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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Wide-area state estimation using synchronized phasor measurement units

Hurtgen, Michaël 01 June 2011 (has links)
State estimation is an important tool for power system monitoring and the present study involves integrating phasor measurement units in the state estimation process. Based on measurements taken throughout the network, the role of a state estimator is to estimate the state variables of the power system while checking that these estimates are consistent with the measurement set. In the case of power system state estimation, the state variables are the voltage phasors at each network bus.\\<p><p>The classical state estimator currently used is based on SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) measurements. Weaknesses of the SCADA measurement system are the asynchronicity of the measurements, which introduce errors in the state estimation results during dynamic events on the electrical network.\\<p><p>Wide-area monitoring systems, consisting of a network of Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) provide synchronized phasor measurements, which give an accurate snapshot of the monitored part of the network at a given time. The objective of this thesis is to integrate PMU measurements in the state estimator. The proposed state estimators use PMU measurements exclusively, or both classical and PMU measurements.\\ <p><p>State estimation is particularly useful to filter out measurement noise, detect and eliminate bad data. A sensitivity analysis to measurement errors is carried out for a state estimator using only PMU measurements and a classical state estimator. Measurement errors considered are Gaussian noise, systematic errors and asynchronicity errors. Constraints such as zero injection buses are also integrated in the state estimator. Bad data detection and elimination can be done before the state estimation, as in pre-estimation methods, or after, as in post-estimation methods. For pre-estimation methods, consistency tests are used. Another proposed method is validation of classical measurements by PMU measurements. Post-estimation is applied to a measurement set which has asynchronicity errors. Detection of a systematic error on one measurement in the presence of Gaussian noise is also analysed. \\<p><p>The state estimation problem can only be solved if the measurements are well distributed over the network and make the network observable. Observability is crucial when trying to solve the state estimation problem. A PMU placement method based on metaheuristics is proposed and compared to an integer programming method. The PMU placement depends on the chosen objective. A given PMU placement can provide full observability or redundancy. The PMU configuration can also take into account the zero injection nodes which further reduce the number of PMUs needed to observe the network. Finally, a method is proposed to determine the order of the PMU placement to gradually extend the observable island. \\<p><p>State estimation errors can be caused by erroneous line parameter or bad calibration of the measurement transformers. The problem in both cases is to filter out the measurement noise when estimating the line parameters or calibration coefficients and state variables. The proposed method uses many measurement samples which are all integrated in an augmented state estimator which estimates the voltage phasors and the additional parameters or calibration coefficients. / Doctorat en Sciences de l'ingénieur / info:eu-repo/semantics/nonPublished
2

Investigation of magnetofluiddynamic acceleration of subsonic inductively coupled plasma

