Bushula, Vuyiswa Sylvia.
Thesis (MSc)--University of Stellenbosch, 2008. / Bibliography. Also available via the Internet.
Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and potential for inoculation of commercial berry species (Vaccinium corymbosium L.)Bizabani, Christine January 2011 (has links)
Ericaceous plants are the richest growth form of the fynbos vegetation of South Africa. The fynbos is characterized by highly leached acidic soils, low mineral nutrients and climatically it is a winter rainfall and dry summer region. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi associate with Erica species enhancing their ability to access essential nutrients for survival under unfavourable growth conditions. The aim of this study was to select local Ericaceae plant species and to isolate, identify and characterize the ericoid endophytes and assess these isolates as potential inocula for commercial berry species. Two ericaceous plants Erica cerinthoides L. and Erica demmissa Klotzsch ex Benth. were identified from the Mountain Drive area of Grahamstown, Eastern Cape. Root staining was used to confirm the mycorrhizal status of both plants. Hyphal coils typical of ericoid association were observed within the epidermal cells of the hair roots under a light microscope. The endophytes were successfully isolated in pure culture on 2% malt extract agar (MEA) and modified Fontana medium. Cultural morphology and microscopy were used for initial identification. Two slow growing isolates were selected. These isolates were further subjected to molecular identification; extracted DNA was amplified using ITS1 and ITS4 fungal primers. The rDNA gene internal transcriber spacer (ITS) was then sequenced and analyzed by comparison to sequences in the GenBank. On the basis of percentage sequence identity Lachnum Retz. species and Cadophora Lagerb. & Melin species were identified as the ericoid endophytes of E. cerinthoides and E. demmissa respectively. The optimum growth parameters of the fungal isolates were determined in 2% MEA incubated at varying temperatures and pH. It was established that both species had optimum growth at 27⁰C and pH 5. The Ericaceae species are sometimes found in metal contaminated sites were ericoid fungi have been proved to alleviate toxicity of their host. The fungal isolates were grown in increasing concentration of Cu²⁺ and Zn²⁺ in 2% MEA. The growth of Lachnum species decreased with increasing Zn²⁺ ions above 2.7 mM while Cadophora species showed a change in morphology and also decreased in growth with increased ion concentration. However there were no significant differences recorded in the growth of Cadophora and Lachnum species on increasing Cu²⁺ concentration. Lachnum and Cadophora isolates were formulated into a semi solid inoculum and inoculated onto micropropagated Vaccinni corymbosum L. plantlets of 5 different varieties. Colonization was low for all varieties, Elliott and Brightwell varieties recorded the highest colonization of 35% and 31% respectively. Lachnum species infected roots showed potential ericoid structures while the Cadophora inoculated plantlets had hyphal coils within the cortical cells typical of ericoid mycorrhizas. Inoculation significantly enhanced the shoot growth of Brightwell and Elliott varieties. The Chandler variety inoculated with Lachnum species showed improved shoot dry weight. The Bluecrop and Elliott varieties inoculated with Cadophora and Lachnum accumulated more root biomass. All inoculated Bluecrop plantlets had an improved canopy growth index. Brightwell plantlets inoculated with Lachnum species also had an enhanced canopy growth index. The growth responses were variable within varieties and between varieties. Treatments with the Cadophora and Lachnum have shown potential in the promotion of growth of the Blueberry species. The findings indicate the need to conduct trials under conditions which simulate the commercial growth conditions so as explore the optimum potential of the isolates.
Adams, Trevor Deon
Thesis (MTech (Horticulture))--Cape Peninsula University of Technology, 2014 / The effects of liquid Kelpak® and Kelpak® Plantit® disk growth regulator on the growth responses of three selected fynbos species were evaluated in this study. The experiment was arranged using a block design, consisting of 270 plant samples. The experiment consisted of three fynbos species, Coleonema album, Erica verticillata and Leucospermum cordifolium. Each species was subjected to three treatments, the control with no applications, liquid Kelpak® and Kelpak® Plantit® disks (hereafter referred to as disks). The control consisted of 10 plants samples, for each of the three species, arranged is numerical order 1-10. The liquid Kelpak® consisted of 40 plant samples. These 40 plants were divided into 4 groups, containing 10 plants and each group having a different treatment with group 1; 300 ml, group 2; 200 ml, group 3; 100 ml and group 4; 50 ml. The disks consisted of 40 plant samples. These 40 plants were divided into 4 groups, containing 10 plants each and each group having a different treatment with group 1, 2 disks, group 2, 1 disk, group 3, ½ disk and group 4 ¼ disk. The objectives of this study were to assess the desired application of Kelpak® by analysing the physiological improvements or growth responses on of Coleonema album, Erica verticillata and Leucospermum cordifolium. Prior to planting, pre-trial measurements were recorded of each individual cutting. A standard ruler was used to measure the root length and shoot length of each plant, measurements were taken in millimetres. The weight of each plant was measured with a Radwag AS 220/C/2 analytical scale in grams. Plant growth, in terms of plant height was measured on a weekly basis. Plant height was measured with a standard ruler, from the surface of the medium to the tip of