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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Molecular investigations of speciation in the sea comparing patterns of diversification in freshwater and marine organisms /

Wilson, Anthony Bruce. January 2002 (has links) (PDF)
Konstanz, University, Diss., 2002.
2

Der Umgang mit knappen Ressourcen aus evolutionsbiologischer und umweltpädagogischer Sicht /

Swonke, Bertram. January 2000 (has links)
Thesis (doctoral)--Universität, Heidelberg, 1999.
3

Singstreit, Ständchen und Signale : zur Biologie und Evolution musikalischen Verhaltens /

Lehmann, Christian. January 2009 (has links)
Zugl.: München, Universiẗat, Diss., 2006.
4

Singstreit, Ständchen und Signale zur Biologie und Evolution musikalischen Verhaltens

Lehmann, Christian January 2006 (has links)
Zugl.: München, Univ., Diss., 2006
5

Der Larvenkopf von Oniscigaster wakefieldi McLachlan, 1873 (Insecta - Ephemeroptera - Onscigastridae) /

Staniczek, Arnold H., January 2001 (has links)
Tübingen, Univ., Diss., 2001.
6

Belege für eine evolutionär bedingte Partnerwahlpsychologie Replizierungen im Rahmen der Sexual Strategies Theory (SST) von BUSS (1993) mit einer theoretische Einführung in die evolutionäre Psychologie

Kern, Sascha Unknown Date (has links)
Univ., Diplomarbeit, 2006--Frankfurt (Main)
7

Evolution by genome duplication: insights from vertebrate neural crest signaling and pigmentation pathways in teleost fishes / Evolution durch Genomverdoppelung: Erkenntnisse aus Analysen der Signalwege in der Neuralleiste der Vertebraten und in den Pigmentzellen im Fisch

