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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Flow-through microchannel DNA chips

Benoit, Vincent January 2001 (has links)
No description available.
2

Progressive Lossy-to-Lossless Compression of DNA Microarray Images

Hernandez-Cabronero, Miguel, Blanes, Ian, Pinho, Armando J., Marcellin, Michael W., Serra-Sagrista, Joan 05 1900 (has links)
The analysis techniques applied to DNA microarray images are under active development. As new techniques become available, it will be useful to apply them to existing microarray images to obtain more accurate results. The compression of these images can be a useful tool to alleviate the costs associated to their storage and transmission. The recently proposed Relative Quantizer (RQ) coder provides the most competitive lossy compression ratios while introducing only acceptable changes in the images. However, images compressed with the RQ coder can only be reconstructed with a limited quality, determined before compression. In this work, a progressive lossy-to-lossless scheme is presented to solve this problem. First, the regular structure of the RQ intervals is exploited to define a lossy-to-lossless coding algorithm called the Progressive RQ (PRQ) coder. Second, an enhanced version that prioritizes a region of interest, called the PRQ-region of interest (ROI) coder, is described. Experiments indicate that the PRQ coder offers progressivity with lossless and lossy coding performance almost identical to the best techniques in the literature, none of which is progressive. In turn, the PRQ-ROI exhibits very similar lossless coding results with better rate-distortion performance than both the RQ and PRQ coders.
3

Differential gene expression of varroa-tolerant and varroa-susceptible honey bees (Apis mellifera) in response to Varroa destructor infestation

2013 July 1900 (has links)
The honey bee is one of the most familiar insects in the world, and plays an important role in the global economy providing essential pollination services to crops, fruit trees and vegetables. However, honey bee health is severely threatened by the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, which feeds on the hemolymph of pupal and adult bees, resulting in loss of nutrients and circulatory fluids, decreased overall body weight and eventually the death of the bees. To investigate the molecular defense mechanisms of the honey bee against varroa mite infestation, we employed DNA microarray analysis to compare gene expression of two contrasting honey bee colony phenotypes selected from the Saskatraz breeding program. One designated as G4 is susceptible to the varroa mite, while the other designated as S88 is highly tolerant to the varroa. Total RNAs were isolated from bees at two different stages, dark-eyed pupa and adult worker, infected or non-infected with varroa mites, and used for DNA microarray analysis. The results showed that distinct sets of genes were differentially regulated in the varroa-tolerant and varroa-susceptible honey bee phenotypes, with and without varroa infestation. In both phenotypes, there were more differentially-expressed genes identified at the pupal stage than at the adult stage, indicating that at the pupal stage honey bees are more responsive to the varroa infestation than adult bees. In the phenotype comparisons, substantially more differentially-expressed genes were found in the tolerant than susceptible line, indicating that the tolerant phenotype has an increased capacity to mobilize the expression of the genes in response to varroa mite infestation. Based on function, the differentially-expressed genes could be classified into groups that are involved in olfactory signal transduction, detoxification, metabolism and exoskeleton formation, implying several possible mechanisms for the host-parasite interaction and resistance. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to confirm the data obtained from the DNA microarray hybridization. Eleven out of twelve genes selected based on the microarray data showed consistent expression patterns measured by both methods. Overall, comprehensive evaluation of the gene expression of honey bees in response to the mite infestation by DNA microarray has revealed several possible molecular mechanisms for the host defense against the pest. Identification of highly differentially expressed genes between the two phenotypes provides potential biomarkers that can be used for breeding honey bees resistant to the varroa mite.
4

DNA Microarray Data Analysis and Mining: Affymetrix Software Package and In-House Complementary Packages

Xu, Lizhe 19 December 2003 (has links)
Data management and analysis represent a major challenge for microarray studies. In this study, Affymetrix software was used to analyze an HIV-infection data. The microarray analysis shows remarkably different results when using different parameters provided by the software. This highlights the fact that a standardized analysis tool, incorporating biological information about the genes is needed in order to better interpret the microarray study. To address the data management problem, in-house programs, including scripts and a database, were designed. The in-house programs were also used to overcome problems and inconveniences discovered during the data analysis, including management of the gene lists. The database provides rapid connection to many online public databases, as well as the integration of the original microarray data, relevant publications and other useful information. The in-house programs allow investigators to process and analyze the full Affymetrix microarray data in a speedy manner.
5

Classical and molecular epidemiology of campylobacter, in particular <i>Campylobacter jejuni</i>, in the Alberta beef industry

