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1 
Gas production during peat decayClaricoates, Jane January 1990 (has links)
Decay and accumulation of blanket peat in the Northern Pennine region of England are considered, both in quantitative and qualitative terms. Productivity on the surface of these peat bogs is not unusually high, suggesting that a low decay rate may be responsible for the accumulation of the peat. Considerable study has formerly been made of the aerobic decay processes, at the expense of the parallel anaerobic processes, which have largely hitherto been considered negligible. Yet a current mathematical model of peat accumulation suggests that it is likely to be the anaerobic decay rate which determines the total depth of peat which may accumulate. Further, such models intimate that a very small absolute change in the anaerobic decay rate will have an unexpectedly large effect on the potential steady state depth of peat. The present study concentrates on obtaining measurements of anaerobic decay rates, and on identifying the possible limiting environmental factors of the decay. The design of a sampler to collect gas samples in situ from blanket peat is described. The components of particular interest in the samples are CH4 and C02. Gas concentrations down eight peat profiles at two sites are monitored over two seasons. Simultaneous surface flux measurements above pool, lawn and hummock microhabitats are also made. Water level, temperature, pH, redox potential, depth of the sulphide zone and total sulphide concentration are recorded on each field visit. The results from the gas sample analyses are discussed in relation to the environmental factors and in relation to our present understanding of peat decay rates and their consequences on peat accumulation. The anaerobic decay rate is calculated, and is confirmed to be several orders of magnitude less than that in the overlying aerobic peat. It is shown that the methane is not fossil, but is continually being produced at all depths. Rates of gas production are calculated. Annual methane and carbon dioxide losses from entire peat bogs are calculated to contribute a significant amount to carbon cycling, on a sitespecific and global scale.

2 
The Study of Carrier Cooling in InN Thin FilmTseng, YaoGong 02 September 2011 (has links)
The thesis investigates hot carrier relaxation and carrier recombination
mechanism of a InN thin film grown on LAO(LiAlO2) substrate with a ultrafast
timeresolved photoluminescence apparatus. Carriers were excited with laser pulses of energy 1.5 eV and of pulsewidth 150 fs from a Ti:sapphire laser. The photoexcited carriers relax excessive energy mostly within 10 ps thorough carrierLOphonon interaction. The effective carrierLOphonon emission times were estimated 197 to 58 fs in the temperature range from 250 to 35 K. The ShockleyReadHall coefficient was found around 0.8 ns1. The Auger recombination was trivial at 35 K and become significant at 250 K. The fitted radiative recombination was much smaller than the theoretical estimate. Both effective carrierLOphonon scattering times and the radiative and nonradiative decay rates of the studied mplane InN were found to be smaller than those of cplane InN in other reports.