Zuber, Matthew E. 09 March 2006 (has links)
Electromagnetic acceleration has the potential for various applications stemming from space electric propulsion systems to future air breathing hypersonic augmentation.<p>Electromagnetic acceleration uses electromagnetic body force produced by the interactions of currents carried in plasma which is either externally applied or self-induced magnetic fields to accelerate the whole body of gas. Historically, these plasmas sources have been arc jets, shock tube and microwaves. Never has an electromagnetic accelerator been powered by an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source.<p>The von Karman Institute has experimentally investigated the acceleration of an electrically conductive fluid produce by a subsonic ICP source. This ICP source was powered with a 15 kW and 27.1 MHz radio frequency facility called the Minitorch. The electromagnetic acceleration was accomplished with the design, fabrication and testing of a linear Hall current magnetofluiddynamic accelerator (MFDA) channel. The channel was geometrically orientated into the Hall configuration to accounts for the large Hall Effect. This channel used a single pair of copper annulus electrodes powered by a 10 kW direct current power supply. The channel was water cooled and contained various diagnostics to provide greater insight to the electromagnetic acceleration process. This was the first successful magnetofluiddynamic acceleration of an ICP source and validates the proof of concept.<p>One-dimensional MFD modeling was formulated and used to determine the necessary performance requirements of the MFDA channel E and B field subsystems. An interaction parameter of approximately 2.25 was required for the doubling of an inlet velocity of 300 m/sec. The required subsystem need to provide a current density was 6 Amps/cm2 with a magnetic field strength of 0.50 Tesla over an acceleration length of 0.1 meters. Additional the most critical constraint was the thermal management subsystem which was designed to overcome large heat transfer fluxes to achieve a steady state condition over a test run of 10 minutes.<p>The dynamic pressure measured increase the inlet velocity 101% for an argon plasma flowing at 1.01 g/s at a magnetic field strength of 0.49 Tesla. his strong acceleration of the plasma was most notable near the region of the electrodes at the exit of the 0.1 m long channel. The central region of the plasma has less dynamic pressure increase corresponding to only a maximum of 15% increase in velocity at a magnetic strength of 0.49 Tesla. Experimental results showed that axial discharge voltages increased with increased magnetic fields, indicating a strong Hall Effect in the accelerator as expected.<p>Theoretical analysis was accomplished using the one-dimensional equation of motion and was compared to utilizing only the momentum equation. Experimental force fluxes were compared to the calculated values of the one-dimensional equation of motion and momentum equation. The reference area for the current density was selected from intensity measurement using a high speed camera with the MFDA channel on. There was significant error in the analysis concerning using the momentum Lorentz force only versus the one-dimensional equations of motion; which included joule heating. This analysis summarized the necessity to include joule heating in the formulation of the problem. / Doctorat en sciences appliquées / info:eu-repo/semantics/nonPublished
3

Integration of photovoltaic sources and battery based storage systems – A DC analysis and distributed maximum power point tracking solution

Gonzalez, Ander 22 January 2019 (has links) (PDF)
In this thesis the integration of photovolatic (PV) generation and energy storage into the electrical grid is discussed. Although the studied system is for grid tied applications, here the integration of the PV generation and the energy storage system (ESS) on the DC-side of the system is addressed. The work contained in this thesis focuses on the integration of the DC-working parts before interfacing them with the grid through the use of an inverter and seeks an increasing in the energy that the system can deliver.First, a study of classical systems that present well-differentiated parts is presented: PV generation, a lithium-ion battery based ESS, the utility grid and a residential electricity consumer. PV installations of 3 and 10kWp are considered together with storage capacities ranging from 1 to 9kWh. This yields interesting insights on how the system works based on the timing of the generation and consumption of energy. The results are used to highlight the weaknesses of the selected converter arrangement for the interfacing of the PV source and the ESS. Results show that the system is rather stiff and lacks from conversion efficiency when it needs to work in a wide range of powers, mainly due to low consumer power demand during battery discharge. In this first part of the thesis, three solutions to workaround the efficiency problem are proposed: reducing the difference between the ESS and the DC-bus voltages, using isolated converters to interface the ESS, or adopting a new arrangement of the parts of the system. One of the first two proposed solutions should be adopted if the same system topology is to be kept. These two solutions address the efficiency problem when the ESS is involved in the energy conversion. The third solution is proposed as alternative to the classical systems that use a DC-bus to exchange power with the different parts of the system. The new proposed arrangement features a distributed maximum power point (DMPPT) type system that includes storage at module level. DMPPT systems are able to track the maximum power point (MPPT) of each panel separately by connecting a small power electronic converter (PEC) to each PV panel. They are specially useful when the PV installation receives uneven irradiance, i.e. shadows are present in some of the panels, increasing the annual yield of PV energy from 7 to 30% as reported in the literature. Unfortunately, this kind of systems cannot always handle high irradiance mismatches, and fail to track the maximum power point (MPP) throughout the whole installation in some cases. Including batteries at module level instead of connecting them to the DC-bus, allows for increasing the MPPT range of the system, virtually to any severity of irradiance mismatch (depending on the state of charge (SoC) of the battery pack), as well as adding storage capability to the system. The novel proposed system is able to workaround the problems of using non-isolated converters, achieving PV energy conversion efficiencies from 86% (for at least 10% of the peak power) to 90% and storage charge/discharge efficiencies ranging from 86% to 95%. Besides, it brings the opportunity to exploit the synergies of having storage at module level in systems that combine renewable energies and storage. Moreover, DMPPT systems achieve superior PV generation under partially shaded conditions when compared to classical PV arrays increasing the PV generation when compared to classical or centralized PV installations up to 45% in power as reported in the literature.In the second part of the thesis, the proposed novel DMPPT topology is presented. The whole system is fully designed from scratch, including PECs, sizing of the different parts of the modules, embedded control loops of the modules and supervisory control of the whole system. Finally, the results obtained from running the proposed system are shown and discussed, and suggestions given on how to operate and protect the system. Experimental results are obtained using a 1.5kWp PV power and 1.5kWh capacity test bench built for that purpose.The proposed system is able to generate PV energy, store the energy coming from PV generation and inject the generated and stored energy into the grid. The proposed system extends the MPPT capability of storage-less series-connected DMPPT systems. This is achieved by using the batteries not only to store energy when required, but also to compensate the power mismatch across DMPPT modules of the same string when the output voltage of the modules becomes a limit. It also presents a modular and upgradable approach to PV systems including storage. This modularity also brings fault tolerance, and an ability to continue working after failure of one or more of the DMPPT modules by partially or completely isolating the faulty module (depending on the nature of the fault). Moreover, the addition of the DC-DC converters allows for the use of different PV panels in the system, i.e. from different manufacturers or technologies.In conclusion, the presented system is very flexible, can be designed for a wide range of power levels and energy storage sizes, and presents improved reliability when compared to other series-connected DMPPT systems. / Doctorat en Sciences de l'ingénieur et technologie / info:eu-repo/semantics/nonPublished
4