Hannon, Sherry J 25 February 2009
This research used classical and molecular epidemiology tools to assess the potential importance of feedlot cattle as Campylobacter reservoirs. The project was conducted from November 2004 to September 2005 in southern Alberta.<p> Fresh pen-floor fecal samples were collected from commercial feedlot cattle near slaughter weight in seven feedlots. Overall, 87% of 2,776 fecal samples were culture positive for Campylobacter species (86% of 1,400 in winter, 88% of 1,376 in summer), and 69% of 1,486 Campylobacter positive isolates were identified as <i>Campylobacter jejuni</i>. After accounting for clustering within pen and feedlot, the number of days-on-feed and feedlot size were associated (p ¡Ü 0.05) with Campylobacter species isolation rates.<p> Retail ground beef was collected from 60 grocery stores (four chains, three cities). None of the 1,200 packages were culture positive for Campylobacter species. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results from a subset of samples (n=142) indicated that 48% of packages were positive for Campylobacter DNA. By species, 14.8% (21/142), 26.8% (38/142) and 1.4% (2/142) of packages were PCR positive for <i>C. jejuni</i>, <i>C. coli</i> and <i>C. hyointestinalis</i> DNA, respectively. The collection period (1, 2, 3 or 4) was associated (p ¡Ü 0.05) with the odds of detecting Campylobacter species DNA using PCR.<p> Oligonucleotide DNA microarrays were used as a platform for comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis of 87 C. jejuni isolates (46 bovine, 41 human) obtained within the same geographical regions and time frame. Of the 13 CGH clusters identified based on overall comparative genomic profile similarity, nine contained human and cattle isolates, three contained only human isolates, and one contained only cattle isolates. In addition, human clinical and feedlot cattle C. jejuni isolates were compared on a gene-by-gene basis and only a small number of the 1,399 genes tested were unequally distributed between the two groups (p ¡Ü 0.05).<p> The high isolation rates of Campylobacter species and <i>C. jejuni</i> reported here may have implications for food safety, public health and environmental contamination. Our findings suggest that feedlot cattle and human <i>C. jejuni</i>strains are very similar and may be endemic within southern Alberta.
6

Classical and molecular epidemiology of campylobacter, in particular <i>Campylobacter jejuni</i>, in the Alberta beef industry

Hannon, Sherry J 25 February 2009 (has links)
This research used classical and molecular epidemiology tools to assess the potential importance of feedlot cattle as Campylobacter reservoirs. The project was conducted from November 2004 to September 2005 in southern Alberta.<p> Fresh pen-floor fecal samples were collected from commercial feedlot cattle near slaughter weight in seven feedlots. Overall, 87% of 2,776 fecal samples were culture positive for Campylobacter species (86% of 1,400 in winter, 88% of 1,376 in summer), and 69% of 1,486 Campylobacter positive isolates were identified as <i>Campylobacter jejuni</i>. After accounting for clustering within pen and feedlot, the number of days-on-feed and feedlot size were associated (p ¡Ü 0.05) with Campylobacter species isolation rates.<p> Retail ground beef was collected from 60 grocery stores (four chains, three cities). None of the 1,200 packages were culture positive for Campylobacter species. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results from a subset of samples (n=142) indicated that 48% of packages were positive for Campylobacter DNA. By species, 14.8% (21/142), 26.8% (38/142) and 1.4% (2/142) of packages were PCR positive for <i>C. jejuni</i>, <i>C. coli</i> and <i>C. hyointestinalis</i> DNA, respectively. The collection period (1, 2, 3 or 4) was associated (p ¡Ü 0.05) with the odds of detecting Campylobacter species DNA using PCR.<p> Oligonucleotide DNA microarrays were used as a platform for comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis of 87 C. jejuni isolates (46 bovine, 41 human) obtained within the same geographical regions and time frame. Of the 13 CGH clusters identified based on overall comparative genomic profile similarity, nine contained human and cattle isolates, three contained only human isolates, and one contained only cattle isolates. In addition, human clinical and feedlot cattle C. jejuni isolates were compared on a gene-by-gene basis and only a small number of the 1,399 genes tested were unequally distributed between the two groups (p ¡Ü 0.05).<p> The high isolation rates of Campylobacter species and <i>C. jejuni</i> reported here may have implications for food safety, public health and environmental contamination. Our findings suggest that feedlot cattle and human <i>C. jejuni</i>strains are very similar and may be endemic within southern Alberta.
7

Proposition d’une stratégie d’analyse statistique des données de puces à ADN décrivant une cinétique d’expression génique / Proposition of a statistical strategy to analyse DNA microarray data describing a gene expression kinetics

Tourlet, Sébastien 18 December 2009 (has links)
Les résultats d’expériences de microarray furent décriés par le manque de concordance inter-expériences. Les listes immenses de gènes résultant de filtrages statistiques sont difficiles à exploiter. La Food and Drug Administration a montré que le choix d’indicateurs de filtrage de gènes était la source d’une grande disparité entre expériences de microarray issus de laboratoires indépendants. Dans ce contexte, nous avons développé une méthode de sélection basée sur la modélisation de l’allure de la courbe d’expression avec le Log2 du « fold-change » entre les points de cinétique. En effet, des gènes co-régulés au cours d’une cinétique temporelle présentent des courbes d’expression d’allure similaire alors que leur niveau d’expression peut être différent. Nous avons validé la méthode grâce à 2 expériences indépendantes de microar-ray étudiant la différenciation des ovaires d’embryons de souris. Ainsi, nous avons obtenu une liste réduite et pertinente de gènes exprimés. Puis, une analyse de ces résultats dans le cas de la différenciation ovarienne nous a permis d’identifier 9 nouveaux gènes candidats validés in silico et restant à être testés biologiquement. / Microarray results were blamed because of their lack of concordance. Moreover, the huge candidate gene lists from statistical filterings are not useful for biologists. FDA proved that the lack of reliability between microarray experiments came from the choice of gene filtering indicators. In this context, a filtering method was developed based on expression curve shape modelling with the use of Log 2 of fold-change between kinetic points. Actually, the co-regulated genes display similar expression shape but with heterogeneous expression level.Our method was developed and validated thanks to two independent microarray experiments (Affymetric®) from mouse embryonic ovaries. Therefore, a short and relevant list of genes was obtained. Thus, a study of results linked to ovarian differentiation permitted to identify nine new candidate genes that were in silico validated. These genes might be biologically tested (i.e. RT PCR) by the scientific community.
8

