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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Avalia??o de bact?rias nitrificantes em filtros biol?gicos submersos aerados

Delgado, Tatiana Cardoso 06 November 2009 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-12-17T15:03:23Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 TatianaCD_DISSERT.PDF: 3494650 bytes, checksum: b64da14488429ca5572f84e37365b101 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2009-11-06 / Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior / This study investigates a new treatment system of wastewater by anaerobic and aerobic biological filters for nitrogen modification. The main objective of this study was evaluate, on a pilot scale, quantitatively and qualitatively the bacterian nitrifying community in a experimental sewage treatment system made by aerobics biological filters in series, in search of figure out the dynamic of nitrogen modification process. It was collected and laboratorial analysed microbiologically, regarding NMP of Nitrosomonas e Nitrobacter, and physical-chemically considering nitrogen sequence. We conclude that: the association in aerobic biological filters under nutrition controlled conditions and oxygen level allows the appearance of bacterian community responsible for the nitrogen modification; the method used, despite its limitations, provided the selection of autotrophic nitrifying microorganisms, allowing the identification of Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter; the flow direction tested in the experimental unit did not affect the nitrifying bacterial community, certainly because they were kept drowned and did not occur flow speed that could breake the formed biomass; the nitrification process happened in aerated biological filters in all phases of the research, comproved by microbiological tests; in the third phase of the research the increase of the oxygen rate was significant for the nitrificant bacterian community in the aerate biological filters, allowing its growth, occurring relation between the efficiency of nitrification system and the quantity of organisms responsible for this process; the conduit used in aerated biological filters showed satisfactory performance support material to the nitrifying bacteria development / Neste estudo foi pesquisado um novo sistema de tratamento de efluente com filtros biol?gicos anaer?bios e aer?bios, visando a transforma??o das formas de nitrog?nio. O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em escala piloto, quantitativamente e qualitativamente a comunidade bacteriana nitrificante em um sistema de tratamento de esgoto experimental composto por filtros biol?gicos submersos aerados em s?rie, para compreender a din?mica no processo de transforma??o de nitrog?nio. Para tal, foram feitas coletas e an?lises laboratoriais tanto microbiol?gicas, no que diz respeito ? NMP de Nitrosomonas e Nitrobacter, quanto f?sico-qu?micas, com rela??o ? seq??ncia nitrogenada. Diante dos resultados obtidos p?de-se concluir que: a associa??o em s?rie de filtros biol?gicos aer?bio sob condi??es controladas de nutri??o e n?vel de oxig?nio permitiu a forma??o da comunidade bacteriana respons?vel pela transforma??o de nitrog?nio; o m?todo utilizado, apesar de suas limita??es, propiciou a sele??o de microorganismos autotr?ficos nitrificantes, permitindo a identifica??o de Nitrosomonas e Nitrobacter; os sentidos de fluxo testados na unidade experimental n?o influenciaram a comunidade bacteriana nitrificante, certamente porque foram mantidos afogados e n?o ocorreu velocidade de fluxo capaz de cisalhar a biomassa formada; o processo de nitrifica??o ocorreu nos filtros biol?gicos aerados em todas as fases da pesquisa, tendo sido isto comprovado pelos exames microbiol?gicos; na terceira fase da pesquisa o aumento da taxa de oxigena??o foi significativo para a comunidade bacteriana nitrificante nos filtros biol?gicos aerados, favorecendo seu crescimento, havendo desta forma rela??o entre a efici?ncia do sistema na nitrifica??o e a quantidade de organismos respons?veis por esse processo; os an?is de eletroduto utilizado nos filtros biol?gicos aerados mostraram desempenho satisfat?rio como material suporte para o desenvolvimento bacteriano nitrificante
2

