. The results demonstrated the presence of V600E mutation in 54 (70,1%) patients with cutaneous melanoma and no statistically significant association was found between the presence of mutation with other prognostics parameters such as age, gender, sun exposure, anatomic location, presence of metastasis, histological subtypes and histological parameters (Breslow thickness, presence of ulceration, signs of regression, lymphocytic infiltration and presence of satellites). Our results suggest that BRAF V600E mutation is a common event in melanomas and represents an important molecular target for therapeutic approaches in the treatment of this neoplasia. / O melanoma representa 4% das neoplasias malignas da pele, no entanto, mais de 95% dos pacientes com melanoma estágio IV irão morrer em cinco anos e a grande parte dos pacientes irá sucumbir em um ano. O gene mutado mais comumente no melanoma é o BRAF e a mutação V600E é descrita em 40 a 70% dos melanomas cutâneos. Tal mutação resulta na substituição da valina por ácido glutâmico no códon 600, resultando na forma ativa desta proteína. O objetivo desse estudo consistiu em investigar a frequência da mutação V600E do gene BRAF, em pacientes diagnosticados com melanoma em Goiânia, bem como as possíveis associações, entre tal mutação e os aspectos clinico-patológicos dos casos analisados. Para isso foram analisados 77 casos de melanoma do Setor de Anatomia Patológica do Hospital Araújo Jorge, em Goiânia, Goiás. A análise molecular foi realizada por PCR e RFLP. Análise estatística descritiva e comparativa com o teste Chi-quadrado foi usado neste estudo. A mutação V600E do gene BRAF foi encontrada em 54 (70,1%) pacientes portadores de melanoma cutâneo e nenhuma associação estatisticamente significativa foi detectada entre a presença de mutação com outros parâmetros prognósticos como idade, gênero, exposição solar, localização anatômica, presença de metástases, subtipo histológico e parâmetros histológicos (índice de Breslow, presença de ulceração, sinais de regressão, infiltração linfocitária e presença de satélites). Nossos resultados permitem concluir que a mutação V600E de BRAF é um evento comum nos melanomas e que representa um alvo molecular importante para as abordagens alvo dirigidas no tratamento desta neoplasia.

Page generated in 0.1437 seconds