Genotypisierung von Streptococcus agalactiae mithilfe des DNA-Microarray

Nitschke, Heike 11 June 2019 (has links)
Streptococcus (S.) agalactiae sind grampositive, in Ketten gelagerte Kokken, die auf Blutagar eine Hämolyse zeigen. Aufgrund ihrer Zugehörigkeit zur Lancefield-Gruppe B werden sie auch als Gruppe B Streptokokken (GBS) bezeichnet (Hof, 2005). GBS sind die Hauptursache von Sepsis, Meningitis und Pneumonie bei Neugeborenen (Schrag, et al., 2000). Die Arbeit beschäftigte sich mit der Genotypisierung von GBS. Darüber hinaus konnten auch Einblicke in die Phylogenese sowie die Populationsstruktur von GBS gewonnen werden. Ziel war es, einen DNA-Microarray zu entwickeln und zur Genotypisierung von GBS einzusetzen. Während der Evaluierung des DNA Microarray konnten stammspezifische Muster beobachtet werden, diese wurden durch bereits etablierte Typisierungmethoden (MLST) bekannten Genotypen zugeordnet. Die Ergebnisse wurden in einer Datenbank zusammengefasst. Mithilfe der Datenbank konnte die Software zur Auswertung entwickelt werden. (siehe http://alere-technologies.com/en/products/lab-solutions.html). Der DNA-Microarray trägt Sonden für GBS-spezifische Virulenzfaktoren und Oberflächenmarker. Für die auf dem Microarray basierende Typisierung wurden 11 über das ganze Genom verteilte Gene bzw. Gencluster (bac, alp, pil1 locus, pepS8, fBsB, capsule locus, hylB, abiG-I/-II plus Q8DZ34, pil2 locus, nss plus srr plus rogB2 und rgfC/A/D/B) ausgewählt. Ubiquitär vorkommende, konservierte Gene (z. B. cylD/cylE) eignen sich nicht als Marker für eine Typisierung, wurden aber als Kontrollen und zur Normierung eingeschlossen. Zur vollständigen Charakterisierung wurden außerdem Sonden für hochmobile plasmidgebundene Resistenzgene wie z. B. erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), tet(M), emrB/qacA aufgetragen (Aracil, et al., 2002; Betriu, et al., 2003; Uh, et al., 2001). Diese Gene sind nicht für GBS spezifisch. Sie eignen sich z. B. für eine Unterscheidung einzelner Isolate, nicht jedoch für die Unterteilung der GBS Population in verschiedene Stämme. Für die vorliegende Arbeit wurden insgesamt 448 klinische Isolate von GBS ausgewählt und untersucht. Darunter waren Isolate, die schwerwiegende Erkrankungen wie Sepsis und Meningitis verursacht haben, Isolate aus lokalen Infektionen sowie Isolate von asymptomatischen/gesunden Trägern. Zu Vergleichszwecken wurden außerdem Isolate aus der Veterinärmedizin (von bovinen Mastitisfällen) und humane Isolate aus einer geographisch weit entfernten Region (Trinidad und Tobago) genotypisiert. Für 36 ausgewählte Isolate mit repräsentativen Hybridisierungsmustern wurde zusätzlich eine Typisierung mittels Multilocus-Sequenztypisierung (MLST) (Jones, et al., 2003) durchgeführt. Die Hybridisierungsmuster vom Microarray wurden mit Daten aus diesem bereits etablierten Typisierungssystem verbunden. Durch die Verknüpfung beider Methoden konnte eine Einteilung der GBS Isolate in verschiedene Stämme vorgenommen werden. Mit Hilfe des eBURST-Algorithmus wurde gezeigt, dass einige Hybridisierungsmuster sich zu Gruppen zusammenfügen. Dieses Verfahren veranschaulicht die Populationsstruktur und beschreibt die genetische Vielfalt. Mit den 11 definierten Markern konnten die untersuchten Isolate 76 verschiedenen Stämmen bzw. „hybridization profiles“ (HP) zugeordnet werden. Die Einteilung beruht auf dem Fehlen bzw. Vorhandensein einzelner Gene/Gencluster bzw. deren allelischen Varianten. Diese Stämme korrelieren mit den durch MLST definierten klonalen Komplexen (CC). Isolate mit identischen oder ähnlichen Hybridisierungsprofilen gehören zum selben CC. Dagegen können Isolate mit einem ähnlichen MLST-Profil verschiedene Hybridisierungsmuster zeigen. Es konnte außerdem häufig beobachtet werden, dass ansonsten ähnliche Stämme sich in einzelnen Merkmalen, z. B. Kapsel-Genen, alp- oder pili-Genen, voneinander unterscheiden, und dass diese Gene unabhängig voneinander variieren. Zusätzlich zeigten einige ubiquitäre Gene/Gencluster, die sich in den publizierten Genomsequenzen immer an derselben Position befinden, zahlreiche verschiedene Allele. Welches Allel in einem gegebenen Stamm gerade vorliegt, scheint dabei eher zufällig zu sein. Eine Erklärung dieses Phänomens könnte in vergangenen Rekombinationsereignissen liegen. Auch eine konvergente Evolution könnte diskutiert werden. Ähnliche Stämme/ „hybridization profiles“ wurden in Analogie zu den MLST-definierten klonalen Komplexen zu Gruppen zusammengefügt. Das bedeutet jedoch nicht notwendigerweise eine direkte Verwandtschaft der Isolate im Sinne des Vorhandenseins eines unmittelbaren gemeinsamen Vorfahren. Die Typisierung sowohl über den DNA-Microarray als auch über die MLST kann nicht die „wahre“ Phylogenese im Rahmen der Evolutionsgeschichte und Herkunft widerspiegeln. Sie stellt lediglich ein zufälliges Modell dar, ein Ordnungssystem im Sinne eines genetischen Fingerabdrucks, das einen Vergleich von Isolaten, aber keine Rückschlüsse über deren Abstammung und Herkunft erlaubt.Die untersuchten GBS Isolate konnten in fünf klonale Komplexe (CC19, CC23, CC26, CC103, CC130) eingeteilt