Sensor fault diagnosis for wind-driven doubly-fed induction generators

Galvez Carrillo, Manuel Ricardo 05 January 2011 (has links)
Among the renewable energies, wind energy presents the highest growth in installed capacity and penetration in modern power systems. This is why reliability of wind turbines becomes an important topic in research and industry. To this end, condition monitoring (or health monitoring) systems are needed for wind turbines. The core of any condition monitoring system (CMS) are fault diagnosis algorithms whose task is to provide early warnings upon the occurrence of incipient (small magnitude) faults. Thanks to the use of CMS we can avoid premature breakdowns and reduce significatively maintenance costs.<p><p>The present thesis deals with fault diagnosis in sensors of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) for wind turbine (WT) applications. In particular we are interested in performing fault detection and isolation (FDI) of incipient faults affecting the measurements of the three-phase signals (currents and voltages) in a controlled DFIG. Although different authors have dealt with FDI for sensors in induction machines and in DFIGs, most of them rely on the machine model with<p>constant parameters. However, the parameter uncertainties due to changes in the operating conditions will produce degradation in the performance of such FDI systems.<p><p>In this work we propose a systematic methodology for the design of sensor FDI systems with the following characteristics: i) capable of detecting and isolating incipient additive (bias, drifts) and multiplicative (changes in the sensor<p>gain) faults, ii) robust against changes in the references/disturbances affecting the controlled DFIG as well as modelling/parametric uncertainties, iii) residual generation system based on a multi-observer strategy to enhance the isolation process, iv) decision system based on statistical-change detection algorithms to treat the entire residual and perform fault detection and isolation at once.<p><p>Three novel sensor FDI approaches are proposed. The first is a signal-based approach, that uses the model of the balanced three-phase signals (currents or voltages) for residual generation purposes. The second is a model-based approach<p>that accounts for variation in the parameters. Finally, a third approach that combines the benefits of both the signal- and the model-based approaches is proposed. The designed sensor FDI systems have been validated using measured voltages, as well as simulated data from a controlled DFIG and a speed-controlled induction<p>motor. <p><p>In addition, in this work we propose a discrete-time multiple input multiple output (MIMO) regulator for each power converter, namely for the rotor side converter (RSC) and for the grid side converter (GSC). In particular, for RSC<p>control, we propose a modified feedback linearization technique to obtain a linear time invariant (LTI) model dynamics for the compensated DFIG. The novelty of this approach is that the compensation does not depend on highly uncertain parameters such as the rotor resistance. For GSC control, a LTI model dynamics<p>is derived using the ideas behind feedback linearization. The obtained LTI model dynamics are used to design Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) regulators. A single design is needed for all the possible operating conditions. / Doctorat en Sciences de l'ingénieur / info:eu-repo/semantics/nonPublished
5