Nitrifica??o de efluentes de reatores anaer?bicos em filtros submersos aerados

Ara?jo, Raulyson Ferreira de 06 November 2009 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-12-17T15:03:24Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 RaulysonFA_DISSERT.pdf: 2784918 bytes, checksum: f9eec0ac84786bd83f2f7e5f5d700dcc (MD5) Previous issue date: 2009-11-06 / Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior / Although the good performance in organic matter and suspended solids removal, the anaerobic reactors are unable to remove ammonia nitrogen from sewage, which makes indispensable to include a step of post-treatment for removal of ammonia or nitrate as necessary. This paper presents the performance of a new variant technology, where the nitrification unit, preceded by anaerobic units, is a submerged aerated biological filter, without continuous sludge discharge in their daily operation. The oxygenation system is very simple and inexpensive, consisting of perforated hoses and compressors. The anaerobic reactors are a septic tank with two chambers followed (8.82 m?) and two parallel anaerobic filters (36 m? each) filled with ceramic bricks and conics plastic parts. Both followed aerated filters were filled with cut corrugated conduit. The study evaluated the behavior of the system with constant domestic sewage flow (10 m?/d) and different aeration conditions, are these: stage 01, when applied air flow of 0.01 m? air/min in both aerated filter; stage 02, remained in the initial air flow rate in the second aerated filter and increased at the first to 0.05 m? air/min; at last, at last, in stage 03, the air flow rate of first aerated filter was 0.10 m? air/min and on the second remained at 0.01 m? air/min. The filter FA1 received load of 0.41 kg COD/m?.d, 0.37 kg COD/m?.d and 0.26 kg COD/m?.d on phases 01, 02 and 03, respectively. The FA2 received loads of 0.25 kg COD/m?.d, 0.18 kg COD/m?.d and 0.14 kg COD/m?.d on phases 01, 02 and 03, respectively. During stage 01, were found the following results: 98% removals of BODtotal and 92% of CODtotal, with effluent presenting 9 mg/L of BODtotal final average and 53 mg/L of CODtotal average; suspended solids removals of 93%, with a mean concentration of 10 mg/L in the final effluent; 47% reduction of ammonia of FA2 to FAN 's, presenting average of 28 mg NNH3/ L of ammonia in the effluent with; the dissolved oxygen levels always remained around 2.0 mg/L. During stage 02, were found removals of 97% and 95% to BODtotal and suspended solids, respectively, with average final concentrations of 8 and 7 mg/L, respectively; was removed 60% of ammonia, whose final concentration was 16.3 mg NNH3/ L, and nitrate was increased to a final average concentration of 16.55 mg N-NO3/L. Finally, the stage 03 provided 6 mg/L of DBOtotal (98% removal) and 23 mg/L of CODtotal (95% removal) of final effluent concentrations average. At this stage was identified the higher ammonia oxidation (86%), with final effluent showing average concentration of 6.1 mg N-NH3/L, reaching a minimum of 1.70 mg N-NH3/L. In some moments, during stage 03, there was a moderate denitrification process in the last aerated filter. The average turbidity in the effluent showed around 1.5 NTU, proving the good biomass physical stability. Therefore, the results demonstrate the submerged biological filters potential, filled with high void ratio material (98%), and aerated with hoses and compressor adoption, in the carbonaceous and nitrogenous matter oxidation, also generating an effluent with low concentration of solids / Apesar de bom desempenho no tocante ? remo??o de mat?ria org?nica e s?lidos suspensos, os reatores anaer?bios s?o incapazes de remover nitrog?nio amoniacal dos esgotos, o que torna indispens?vel a inclus?o de uma etapa de p?s-tratamento para a remo??o da am?nia ou do nitrato, sempre que necess?rio. Neste trabalho ? apresentado o desempenho de uma nova variante tecnol?gica, em que a unidade de nitrifica??o, precedida por unidades anaer?bias, ? um filtro biol?gico submerso aerado, sem cont?nuas descargas de lodo em sua opera??o cotidiana. O sistema de oxigena??o ? muito simples e de baixo custo, constitu?do por mangueiras perfuradas e compressores. Os reatores anaer?bios s?o um decanto-digestor de duas c?maras em s?rie (8,82 m?) e dois filtros anaer?bios em paralelo (cada um com 3,36 m?) preenchidos com tijolo cer?mico e pe?as pl?sticas c?nicas. Os dois filtros aerados, em s?rie, foram preenchidos com eletrodutos corrugados cortados. No estudo avaliou-se o comportamento do sistema com vaz?o de esgoto dom?stico constante (10 m?/d) e diferentes condi??es de aera??o, quais sejam: fase 01, quando se aplicou vaz?o de 0,01 m? ar/min nos dois filtros aerados; fase 02, manteve-se a vaz?o inicial no segundo filtro aerado e aumentou a do primeiro para 0,05 m? ar/min; por fim, na fase 03, a vaz?o do primeiro filtro aerado foi 0,10 m? ar/min e a do segundo permaneceu ainda em 0,01 m? ar/min. O filtro FA1 recebeu carga de 0,41 kg DQO/m?.d, 0,37 kg DQO/m?.d e 0,26 kg DQO/m?.d nas fases 0,1, 02 e 03, respectivamente. O FA2 recebeu cargas de 0,25 kg DQO/m?.d, 0,18 kg DQO/m?.d e 0,14 kg DQO/m?.d nas fases 01, 02 e 03, respectivamente. Durante a fase 01, foram observados os seguintes resultados: remo??es de 98% de DBOtotal e 92% de DQOtotal, com efluente apresentando DBOtotal m?dia final de 9 mg/L e DQOtotal m?dia de 53 mg/L; remo??o em torno de 93% de s?lidos suspensos, com concentra??o m?dia de 10 mg/L no efluente final; redu??o de 47% de am?nia do FA2/FAN s, apresentando am?nia no efluente final com m?dia de 28 mg N-NH3/L; os n?veis de oxig?nio dissolvido sempre mantiveram-se em torno de 2,0 mg/L. Durante a fase 02, foram verificados para DBOtotal e s?lidos suspensos remo??es de 97% e 95%, respectivamente, com concentra??es finais m?dias de 8 e 7 mg/L, respectivamente; o nitrog?nio amoniacal foi removido em 60%, cuja concentra??o final foi de 16,3 mg N-NH3/L, e o nitrato foi incrementado para uma concentra??o m?dia final de 16,55 mg N-NO3 -/L. Por fim, a fase 03 proporcionou efluente com concentra??es finais m?dias de 6 mg/L de DBOtotal (remo??o de 98%) e 23 mg/L de DQOtotal (remo??o de 95%). Nesta fase foi identificada a maior oxida??o de nitrog?nio amoniacal (86%), com efluente final apresentando concentra??o m?dia de 6,1 mg NNH3/ L, chegando a alcan?ar m?nimo de 1,70 mg N-NH3/L. Em alguns momentos, na fase 03, verificou-se um moderado processo de desnitrifica??o no ?ltimo filtro aerado. A turbidez m?dia no efluente final se mostrou da ordem de 1,5 NTU, comprovando a boa estabilidade f?sica da biomassa. Portanto, os resultados demonstram o potencial dos filtros biol?gicos submersos, preenchidos com material de elevado ?ndice de vazios (98%), e aerados com uso de mangueiras e compressor, na oxida??o de mat?ria carbon?cea e nitrogenada, gerando tamb?m um efluente com baixa concentra??o de s?lidos

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