werden, deren Häufigkeit unterschiedlich war. Deutsche humanmedizinische Isolate konnten vorwiegend CC19 zugeordnet werden. Karibische humanmedizinische Isolate sind zumeist CC19 und CC23 zugehörig. Bovine Isolate gehören meist zu CC19 und CC103. Unter humanen Isolaten ist CC103 rar. Vermutlich basierend auf der geografischen und wirtsspezifischen Herkunft der untersuchten GBS Isolate gibt es Unterschiede in der Populationsstruktur. In der vorliegenden Arbeit war CC19 der am häufigsten gefundene und außerdem ein genetisch besonders inhomogener CC. Er besteht aus mehreren unterschiedlichen, bisher als eigenständig angesehenen CCs (darunter CC1, CC17, CC19 und CC22). Diese werden von dem zur MLST-Verwandtschaftsanalysen verwendeten eBURST-Algorithmus zu CC19 zusammengefasst, seit die MLST-Profile von 'missing links' zwischen den CCs identifiziert wurden, da eBURST „gemeinsame Vorfahren“ nicht von durch horizontalem Gentransfer bzw. durch Hybridisierungen entstandenen „Chimären“ unterscheiden kann. Da diese Komplexe klar unterscheidbare Hybridisierungsmuster aufweisen, wurden sie hier als CC19/01, CC19/17, CC19/19 und CC19/22 bezeichnet. Einzelne Gene traten in Gruppen von Isolaten aus verschiedener Herkunft unterschiedlich häufig auf. So fand sich der Virulenzfaktor scpB in 412 von 418 humanen Isolaten (98,6 %), aber nur in 10 von 21 Rinderisolaten (48 %). Ferner ließ sich beobachten, dass invasive Isolate weniger wahrscheinlich abiGI-/II und Q8DZ34 tragen, jedoch häufiger pil1 locus, fbsB (515) und Kapseltyp III sowie pil2b, nss/srr und rgf (COH1 like) aufweisen. Einige dieser Marker erscheinen zusammen in CC19/17-Stämmen, welche häufig bei invasiven Krankheitsverläufen beobachtet werden. CC19 (incl. ST01, ST17, ST19) konnte bei neonatalen Sepsis-Fällen in verschiedenen geografischen Regionen isoliert werden (Brzychczy-Wloch, et al., 2012; Ryu, et al., 2014; Sorensen, et al., 2010; Strakova, et al., 2010; Tien, et al., 2011). Zusätzlich wurden andere Virulenzfaktoren wie speM (Exotoxin M) und das cyl-Operon (beta-Hämolysin) untersucht. In lediglich sieben Isolaten wurde speM nachgewiesen. Das cyl-Operon konnte in allen Isolaten gefunden werden, sein Nachweis ist daher für eine Vorhersage der Virulenz eines gegebenen Isolates nicht hilfreich. Es konnte kein einzelner Faktor zur definitiven Unterscheidung zwischen invasiven Isolaten und Trägerisolaten bestimmt werden. Für die Virulenz eines Isolates ist wahrscheinlich nicht das bloße Vorhandensein oder Fehlen eines bestimmten Genes ausschlaggebend, sondern dessen Expression in vivo. Wichtig wäre in diesem Zusammenhang auch die genaue Betrachtung der Sequenz eines als Virulenzfaktor angesehenen Genes sowie die Untersuchung der zugehörigen regulatorischen Gene. Über den Nachweis der Gene erm(A), erm(B) und erm(C) konnte eine Aussage über die Macrolid-/Clindamycinresistenz eines GBS Isolates getroffen werden. Bei keinem der karibischen Isolate wurden erm Gene nachgewiesen. Innerhalb der deutschen GBS Population wurde erm(B) am häufigsten beobachtet. Die Gene erm(A) und erm(C) waren in humanen Isolaten selten und wurden in bovinen Isolaten überhaupt nicht gefunden. Das Tetracyclinresistenzgen tet(M) wurde häufig in humanen Isolaten und sehr selten in veterinärmedizinischen Isolaten gefunden. Für weiterführende Untersuchungen könnte die beschriebene Typisierungsmethode verfeinert werden. So lassen sich z. B. die oben beschriebenen 11 ausgewählten Typisierungsmarker des Microarrays mit denen der MLST zu einem 18 Marker-System verknüpfen. Daneben können auch erm-, cad-, mer- oder tet-Gene zur Feststellung oder zum Ausschluss der Identität verwandter Isolate in vitro oder in silico verwendet werden. Mit der nun einsatzbereiten Genotypisierungsmethode können in Zukunft weitere Studien zur Untersuchung regionaler und wirtsspezifischer Unterschiede der GBS Population durchgeführt werden. In dieser Arbeit konnte gezeigt werden, dass der DNA-Microarray stabile und reproduzierbare Resultate erbringt. Es kann ein detaillierter Befund erstellt werden, die Ergebnisse sind mit denen anderer Typisierungsmethoden und der Genomsequenzierung vergleichbar. Jedoch steht mit dem DNA-Microarray ein wesentlich unkomplizierteres und schnelleres Procedere zur Verfügung, welches zudem geringere Kosten verursacht.:1. Einleitung 5 1.1 Gegenstand der Untersuchung 5 1.2 Entdeckungsgeschichte 6 1.3 Klinische Bedeutung 7 1.4 Veterinärmedizinische Bedeutung 9 1.5 Stand der Forschung mit Hinblick auf Typisierung von GBS 9 1.6 Ziele der vorliegenden Untersuchung 10 1.7 Vorgehensweise 11 1.7.1 Untersuchungsmaterial 11 1.7.2 Untersuchungsmethode 11 1.8 Zur Typisierung ausgewählte Marker 12 2. DNA Microarray-Based Typing of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates 15 2.1 Abstract 16 2.2 Introduction 17 2.3 Materials and methods 18 2.3.1 Bacterial isolates 18 2.3.2 Ethics statement 18 2.3.3 Preparation of genomic DNA 19 2.3.4 MLST 19 2.3.5 Microarray design and protocol optimization 19 2.3.6 Microarray procedures 20 2.3.7 eBURST 21 2.4 Results 22 2.4.1 Typing GBS by MLST 22 2.4.2 Genotyping GBS by