the tallest leaf. Watering during the trial period was conducted, using a hand held hose with a rosehead sprayer twice a week and during the third month of the trial once a week. Each container received an average of 250 ml of water. The final week of the trial final readings of the plants was conducted. Plants were carefully harvested and their roots were rinsed with tap water. A standard ruler was used to measure the root length and shoot length of each plant. The roots and shoots were then separated with a secateurs from each other. The fresh weight of each root and shoot weighed and recorded. The combined total weight in grams was captured. The roots and shoots were placed in a manila brown paper bag and placed in a laboratory oven at 55°C for 48 hours. The plants were then removed from the oven and the dry weight of each root and shoot weighed. The combined total was also recorded. The results indicated that liquid Kelpak® and Kelpak® Plantit® disk had an effect on the growth of fynbos species at different application rates. Liquid Kelpak® and Kelpak® Plantit® disks had significantly increased the shoot, root growth and total weight of plants in C. album grown in 15 cm pots over an 18 week period. The liquid Kelpak® indicated higher growth rates in the initial growing stages of C. album as the liquid was immediately available to the plant. The Kelpak ® Plantit® disks had better influence on the growth over a longer period as the disk dissolved at a slower rate which eventually became available to the plant. The liquid Kelpak® and Kelpak® Plantit® disks had significantly increased the dry root weight and post-harvest root length of E. verticillata grown in 15 cm pots over a period. The Kelpak® Plantit® disks indicated higher growth rates in the dry root weight of E. verticillata but both the liquid and the disk had a positive effect on the post-harvest root length. The results also indicated that the successful rooting of E. verticillata was attributed to rooting hormone Seradix 2 under greenhouse heating environment. Liquid Kelpak® and Kelpak® Plantit® disks had significantly increased the wet and dry shoot weights, dry root weights and post-harvest wet and dry total plant weights of L. cordifolium grown in 15 cm pots over the growth period. The Kelpak® Plantit® disks indicated higher growth rates in the dry shoot weights of L. cordifolium but both the liquid and the disk had a significant effect on the wet shoot weight. The liquid and the disks were also responsible for the improved dry root weight. The liquid application indicated the best post-harvest wet weight but the disks improved the post-harvest dry weights. It can therefore be confirmed that organic seaweed concentrates such as Kelpak® is effective on the growth development of L. cordifolium.
The role of overstorey proteoid shrubs in maintaining species richness in a southern Cape mountain fynbos community.Vlok, Johannes Hendrik Jacobus. January 1996 (has links)
This study was conducted to determine if, and how, over storey proteoid shrubs affect the species richness of a southern Cape mountain fynbos community. Protea eximia, P. lorifolia and P. repens were the dominant overstorey shrubs in the community studied. The percentage canopy cover and density of overstorey protea shrubs before a fire were regressed against the a-diversity of understorey species after a fire, for spatial scales ranging from 1 - 100m². High canopy cover percentages (≥ 50%) and high densities (≥ 30 plants per 100m²) of overstorey proteas before a fire enriched the a-diversity levels of understorey species after a fire. The spatial scale at which α-diversity was measured affected results. The number of understorey species at a site, where overstorey proteas were absent for several fire-cycles, was compared with those where overstorey proteas persisted. The number of understorey species was least where the overstorey proteas were lacking for several fire-cycles, but results also depended on the spatial scale at which α-diversity was measured. The basal cover percentage and density of sprouting understorey species of two sites, burned at several short (6 year) fire-cycles and where overstorey proteas were lacking, were compared with those of an adjacent site which was not burned for 28 years and where the overstorey proteas persisted. Where several short fire-cycles eliminated the overstorey proteas, the basal cover percentage of understorey sprouters was approximately 32% higher than where the overstorey shrubs persisted. The number of understorey species in dense clumps of understorey sprouters was contrasted against those on 0.25m² quadrats located in the open and under burned skeletons of overstorey protease In dense clumps of sprouters the mean number of understorey species was less than half of that for quadrats located in the open, or for quadrats located under the burned protea skeletons. Species specific competitive interactions amongst overstorey protea and understorey sprouter species were examined for several pyric successional stages. Competitive interactions between overstorey proteas and understorey sprouters were evident in all pyric successional stages. Results indicate that the overstorey proteoid shrubs are important to restrain the competitive ability of understorey sprouters, to prevent homogeneity in post-fire regeneration niches and to amplify within-community patchiness of understorey species, which ultimately enhances the species richness of fynbos communities. / Thesis (M.Sc.)-University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 1996.
A study on an altitudinal gradient investigating the potential effects of climate change on Fynbos and the Fynbos-succulent Karoo boundary /Agenbag, Lize. January 2006 (has links)
Thesis (MSc)--University of Stellenbosch, 2006. / Bibliography. Also available via the Internet.