Braasch, Ingo January 2009 (has links) (PDF)
Gene and genome duplications are major mechanisms of eukaryotic genome evolution. Three rounds of genome duplication have occurred in the vertebrate lineage, two rounds (1R, 2R) during early vertebrate evolution and a third round, the fish-specific genome duplication (FSGD), in ray-finned fishes at the base of the teleost lineage. Whole genome duplications (WGDs) are considered to facilitate speciation processes and to provide the genetic raw material for major evolutionary transitions and increases in morphological complexity. In the present study, I have used comparative genomic approaches combining molecular phylogenetic reconstructions, synteny analyses as well as gene function studies (expression analyses and knockdown experiments) to investigate the evolutionary consequences and significance of the three vertebrate WGDs. First, the evolutionary history of the endothelin signaling system consisting of endothelin ligands and receptors was reconstructed. The endothelin system is a key component for the development of a major vertebrate innovation, the neural crest. This analysis shows that the endothelin system emerged in an ancestor of the vertebrate lineage and that its members in extant vertebrate genomes are derived from the vertebrate WGDs. Each round of WGD was followed by co-evolution of the expanding endothelin ligand and receptor repertoires. This supports the importance of genome duplications for the origin and diversification of the neural crest, but also underlines a major role for the co-option of new genes into the neural crest regulatory network. Next, I have studied the impact of the FSGD on the evolution of teleost pigment cell development and differentiation. The investigation of 128 genes showed that pigmentation genes have been preferentially retained in duplicate after the FSGD so that extant teleost genomes contain around 30% more putative pigmentation genes than tetrapods. Large parts of pigment cell regulatory pathways are present in duplicate being potentially involved in teleost pigmentary innovations. There are also important differences in the retention of duplicated pigmentation genes among divergent teleost lineages. Functional studies of pigment synthesis enzymes in zebrafish and medaka, particularly of the tyrosinase family, revealed lineage-specific functional evolution of duplicated pigmentation genes in teleosts, but also pointed to anciently conserved gene functions in vertebrates. These results suggest that the FSGD has facilitated the evolution of the teleost pigmentary system, which is the most complex and diverse among vertebrates. In conclusion, the present study supports a major role of WGDs for phenotypic evolution and biodiversity in vertebrates, particularly in fish. / Gen- und Genomverdopplungen sind wichtige Mechanismen der Genomevolution in Eukaryonten. Im Verlauf der Evolution der Wirbeltiere gab es drei wichtige Genomduplikationen. Zwei Genomverdopplungen (1R, 2R) fanden während der sehr frühen Vertebratenevolution statt. In der Linie der Fische kam es an der Basis der Teleostier zu einer weiteren, fischspezifischen Genomduplikation (FSGD). Man nimmt an, dass Genomduplizierungen Artbildungsprozesse begünstigen und dass sie zusätzliches genetisches Material für wichtige evolutionäre Übergänge und für die Steigerung morphologischer Komplexität erzeugen. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Methoden der vergleichenden und funktionellen Genomik gewählt, um die Auswirkungen und die Bedeutung der drei Genomverdopplungen bei Vertebraten zu untersuchen. Dazu wurden molekularphylogenetische Stammbaumanalysen und Synteniedaten mit Genexpressionsstudien und Knockdown-Experimenten kombiniert. Zunächst wurde die Evolution des Endothelin-Signalsystems rekonstruiert. Dieses besteht aus Endothelin-Liganden und -Rezeptoren und hat eine Schlüsselrolle in die Entwicklung der Neuralleiste. Die Neuralleiste und die von ihr abgeleiteten Zelltypen sind wirbeltierspezifische Innovationen. Die Analyse zeigt, dass das Endothelin-System in einem gemeinsamen Vorfahren der Vertebraten entstanden ist. Die in den Genomen rezenter Vertebraten vorkommenden Komponenten des Endothelin-Systems sind durch die drei Genomverdoppelungen entstanden. Nach jeder der Duplizierungen kam es zur Ko-Evolution der Liganden- und Rezeptorenfamilien. Die Evolution des Endothelin-System unterstreicht daher die Bedeutung der Genomduplizierungen für den Ursprung und die Diversifizierung der Neuralleiste. Sie weist aber auch auf eine wichtige Rolle für die Integrierung neuer Gene in das regulatorische Netzwerk der Neuralleiste hin. Im Weiteren wurde der Einfluss der FSGD auf die Evolution der Pigmentzellentwicklung und differenzierung in Teleostiern untersucht. Die evolutionäre Analyse von 128 Genen zeigte, dass Pigmentierungsgene nach der FSGD bevorzugt in zwei Kopien erhalten geblieben sind. Daher besitzen rezente Teleostier im Vergleich zu Landwirbeltieren zusätzlich ca. 30% mehr Gene mit potentiellen Funktionen für die Pigmentierung. Große Teile der regulatorischen Signalwege in den Pigmentzellen liegen daher als zwei Kopien vor. Diese waren möglicherweise an der Evolution von Innovationen in der Körperfärbung von Teleostiern beteiligt. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden auch wichtige Unterschiede zwischen verschiedenen Fischgruppen im Erhalt duplizierter Pigmentierungsgene gefunden. Funktionelle Studien bei Zebrafish und bei Medaka an Enzymen der Pigmentsynthese, insbesondere der Tyrosinase-Familie, gaben Hinweise darauf, dass die funktionelle Evolution duplizierter Pigmentierungsgene in Fischen linienspezifisch verlaufen kann. Die Studien ergaben außerdem, dass bestimmte Funktionen der Pigmentsyntheseenzyme innerhalb der Vertebraten konserviert sind. Die Evolution des Pigmentierungssystems der Fische, welches das vielfältigste und komplexeste innerhalb der Wirbeltiere ist, wurde somit maßgeblich durch die FSGD beeinflusst. Zusammenfassend weisen die Ergebnisse der vorliegenden Arbeit darauf hin, dass die Verdopplung ganzer Genome ein wichtiger Mechanismus der phänotypische Evolution bei Vertebraten ist und damit in besonderem Maße zur ihrer Biodiversität beiträgt.
8