microarray hybridization 22 2.4.3 Population structure 25 2.4.4 Detection of antibiotic resistance markers 25 2.4.5 Detection of heavy metal resistance markers 26 2.5 Discussion 27 2.6 Acknowledgments 30 2.7 References 31 2.8 Tables and figures 33 3. Zusammenfassung 45 3.1 Zusammenfassung 45 3.2 Summary 49 4. Korrespondenz mit dem Editor 53 4.1 Hinweise des Editors und der Gutachter 53 4.2 Antworten an den Editor 56 4.3 Endgültige Annahme 58 Anhang 61 / Streptococcus (S.) agalactiae are Gram-positive, chain-forming cocci, which show hemolysis on blood agar. They are also referred to group B streptococci (GBS) because of their affiliation to Lancefield-group B (Hof, 2005). GBS are the main cause of sepsis, meningitis and pneumonia in newborns (Schrag, et al., 2000). The work focused on genotyping of GBS. The aim was to develop a DNA microarray and to use it for epidemiological typing of GBS. During the evaluation of the microarray, strain-specific patterns could be observed and these patterns assigned to genotypes as defined by other typing methods (MLST). The results were summarized in a database that subsequently was developed into software for automated analysis of experiments (http://alere-technologies.com/en/products/lab-solutions.html). The DNA microarray carries probes for GBS specific virulence factors and surface markers. For the microarray-based typing, 11 genes or gene clusters were selected that are distributed across the entire genome (bac, alp, pil1 locus, pepS8, fBsB, capsule locus, hylB, abiG-I/-II plus Q8DZ34, pil2 locus, nss plus srr plus rogB2 and rgfC/A/D/B). Ubiquitous, conserved genes (e.g. cylD/cylE) were included to be used as species markers and controls. Furthermore, probes for highly mobile plasmid-borne resistance genes such as erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), tet(M), emrB/qacA were also included (Aracil, et al., 2002; Betriu, et al., 2003; Uh, et al., 2001). These genes are not specific to GBS, but they are found in some isolates. They can be used to distinguish individual, related isolates, rather than for a definition of distinct strains. A total of 448 isolates of GBS was selected and examined for the present work. Among them were isolates from severe diseases, such as sepsis and meningitis, isolates from local infections as well as isolates from asymptomatic/healthy carriers. For comparison, isolates from veterinary medicine (from cases of bovine mastitis) and human isolates from a geographically distant region (Trinidad and Tobago) were genotyped. For 36 selected isolates with representative hybridization patterns, parallel typing was performed using a second method, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (Jones, et al., 2003). Hybridization patterns on the Microarray could thus be linked to this already established typing system. With the array based GBS typing isolates could be divided into 76 different strains or 'hybridization profiles', HP. The classification with both methods is based on the absence or presence of individual genes or gene clusters or their allelic variants. Similar isolates were lumped together. The eBURST algorithm was used to group strain-specific patterns into groups of related strains illustrating the population structure and describing the genetic diversity. Groups of similar hybridization patterns largely correlate with the clonal complexes (CC) defined by MLST. While isolates with identical or similar hybridization profiles belong to the same CC, isolates with a similar MLST profile can show different hybridization patterns. It has also often been observed that otherwise similar strains differ from each other in individual traits, e.g. capsule genes, alp or pili genes, and that these genes vary independently of one another. In addition, some ubiquitous genes/gene clusters, which are always localized at the same position in the published genomic sequences, show numerous different alleles and related strains (that belong to one clonal complex) might differ in the presence of one allele. Alleles are thus not linked to clonal complexes, but rather randomly distributed. An explanation of this phenomenon could be a frequent occurrence of recombination events or horizontal gene transfers. A convergent evolution could also be discussed as an alternative explanation. A similarity of hybridization profiles does not necessarily mean a direct phylogenetic relationship between the isolates in the sense of being derived from a direct common ancestor. Typing both the DNA microarray and the MLST cannot reflect the 'true' phylogenesis, evolutionary history and origin. Assuming frequent recombination i.e., random events, the MLST profiles as well as the hybridization patterns can be used as genetic fingerprints, allowing a comparison of isolates, but no conclusions about their phylogeny and origin. The investigated GBS isolates were classified into five clonal complexes (CC19, CC23, CC26, CC103, CC130) with very different relative abundances indicating differences in the population structure with regard to geographic origin and host organisms. German