3 
An experimental study of a plane turbulent wall jet using particle image velocimetryDunn, Matthew 14 September 2010
This thesis documents the design and fabrication of an experimental facility that was built to produce a turbulent plane wall jet. The target flow was twodimensional with a uniform profile of the mean streamwise velocity and a low turbulence level at the slot exit. The design requirements for a flow conditioning apparatus that could produce this flow were determined. The apparatus was then designed and constructed, and measurements of the fluid flow were obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The first series of measurements was along the slot width, the second series was along the slot centerline and the third was at 46 slot heights off the centerline. The Reynolds number, based on the slot height and jet exit velocity, of the wall jet varied from 7594 to 8121. Data for the streamwise and transverse components of velocity and the three associated Reynolds stress components were analyzed and used to determine the characteristics of the wall jet.<p>
This experimental facility was able to produce a profile of the mean streamwise velocity near the slot exit that was uniform over 71% of the slot height with a streamwise turbulence that was equal to 1.45% of the mean velocity. This initial velocity was maintained to 6 slot heights. The fully developed region for the centerline and the offcenterline measurements was determined to extend from 50 to 100 slot heights and 40 to 100 slot heights, respectively. This was based on selfsimilarity of the mean streamwise velocity profiles when scaled using the maximum streamwise velocity and the jet halfwidth. The offcenterline Reynolds stress profiles achieved a greater degree of collapse than did the centerline profiles.<p>
The rate of spread of the wall jet along the centerline was 0.080 in the selfsimilar region from 50 to 100 slot heights, and the offcenterline growth rate was 0.077 in the selfsimilar region from 40 to 100 slot heights. The decay rate of the maximum streamwise velocity was 0.624 within the centerline selfsimilar region, and 0.562 within the offcenterline selfsimilar region. These results for the spread and decay of the wall jet compared well with recent similar studies.<p>
The twodimensionality was initially assessed by measuring the mean streamwise velocity at 1 slot height along the entire slot width. The twodimensionality of this wall jet was further analyzed by comparing the centerline and offcenterline profiles of the mean streamwise velocity at 2/3, 4, 50, 80, and 100 slot heights, and by comparing the growth rates and decay rates. Although this facility was able to produce a wall jet that was initially twodimensional, the twodimensionality was compromised downstream of the slot, most likely due to the presence of return flow and spanwise spreading. Without further measurements, it is not yet clear exactly how the lack of complete twodimensionality affects the flow characteristics noted above.

4 
An experimental study of a plane turbulent wall jet using particle image velocimetryDunn, Matthew 14 September 2010 (has links)
This thesis documents the design and fabrication of an experimental facility that was built to produce a turbulent plane wall jet. The target flow was twodimensional with a uniform profile of the mean streamwise velocity and a low turbulence level at the slot exit. The design requirements for a flow conditioning apparatus that could produce this flow were determined. The apparatus was then designed and constructed, and measurements of the fluid flow were obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The first series of measurements was along the slot width, the second series was along the slot centerline and the third was at 46 slot heights off the centerline. The Reynolds number, based on the slot height and jet exit velocity, of the wall jet varied from 7594 to 8121. Data for the streamwise and transverse components of velocity and the three associated Reynolds stress components were analyzed and used to determine the characteristics of the wall jet.<p>
This experimental facility was able to produce a profile of the mean streamwise velocity near the slot exit that was uniform over 71% of the slot height with a streamwise turbulence that was equal to 1.45% of the mean velocity. This initial velocity was maintained to 6 slot heights. The fully developed region for the centerline and the offcenterline measurements was determined to extend from 50 to 100 slot heights and 40 to 100 slot heights, respectively. This was based on selfsimilarity of the mean streamwise velocity profiles when scaled using the maximum streamwise velocity and the jet halfwidth. The offcenterline Reynolds stress profiles achieved a greater degree of collapse than did the centerline profiles.<p>
The rate of spread of the wall jet along the centerline was 0.080 in the selfsimilar region from 50 to 100 slot heights, and the offcenterline growth rate was 0.077 in the selfsimilar region from 40 to 100 slot heights. The decay rate of the maximum streamwise velocity was 0.624 within the centerline selfsimilar region, and 0.562 within the offcenterline selfsimilar region. These results for the spread and decay of the wall jet compared well with recent similar studies.<p>
The twodimensionality was initially assessed by measuring the mean streamwise velocity at 1 slot height along the entire slot width. The twodimensionality of this wall jet was further analyzed by comparing the centerline and offcenterline profiles of the mean streamwise velocity at 2/3, 4, 50, 80, and 100 slot heights, and by comparing the growth rates and decay rates. Although this facility was able to produce a wall jet that was initially twodimensional, the twodimensionality was compromised downstream of the slot, most likely due to the presence of return flow and spanwise spreading. Without further measurements, it is not yet clear exactly how the lack of complete twodimensionality affects the flow characteristics noted above.