Study of the interaction between a gas flow and a liquid film entrained by a moving surface

Gosset, Anne M.E. 27 February 2007 (has links)
This thesis is dedicated to the study of the interaction between a gas jet and a liquid film on a moving surface. This flow configuration corresponds to the gas-jet wiping technique, which is widely used in the coating industry to reduce and control the thickness of a liquid film dragged by a moving substrate. For that purpose, a turbulent slot jet impinges on the liquid surface, involving a runback flow and consequently a lower coating thickness downstream wiping. The different process parameters (nozzle pressure, nozzle to substrate standoff distance, slot width, substrate speed) allow controlling the final film thickness. This metering technique is very common in coating processes, such as the application of gelatin layers on photographic films.<p><p>The first part of this thesis deals with the prediction of the mean jet wiping flow, i.e. the film thickness distribution in the wiping region. A lubrication model is developed for that purpose, which is simplified to a zero-dimensional model giving directly the final thickness<p><p>In the second part, the prediction of splashing occurrence in jet wiping is addressed. The splashing phenomenon in jet wiping is featured by the ejection of droplets from the runback flow, and it constitutes a physical limit to the process. An experimental investigation is conducted on a water model facility, and based on a phenomenological description, a dimensionless correlation in terms of film Reynolds number and jet Weber number is derived for splashing occurrence. The latter is perfectly well validated with observations on industrial lines.<p><p>The last part of this thesis is dedicated to the study of the unsteady phenomena occurring on the free surface of the liquid film downstream wiping. This phenomenon has never been understood nor characterized up to now. In the present research, undulation is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Two model test facilities with dedicated measurement techniques have been designed and constructed. They allow performing parametric studies of the undulation characteristics (amplitude, wavelength, wave velocity), and analyzing the jet/film interaction.<p> / Doctorat en sciences appliquées / info:eu-repo/semantics/nonPublished
6

Analysis of differential diffusion phenomena in high enthalpy flows, with application to thermal protection material testing in ICP facilities