medical isolates were mainly assigned CC19. Caribbean medical isolates mostly were assigned to CC19 and CC23. Bovine isolates usually belonged to CC19 and CC103. Among human isolates, CC103 was rare. In the present work, CC19 was the most abundant and the genetically most inhomogeneous CC. Several different clusters that previously been regarded as CCs (CC1, CC17, CC19 and CC22) have recently been merged to CC19 by the eBURST algorithm since MLST profiles of missing links between the CCs have been identified. Unfortunately, eBURST cannot distinguish whether two MLST types are linked by true common ancestors or by hybrid or chimera strains originating from horizontal gene transfers or hybridization events. Since these complexes within CC19 have clearly distinguishable hybridization patterns, they have been referred to herein as CC19/01, CC19/17, CC19/19 and CC19/22, and we assume that they are linked by hybridizations or gene transfers rather than by shared ancestry. Few differences were found between isolates from different origins. The virulence factor scpB was found in 412 of 418 human isolates (98.6%), but only in 10 of 21 bovine isolates (48%). Furthermore, it was observed that invasive isolates are less likely to carry abiGI-/II and Q8DZ34, but are more likely to have pil1 locus, fbsB (515) and capsule type III as well as pil2b, nss/srr and rgf (COH1 like). Some of these markers appear together in CC19/17 strains, which are often observed in invasive disease. speM (exotoxin M) was also investigated. It was detected only in seven isolates. Contrarily, the cyl (beta-hemolysin) operon was found in all isolates. Thus, it detection is not helpful for a prediction of the virulence of a given isolate. No single factor could be identified that allowed a definitive distinction between invasive isolates and carrier isolates. Probably, the virulence of an isolate does not depend on the presence or absence of one particular gene. In this context, it would be important to investigate the expression in vivo of the various putative virulence factors as well as the allelic variants of the factors and of their associated regulatory genes. Macrolide-/clindamycin resistance genes erm(A), erm(B) and erm(C) can also be detected by the microarray. None of these genes was identified in any of the Caribbean isolates. Within the German GBS population, erm(B) was most frequently observed. The genes erm(A) and erm(C) were rare in human isolates, and they were not found in bovine isolates. The tetracycline resistance gene tet(M) was observed frequently in human isolates but only very rarely in veterinary isolates. With the genotyping method that was developed during the present work, further studies can be carried out to study regional and host-specific differences in the GBS population. For future investigations, the described typing method could further be refined. For example, the 11 selected typing markers on the microarray can be combined with those from MLST to one comprehensive marker system. In addition, it is also possible to use genes on mobile genetic elements such as resistance genes (erm, cad, mer or tet) to prove or to rule out the identity of related isolates in vitro or in silico. In our study, it was shown that the DNA microarray provides stable and reproducible results that are comparable to those of other typing methods and genome sequencing. However, since the DNA microarray offers a much more uncomplicated and faster procedure, which also results in lower costs, it is more suitable to a routine setting.:1. Einleitung 5 1.1 Gegenstand der Untersuchung 5 1.2 Entdeckungsgeschichte 6 1.3 Klinische Bedeutung 7 1.4 Veterinärmedizinische Bedeutung 9 1.5 Stand der Forschung mit Hinblick auf Typisierung von GBS 9 1.6 Ziele der vorliegenden Untersuchung 10 1.7 Vorgehensweise 11 1.7.1 Untersuchungsmaterial 11 1.7.2 Untersuchungsmethode 11 1.8 Zur Typisierung ausgewählte Marker 12 2. DNA Microarray-Based Typing of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates 15 2.1 Abstract 16 2.2 Introduction 17 2.3 Materials and methods 18 2.3.1 Bacterial isolates 18 2.3.2 Ethics statement 18 2.3.3 Preparation of genomic DNA 19 2.3.4 MLST 19 2.3.5 Microarray design and protocol optimization 19 2.3.6 Microarray procedures 20 2.3.7 eBURST 21 2.4 Results 22 2.4.1 Typing GBS by MLST 22 2.4.2 Genotyping GBS by microarray hybridization 22 2.4.3 Population structure 25 2.4.4 Detection of antibiotic resistance markers 25 2.4.5 Detection of heavy metal resistance markers 26 2.5 Discussion 27 2.6 Acknowledgments 30 2.7 References 31 2.8 Tables and figures 33 3. Zusammenfassung 45 3.1 Zusammenfassung 45 3.2 Summary 49 4. Korrespondenz mit dem Editor 53 4.1 Hinweise des Editors und der Gutachter 53 4.2 Antworten an den Editor 56 4.3 Endgültige Annahme 58 Anhang 61
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Efeitos imunotóxicos da Pteridium aquilinum em células natural killer de camundongos e a reversão destes efeitos com selênio / Immunotoxic effects of Pteridium aquilinum in natural killer cells from mice and the reversion of these effects by selenium