5 
The carrier relaxation of Si doped InN thin filmsWang, MingSung 23 August 2011 (has links)
Ultrafast timeresolved pumpprobe (TRPP) apparatus has been applied to study the carrier dynamics of Sidoped InN thin films grown buffer by molecular beam expitaxy with and without a lowtemperature growth GaN buffer layer. The peak of the PL has been found to increase from 0.7 to 0.8 eV with the back ground density. The total decay rates as a function of the delay time were obtained by the densitydependent TRPP peak intensity and the timeresolved TRPP signals. The total decay rates were interpreted as the sum of radiative and nonradiative recombination. The ShockleyReadHall decay rate derived from the TRPP signal at low photoexccitation density was found to increase with the doping density. At low concentration, the Auger recombination is not effective. The dominant recombination mechanism at room temperature is the ShockelyReadHall recombination.

6 
Experimental Analysis of the Effect of Vibrational NonEquilibrium on the Decay of GridGenerated TurbulenceFuller, T. J. 2009 August 1900 (has links)
The technical feasibility of hypersonic flight (i.e., reentry, hypersonic flight vehicles, cruise missiles, etc.) hinges on our ability to understand, predict, and control the transport of turbulence in the presence of nonequilibrium effects. A theoretical analysis of the governing equations suggests a mechanism by which fluctuations in internal energy are coupled to the transport of turbulence. Numerical studies of these flows have been conducted, but limited computational power results in reduced fidelity. Experimental studies are exceedingly rare and, consequently, experimental data available to build and evaluate turbulence models is nearly nonexistent.
The Decaying Mesh Turbulence (DMT) facility was designed and constructed to generate a fundamental decaying mesh turbulent flow field with passive grids. Vibrational nonequilibrium was achieved via a capacitivelycoupled radiofrequency (RF) plasma discharge which required an operating pressure of 30 Torr. The flow velocity was 30 m/s. Data was recorded with each grid at multiple plasma powers (Off, 150 W, and 300 W). Over two terabytes of highly resolved (3,450 image pairs) twodimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV) was acquired and archived. Temperature measurements were carried out using coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS).
The primary objective of this study was to answer the fundamental scientific question: "Does thermal nonequilibrium alter the decay rate of turbulence?" The results of this study show that the answer is "Yes." The results demonstrate a clear coupling between thermal nonequilibrium and turbulence transport. The trends observed agree with those expected based on an analysis of the Reynolds stress transport equations, which provides confidence in transport equationbased modeling. A nontrivial reduction (~30%) in the decay rate downstream of the 300 W plasma discharge was observed. The data also show that the decay of TKE downstream of the plasma discharge was delayed (~20% downstream shift). In addition, the thermal nonequilbrium was observed to have no effect on the transverse stress. This suggests that, for this flow, the energy dilatation terms are small and unaffected by the plasma discharge, which simplifies modeling.

7 
The Study of Carrier Relaxation in InN Thin FilmsLin, GuanTing 14 February 2008 (has links)
This theses investigates the carrier dynamics in Indium Nitride thin films grown on Si(111) substrates by means of ultrafast timeresolved photoluminescence (TRPL) apparatus. The study of energy relaxation shows hot phonon effective is prominent at photogenerated carrier concentration above 4¡Ñ10^18cm^3 and become insignificant at carrier concentration below 7¡Ñ10^17cm^3. Effective phonon emission times in the range of 116 to 23 femtoseoncds are obtained from the time evolution of carrier temperature assuming that the carrierLOphonon interaction is the dominant energy relaxation process. In the study of carrier recombination, the TRPL¡¦s are studied at the peak energies of the timeintegrated PL at various lattice temperatures and are converted to decay rates with a rate equation, which includes the nonradiative and radiative coefficients, and a nonlinear dependence of PL intensity on the photogenerated carrier concentration. The increase with temperatures of the ShockleyReadHall rates implies that, in addition to the midgap defect states, a thermally activated trapping may become prominent at high lattice temperatures due to the increased kinetic energy gained by the carriers. The radiative recombination is the dominated recombination mechanism at low temperature but become trivial at high temperature. The fitted radiative coefficient at a temperature of 35K is consistent to the theoretical prediction. The Auger recombination exhibits a quadratic dependence on carrier concentration and becomes effective at high carrier concentration and at high temperature. The fitted Auger recombination coefficients are comparable to those of InGaAs and InGaAsP materials with band gap energies in the range of 0.60.8eV.