Human Adaptation in the Light of Ancient and Modern Genomes

Key, Felix-Michael 13 June 2016 (has links) (PDF)
Modern humans originated in Africa around 200,000 years ago and today have settled in nearly every corner of earth. During migrations humans became exposed to new pathogens, food sources and have encountered vastly different environments. Natural selection likely contributed to the survival under such diverse conditions by promoting the raise in frequency of advantageous alleles. Thereby natural selection leaves genetic footprints that we can identify. The thesis at hand is about understanding how natural selection has shaped different human populations by analyzing these genetic footprints. In the first study, I infer the evolutionary history of an insertion-substitution variant using present-day human genomic data. This variant is interesting because the ancestral allele encodes a previously unannotated open-reading frame for a gene with antiviral ac- tivity (IFNL4 ), while the derived allele truncates this open-reading frame and is strongly associated with improved clearance of Hepatitis C, a major health care problem. Using an approximate bayesian computation approach I infer a complex evolutionary history, where the derived, truncating allele evolved under weak positive selection in Africa, with selection strength increasing in non-African populations, especially in East Asian popu- lations where the truncating allele is nearly fixed today. Hence, the changes in selection and resulting population differences in allele frequency contribute to the variation in Hep- atitis C clearance observed across human populations today. In the second study, I use ancient human genomes to estimate genome-wide allele frequencies in the past to understand present-day population differentiation. I develop a new statistic and incorporate the genome of Ust’-Ishim, a modern human that lived 45,000 year ago in Siberia, to study to what extent natural selection and drift have contributed to human population differentiation. The results suggest that European populations carry high frequency alleles in protein-coding (genic) regions that evolved under strong, recent positive selection. Further, the genic alleles that rose in frequency recently in Europeans were already present in ancient hunter-gatherers more often than in ancient farmers. This suggests that during the colonization of Europe local, positive selection changed the frequency of advantageous alleles in hunter-gatherer populations prior to the influx of farming individuals and those alleles remained beneficial also in the later admixed populations.
9

Human Adaptation in the Light of Ancient and Modern Genomes

Key, Felix-Michael 22 April 2016 (has links)
Modern humans originated in Africa around 200,000 years ago and today have settled in nearly every corner of earth. During migrations humans became exposed to new pathogens, food sources and have encountered vastly different environments. Natural selection likely contributed to the survival under such diverse conditions by promoting the raise in frequency of advantageous alleles. Thereby natural selection leaves genetic footprints that we can identify. The thesis at hand is about understanding how natural selection has shaped different human populations by analyzing these genetic footprints. In the first study, I infer the evolutionary history of an insertion-substitution variant using present-day human genomic data. This variant is interesting because the ancestral allele encodes a previously unannotated open-reading frame for a gene with antiviral ac- tivity (IFNL4 ), while the derived allele truncates this open-reading frame and is strongly associated with improved clearance of Hepatitis C, a major health care problem. Using an approximate bayesian computation approach I infer a complex evolutionary history, where the derived, truncating allele evolved under weak positive selection in Africa, with selection strength increasing in non-African populations, especially in East Asian popu- lations where the truncating allele is nearly fixed today. Hence, the changes in selection and resulting population differences in allele frequency contribute to the variation in Hep- atitis C clearance observed across human populations today. In the second study, I use ancient human genomes to estimate genome-wide allele frequencies in the past to understand present-day population differentiation. I develop a new statistic and incorporate the genome of Ust’-Ishim, a modern human that lived 45,000 year ago in Siberia, to study to what extent natural selection and drift have contributed to human population differentiation. The results suggest that European populations carry high frequency alleles in protein-coding (genic) regions that evolved under strong, recent positive selection. Further, the genic alleles that rose in frequency recently in Europeans were already present in ancient hunter-gatherers more often than in ancient farmers. This suggests that during the colonization of Europe local, positive selection changed the frequency of advantageous alleles in hunter-gatherer populations prior to the influx of farming individuals and those alleles remained beneficial also in the later admixed populations.
10

Aerodynamics of the Maple Seed

Desenfans, Philip January 2019 (has links) (PDF)
Purpose - The paper presents a theoretical framework that describes the aerodynamics of a falling maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) seed. --- Methodology - A semi-empirical method is developed that provides a ratio stating how much longer a seed falls in air compared to freefall. The generated lift is calculated by evaluating the integral of two-dimensional airfoil elements using a preliminary falling speed. This allows for the calculation of the definitive falling speed using Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT); hereafter, the fall duration in air and in freefall are obtained. Furthermore, the input-variables of the calculation of lift are transformed to require only the length and width of the maple seed. Lastly, the method is applied to two calculation examples as a means of validation. --- Findings - The two example calculations gave percentual errors of 5.5% and 3.7% for the falling speed when compared to measured values. The averaged result is that a maple seed falls 9.9 times longer in air when released from 20 m; however, this result is highly dependent on geometrical parameters which can be accounted for using the constructed method. --- Research limitations - Firstly, the coefficient of lift is unknown for the shape of a maple seed. Secondly, the approximated transient state is yet to be verified by measurement. --- Originality / Value - The added value of this report lies in the reduction of simplifications compared to BEMT approaches. In this way a large amount of accuracy is achieved due to the inclusion of many geometrical parameters, even though simplicity is maintained. This has been accomplished through constructing a simple three-step method that is fundamental and essentially non-iterative.

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