Latorre, Andréia Oliveira 04 October 2010 (has links)
Os resultados obtidos no mestrado mostraram que a samambaia do campo (Pteridium aquilinum) reduz a citotoxicidade das células natural killer (NK) esplênicas e a resposta imune celular do tipo tardia (DTH) de camundongos. Entretanto, até aquele momento não era sabido qual a célula afetada pela planta causava a diminuição da DTH. Assim, o objetivo inicial deste estudo foi verificar qual a célula envolvida na diminuição da DTH. Além disto, buscou-se descobrir o mecanismo de ação imunotóxico da P. aquilinum, o principio tóxico envolvido e se este efeito poderia ser revertido pelo selênio (Se). Para tal, camundongos C57BL/6 foram administrados com extrato de P. aquilinum, por gavage, durante 30 dias e suplementados com Se por mais 30 dias e a análise histológica revelou redução significativa na área de polpa branca esplênica que foi completamente revertida pelo tratamento com Se. Ainda, foi possível verificar que a diminuição da DTH foi causada pela redução da produção de IFN&gamma; pelas células NK durante a indução da resposta imune celular. Além disto, camundongos administrados com ptaquilosídeo, por gavage, durante 14 dias mostraram a mesma redução na atividade das células NK causada pelo extrato de P. aquilinum, assim como a prevenção deste efeito pela co-administração de Se. Por fim, na análise da expressão gênica das células NK esplênicas dos camundongos tratados com ptaquilosídeo e/ou selênio pôde-se observar o aumento da expressão dos genes Mt1 e Mt2, possíveis responsáveis pelo mecanismo imunotóxico da planta, sendo posteriormente confirmado pelo aumento de metalotioneína e consequente redução de Zn2+ livre no espaço intracelular das células NK. Os resultados deste estudo claramente mostram que os efeitos imunossupressores da P. aquilinum são induzidos pelo ptaquilosídeo e são decorrentes do aumento da expressão dos genes da Mt1 e Mt2 e que a suplementação com Se pode prevenir e reverter estes efeitos tóxicos. / The results obtained in the master showed that the bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) reduces both the cytotoxicity of splenic natural killer cells (NK) and the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) from mice. However, it was not known until that time, which cell affected by the plant that caused a decrease in DTH. Thus, the initial goal of this study was to determine which cell was involved in the reduction of DTH. Moreover, we sought to discover the mechanism of action of the P. aquilinum, the toxic principle involved and whether this effect could be reversed by selenium (Se). For that, C57BL/6 mice were treated with extract of P. aquilinum, by gavage, for 30 days and supplemented with Se for following 30 days. The histological analysis revealed a significant reduction in the splenic white pulp area that was completely reversed by treatment with Se. Still, it was verified that the decrease in DTH was caused by reduced production of IFN&gamma; by NK cells during the induction of cellular immune response. In addition, the mice administered with ptaquiloside, by gavage, for 14 days showed the same reduction in the NK cell activity caused by the extract of P. aquilinum, as well as the prevention of this effect by co-administration of Se. Finally, we could observe an increase in the expression of Mt1 and Mt2 genes in the gene expression analysis of splenic NK cells from mice treated with ptaquiloside and/or selenium. These genes were probably responsible for immunotoxic mechanism of the plant, which was confirmed later by the augment of metallothionein and consequent reduction of free Zn2+ into the intracellular space of NK cells. The results of this study clearly show that the immunosuppressive effects of P. aquilinum are induced by ptaquiloside and they are a consequence of the augment in the gene expression of Mt1 and Mt2 and that the supplementation with Se can prevent and reverse these toxic effects.
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Development of a DNA microarray platform for the detection of viruses transmitted by small mammals and arthropods / Desenvolvimento de uma plataforma de microarranjo de DNA para detecção de vírus transmitidos por pequenos mamíferos e artrópodes