8 
Field Quantization for Radiative Decay of Plasmons in Finite and Infinite GeometriesBagherian, Maryam 18 March 2019 (has links)
We investigate field quantization in highcurvature geometries. The models and calculations can help with understanding the elastic and inelastic scattering of photons and electrons in nanostructures and probelike metallic domains. The results find important applications in highresolution photonic and electronic modalities of scanning probe microscopy, nanooptics, plasmonics, and quantum sensing.
Quasistatic formulation, leading to nonretarded quantities, is employed and justified on the basis of the nanoscale, here subwavelength, dimensions of the considered domains of interest.
Within the quasistatic framework, we represent the nanostructure material domains with frequencydependent dielectric functions. Quantities associated with the normal modes of the electronic systems, the nonretarded plasmon dispersion relations, eigenmodes, and fields are then calculated for several geometric entities of use in nanoscience and nanotechnology.
From the classical energy of the charge density oscillations in the modeled nanoparticle, we then derive the Hamiltonian of the system, which is used for quantization.
The quantized plasmon field is obtained and, employing an interaction Hamiltonian derived from the firstorder perturbation theory within the hydrodynamic model of an electron gas, we obtain an analytical expression for the radiative decay rate of the plasmons.
The established treatment is applied to multiple geometries to investigate the quantized charge density oscillations on their bounding surfaces. Specifically, using one sheet of a twosheeted hyperboloid of revolution, paraboloid of revolution, and cylindrical domains, all with one infinite dimension, and the finite spheroidal and toroidal domains are treated.
In addition to a comparison of the paraboloidal and hyperboloidal results, interesting similarities are observed for the paraboloidal domains with respect to the surface modes and radiation patterns of a prolate spheroid, a finite geometric domain highly suitable for modeling of nanoparticles such as quantum dots. The prolate and oblate spheroidal calculations are validated by comparison to the spherical case, which is obtained as a special case of a spheroid.
In addition to calculating the potential and field distributions, and dispersion relations, we study the angular intensity and the relation between the emission angle with the rate of radiative decay.
The various morphologies are compared for their plasmon dispersion properties, field distributions, and radiative decay rates, which are shown to be consistent.
For the specific case of a nanoring, modeled in the toroidal geometry, significant complexity arises due to an inherent coupling among the various modes. Within reasonable approximations to decouple the modes, we study the radiative decay channel for a vacuum bounded single solid nanoring by quantizing the fields associated with charge density oscillations on the nanoring surface. Further suggestions are made for future studies. The obtained results are relevant to other material domains that model a nanostructure such as a probe tip, quantum dot, or nanoantenna.

9 
Relaxation Dynamics and Decoherence of Excitons in IIVI Semiconductor NanostructuresBajracharya, Pradeep 05 October 2007 (has links)
No description available.

10 
Flavor Changing Neutral Current Processes In The Framework Of The Two Higgs Doublet ModelTuran, Ismail 01 January 2003 (has links) (PDF)
It is widely believed that the Standard Model (SM) can not be a fundamental
theory of the basic interactions. Originated from this fact, many new physics
models have been proposed. Among them, the two Higgs doublet model (2HDM),
the SM enlarged by adding one extra scalar doublet, is considered as the simplest extension of the SM.
In this work, within the framework of the model III version of the 2HDM,
the exclusive decay the branching ratio is calculated and discussed in various physical regions determined by model parameters. It is
observed that it is possible to reach present experimental upper limits in model Finally, the
avor changing top quark decay,

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