Rini, Pietro 16 March 2006 (has links)
This thesis presents the derivation of the theory leading to the determination of the governing equations of chemically reacting flows under local thermodynamic equilibrium, which rigorously takes into account effects of elemental (de)mixing. As a result, new transport coefficients appear in the equations allowing a quantitative predictions and helping to gain deeper insight into the physics of chemically reacting flows at and near local equilibrium. These transport coefficients have been computed for both air and carbon dioxide mixtures allowing the application of this theory to both Earth and Mars entry problems in the framework of the methodology for the determination of the catalytic activity of Thermal Protections Systems (TPS) materials.<p>Firstly, we analyze the influence of elemental fraction variations on the computation of thermochemical equilibrium flows for both air and carbon dioxide mixtures. To this end, the equilibrium computations are compared with several chemical regimes to better analyze the influence of chemistry on wall heat flux and to observe the elemental fractions behavior along a stagnation line. The results of several computations are presented to highlight the effects of elemental demixing on the stagnation point heat flux and chemical equilibrium composition for air and carbon dioxide mixtures. Moreover, in the chemical nonequilibrium computations, the characteristic time of chemistry is artificially decreased and in the limit the chemical equilibrium regime, with variable elemental fractions, is achieved. Then, we apply the closed form of the equations governing the behavior of local thermodynamic equilibrium flows, accounting for the variation in local elemental concentrations in a rigorous manner, to simulate heat and mass transfer in CO2/N2 mixtures. This allows for the analysis of the boundary layer near the stagnation point of a hypersonic vehicle entering the true Martian atmosphere. The results obtained using this formulation are compared with those obtained using a previous form of the equations where the diffusive fluxes of elements are computed as a linear combination of the species diffusive fluxes. This not only validates the new formulation but also highlights its advantages with respect to the previous one :by using and analyzing the full set of equilibrium transport coefficients we arrive at a deep understanding of the mass and heat transfer for a CO2/N2 mixture.<p>Secondly, we present and analyze detailed numerical simulations of high-pressure inductively coupled air plasma flows both in the torch and in the test chamber using two different mathematical formulations: an extended chemical non-equilibrium formalism including finite rate chemistry and a form of the equations valid in the limit of local thermodynamic equilibrium and accounting for the demixing of chemical elements. Simulations at various operating pressures indicate that significant demixing of oxygen and nitrogen occurs, regardless of the degree of nonequilibrium in the plasma. As the operating pressure is increased, chemistry becomes increasingly fast and the nonequilibrium results correctly approach the results obtained assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium, supporting the validity of the proposed local equilibrium formulation. A similar analysis is conducted for CO2 plasma flows, showing the importance of elemental diffusion on the plasma behavior in the VKI plasmatron torch.<p>Thirdly, the extension of numerical tools developed at the von Karman Institute, required within the methodology for the determination of catalycity properties for thermal protection system materials, has been completed for CO2 flows. Non equilibrium stagnation line computations have been performed for several outer edge conditions in order to analyze the influence of the chemical models for bulk reactions. Moreover, wall surface reactions have been examined, and the importance of several recombination processes has been discussed. This analysis has revealed the limits of the model currently used, leading to the proposal of an alternative approach for the description of the flow-surface interaction. Finally the effects of outer edge elemental fractions on the heat flux map is analyzed, showing the need to add them to the list of parameters of the methodology currently used to determine catalycity properties of thermal protection materials. / Doctorat en sciences appliquées / info:eu-repo/semantics/nonPublished
7

On monitoring methods and load modeling to improve voltage stability assessment efficiency

Genet, Benjamin 02 October 2009 (has links)
Power systems must face new challenges in the current environment. The energy market liberalization and the increase in the loading level make the occurrence of instability phenomena leading to large blackouts more likely. Existing tools must be improved and new tools must be developed to avoid them.<p><p>The aim of this thesis is the improvement of the voltage stability assessment efficiency. Two orientations are studied: the monitoring methods and the load modeling.<p><p>The purpose of the monitoring methods is to evaluate the voltage stability using only measurements and without running simulations. <p><p>The first approach considered is local. The parameters of the Thevenin equivalent seen from a load bus are assessed thanks to a stream of local voltage and current measurements. Several issues are investigated using measurements coming from complete time-domain simulations. The applicability of this approach is questioned.<p><p>The second approach is global and uses measurements acquired by a Wide-Area Measurement System (WAMS). An original approach with a certain prediction capability is proposed, along with intuitive visualizations that allow to understand the deterioration process leading to the collapse.<p><p>The load modeling quality is certainly the weak point of the voltage security assessment tools which run simulations to predict the stability of the power system depending on different evolutions. Appropriate load models with accurate parameters lead to a direct improvement of the prediction precision.<p><p>An innovative procedure starting from data of long measurement campaigns is proposed to automatically evaluate the parameters of static and dynamic load models. Real measurements taken in the Belgian power system are used to validate this approach.<p> / Doctorat en Sciences de l'ingénieur / info:eu-repo/semantics/nonPublished
8