Khan, Mohd Jaseem 01 December 2015 (has links)
Human activities have being responsible for the global environmental changes, resulting in an increase number of incident of vector- and rodent-borne diseases worldwide. Rodents and arthropods-borne viruses are important globally emerging and re-emerging viruses and most of them are RNA viruses. Efficient and early diagnosis of these infections are very important to prevent their spread, to improve clinical management of the patients, as wells to protect livestock and domestic animals. Currently, available diagnostic methods such as immunoassays, polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation can detect only one or few viruses in a single assay. The DNA microarray platform has emerged as diagnostic tool suitable for high throughput screening of pathogenic agents. The aim of this study was to develop a DNA microarray platform (RoboArboVirusChip) for detecting rodent- and arthropod-borne viruses, which belong to seven families: Bunyaviridae (genera Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus and Phlebovirus), Flaviviridae (genus Flavivirus), Togaviridae (genus Alphavirus), Reoviridae (genera Orbivirus, Seadornavirus and Coltvivirus), Rhabdoviridae (genera Vesiculovirus and Ephemerovirus), and Asfarviridae (genus Asfarvirus). Specific oligonucleotide probes of 60-mer (n=4209) targeting 412 virus species and generic probes of 25-35-mer (n=87) targeting viruses at the genus level were designed. A total of 17 reference viruses belonging to the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, Rhabdoviridae and Togaviridae families were used to standardize RoboArboVirusChip. All reference viruses were specifically detected without any cross hybridization; however, the generic probes were not able to identify the viruses at the genus level. The RoboArboVirusChip was able to specifically identify four viruses contained in three different mixtures: i) virus of different families, ii) virus of the Flavivirus genus, and iii) the Dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. The four DENV serotypes were use to evaluate the sensitivity of the RoboArboVirusChip, which was able to detect a minimum of 25 RNA copies/mL of the viruses, confirming its high sensitivity. The applicability of the RoboArboVirusChip to detect viruses in clinical samples was tested with serum samples obtained from dengue suspected cases (four positive cases and 40 negative cases). DENV was detected in the four positive serum samples, while in the 40 negative serum samples, it was not detected any virus. The results obtained in this study suggest that the RoboArboVirusChip platform could be a useful tool for early diagnosis of robovirus and arbovirus infections during epidemic outbreaks, helping in the rapid implementation of disease containment strategies / As atividades humanas têm sido responsável por mudanças ambientais globais, resultando num aumento do número de casos de doenças transmitidas por vetores e roedores em todo o mundo. Os vírus transmitidos por roedores e artrópodes são vírus emergentes e re-emergentes de importância global, sendo que a maioria deles são vírus de RNA. O diagnóstico eficiente e precoce dessas infecções são muito importantes para evitar a sua propagação, para melhorar o manejo clínico dos pacientes e também, para proteger o gado e os animais domésticos. Atualmente, os métodos de diagnóstico disponíveis, tais como os imunoensaios, a reação em cadeia da polimerase e o isolamento viral podem detectar apenas um ou poucos vírus em um único ensaio. A plataforma de microarranjo de DNA tem surgido como uma ferramenta de diagnóstico apropriada para o monitoramento em larga escala de agentes patogênicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver uma plataforma de microarranjo de DNA (RoboArboVirusChip) para a detecção de vírus transmitidos por roedores e artrópodes, os quais pertencem a sete famílias: Bunyaviridae (gêneros Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus e Phlebovírus), Flaviviridae (gênero Flavivirus), Togaviridae (gênero Alphavirus), Reoviridae (gênero Orbivirus, Seadornavirus e Coltvivirus), Rhabdoviridae (géneros Vesiculovirus e Ephemerovirus), e Asfarviridae (gênero Asfarvirus). Sondas oligonucleotídicas de 60-mer (n=4209) específicas contra 412 espécies virais, e sondas genéricas de 25-35-mer (n=87) para detecção de vírus a nível do gênero foram desenhados. Um total de 17 vírus de referência, pertencentes às famílias Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, Rhabdoviridae e Togaviridae foram utilizados para padronizar o RoboArboVirusChip. Todos os vírus de referência foram detectados especificamente sem apresentação de hibridação cruzada, porem as sondas genéricas não foram capazes de detectar os vírus a nível do gênero. O RoboArboVirusChip foi capaz de identificar especificamente quatro vírus contidos em diferentes misturas: i) vírus de diferentes famílias, ii) vírus pertencentes ao gênero a Flavivirus, e iii) os sorotipos do vírus da dengue (DENV). Os quatro sorotipos do DENV foram utilizados para determinar a sensibilidade do RoboArboVirusChip, o qual foi capaz de detectar um mínimo de 25 copias de RNA/mL. A aplicabilidade do RoboArboVirusChip para detectar vírus em amostras clínicas foi avaliada testando amostras de soro de pacientes com suspeita de dengue (quatro casos positivos e 40 casos negativos). Os resultados obtidos neste estudo sugerem que o RoboArboVirusChip poderá ser uma ferramenta útil para o diagnóstico precoce da infecção causada por robovírus e arbovírus, auxiliando na rápida implementação de estratégias de contenção das doenças causadas por esses vírus

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