Impact of decentralized power on power systems

Morales, Ana 28 September 2006 (has links)
Wind generation is one of the most successful sources of renewable energy for the production of electrical energy. Wind power offers relatively high capacities, with generation costs that are becoming competitive with conventional energy sources. However, a major problem to its effective use as a power source is the fact that it is both intermittent and diffuse as wind speed is highly variable and site-specific. This is translated in large voltage and frequency excursions and dynamically unstable situations when fast wind power changes. Very high wind speeds will result in sudden loss of wind generator production. The requirement to ensure that sufficient spinning reserve capacity exists within the system to compensate for sudden loss of generation becomes crucial. From the utilities operators’point of view, the primary objective is the security of the system, followed by the quality of the supplied power.<p>In order to guard the system security and quality of supply and retain acceptable levels, a maximum allowed wind power penetration (wind margin) is normally assumed by the operators. Very conservative methods are used to assess the impact of wind power and the consequences turn to under-exploitation of the wind power potential in a given region. This thesis presents the study of actual methods of wind power assessment, divided into three parts:<p>1. Part I: Impact on the Security of Power Systems<p>2. Part II: Impact on the Power Quality<p>3. Part III: Impact on the Dynamic Security of Power Systems / Doctorat en sciences appliquées / info:eu-repo/semantics/nonPublished
9

Photonics for nuclear environments from radiation effects to applications in sensing and data-communication

Fernandez Fernandez, Alberto 07 July 2006 (has links)
Doctorat en sciences appliquées / info:eu-repo/semantics/nonPublished
10

Numerical and experimental investigation of aerosol transport and depostion in the human lung

Darquenne, Chantal 22 June 1995 (has links)
<p align="justify">Cette thèse traite de l'étude numérique et expérimentale du transport et de la déposition d'aérosols dans les poumons. La partie numérique du travail porte sur des simulations uni-, bi- et tridimensionnelles du comportement des aérosols dans la structure pulmonaire. Les simulations unidimensionnelles (1D) sont effectuées dans des modèles trompettes et multibranche similaires à ceux utilisés dans les études de transport et de mélange gazeux dans les poumons. Le dépôt total, le profil des dépôts le long des différentes générations de l'arbre bronchique ainsi que la dispersion de boli d'aérosols sont calculés en fonction de la taille des particules et du protocole respiratoire. Un bolus consiste en un faible volume d'aérosols inhalé sous la forme d'un pic de concentration au cours d'une inspiration d'air pur. Les résultats montrent les limitations intrinsèques liées aux modèles 1D quant à la description du transport des aérosols dans les poumons et suggèrent l'utilisation d'équations multidimensionnelles pour décrire le transport de particules. Des simulations bidimensionnelles (2D) sont alors développées pour décrire le comportement des aérosols dans un modèle représentatif de la zone alvéolaire du poumon humain. Les simulations montrent que les particules ne se déposent pas uniformément sur les parois alvéolaires des conduits mais qu'elles sont principalement localisées près de l'entrée des alvéoles et ceci principalement dans le cas de petites particules (diamètre inférieure à 0.5 mm). De plus, les résultats montrent que le traditionnel coefficient de dispersion utilisé dans l'approche unidimensionnelle ne peut pas être extrapolé dans la zone alvéolaire du poumon.</p><p><p align="justify">Finalement, des simulations tridimensionnelles (3D) sont réalisées dans un modèle d'un conduit pulmonaire entouré d'alvéoles et confirment la déposition largement hétérogène des aérosols calculée dans l'étude bidimensionnelle suggérant que les concentrations locales et moyennes en aérosols peuvent être substantiellement différentes.</p><p><p align="justify">Parallèlement, des données expérimentales de déposition totale et de dispersion de boli d'aérosols sont obtenues et comparées aux résultats numériques. Des indices tels que la dispersion du bolus expiré, la déposition totale ou le déplacement du mode entre les courbes de concentration des boli inspiré et expiré mesurés au niveau de la bouche ont été évalués. Des simulations numériques similaire aux tests expérimentaux sont également effectuées. Bien qu'une approche relativement simplifiée soit utilisée, il apparaît que les simulations décrivent raisonnablement bien les résultats expérimentaux.</p><p> / Doctorat en sciences appliquées / info:eu-repo/semantics/nonPublished

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