The response of biological communities to natural and anthropogenic habitat fragmentation in South Outeniqua Sandstone Fynbos, South AfricaSandberg, Rory Nimmo 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2013. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Habitat fragmentation through the loss and modification of natural ecosystems poses a serious threat to biodiversity globally. Mechanisms and ecological implications of fragmentation have been extensively studied, yet new and meaningful insights continue to be produced. The highly diverse and ecologically complex fynbos shrubland communities that occur in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa are amongst the most threatened by habitat fragmentation by urban, agricultural and silvicultural land uses and to the spread of invasive alien plants. Fynbos vegetation communities are fire-adapted and exploit the post-fire regeneration niche. Natural stochasticity in the fire regime means that these communities are temporally unstable; a factor that allows for the coexistence of such extreme diversity. Few studies have attempted to assess the influence of habitat fragmentation on this stochasticity, or to investigate the response of biological communities to the conditions that result. It is unknown whether this temporal instability will lead to delayed extinctions in fragmented communities, thus generating extinction debt. South Outeniqua Sandstone Fynbos occurs as a unique landscape mosaic of both insular and extensive habitats, suited to study through an island biogeography framework. Vegetation community stability was assessed through the comparison of historic and recent data sets. The responses of local vegetation and avifaunal communities to habitat fragmentation were assessed and compared on the basis of their differing motility. The unique habitat configurations also allowed for the investigation of extinction debt in the local communities and provided an opportunity to assess the influence of the surrounding matrix on species persistence and on connectivity in the artificial fragments. Data were analysed through simple regression analyses, modified Chi-squared tests and through ordination analyses. Ultimately the value of the artificial habitat fragments for the conservation of biological communities was assessed. Stability was observed in the vegetation species-area relationship for the natural islands and the mainland sites over twenty-two years. Smaller islands were found to receive fewer fires than large islands and the mainland. This consistently over-extended fire-return interval reduces the stochasticity of the local fire regime causing stable yet depauperate vegetation communities to result. Vegetation communities in the artificial fragments were found to hold area-related extinction debt, possibly due to the relatively long-term demographic turnover that typically occurs in fynbos. Avifaunal communities varied in their response to fragmentation relative to the vegetation. Birds – being motile – were found to be unaffected by isolation distance or surrounding matrix type – their response due more to changes experienced in the vegetation community than to geographic constraints. Fynbos-typical birds responded to the post-fire age of vegetation. Frugivorous birds and the matrix-habitat edge were identified as sources of alien and non-fynbos plant species that colonise the artificial fragments, potentially reducing the quality of these habitats for avifauna. Fragmented communities of South Outeniqua Sandstone Fynbos have the potential to function as biological reserves. This potential can be realised through the implementation of a fire regime that acknowledges the stochasticity required by the vegetation, the frequency required by the vegetation and the avifauna, and the practicality required by surrounding anthropogenic land-uses. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Habitat-fragmentering, deur die verlies en verandering van natuurlike ekosisteme, hou 'n ernstige bedreiging in vir biodiversiteit wêreldwyd. Meganismes en ekologiese implikasies van die fragmentering is al breedvoerig bestudeer, maar nuwe en betekenisvolle insigte word voortaan vervaardig. Die hoogs diverse en ekologies komplekse fynbos-struikveld gemeenskappe wat in die Kaapse Floristiese Streek van Suid-Afrika voorkom, word meeste bedreig deur habitat-fragmentering deur verstedeliking, landbou en houtteeltkundige grondgebruike en die verspreiding van indringerplante. Fynbos gemeenskappe is aangepas tot vuur en die uitbuiting van post- vuur herlewing nis. Natuurlike stogastisiteit in die vuur-bedeling beteken dat hierdie gemeenskappe tydelik onstabiel word, 'n faktor wat die mede-bestaan van uiterste diversiteit moontlik maak. Min studies het al die invloed van habitat-fragmentering op hierdie stogastisiteit ondersoek, of die reaksie van biologiese-gemeenskappe tot die voortspruitende omstandighede. Dit is onbekend of die tydelike onstabiliteit sal lei tot vertraagde uitsterwing in gefragmenteerde gemeenskappe, dus genereer uitsterwings-skuld. Suid Outeniqua Sandsteen Fynbos kom as 'n unieke landskap mosaïek van beide die eilande en uitgebreide habitatte voor, geskik om deur 'n eiland biogeografie raamwerk bestudeer te word. Plant-gemeenskappe se stabiliteit is bestudeer deur die vergelyking van historiese en onlangse data stelle. Die reaksies van die plaaslike plantegroei en voëllewe gemeenskappe tot hul habitat is bestudeer en vergelyk op grond van hul verskillende beweeglikheid. Die unieke habitat konfigurasies het ook toegelaat vir die ondersoek van uitsterwings-skuld in die plaaslike gemeenskappe en 'n geleentheid gebied om die invloed van die omliggende habitat-matriks op spesies volharding en op konneksie in die kunsmatige fragmente te bepaal. Die data is ontleed deur middel van eenvoudige regressie analises, aangepasde Chi -kwadraat toetse en deur koördinerings ontledings. Ten einde die waarde van die kunsmatige habitat fragmente vir die bewaring van biologiese gemeenskappe te bepaal. Stabiliteit in die plantspesies-area verhouding vir die natuurlike eilande en die vasteland van webwerwe oor twee en twintig jaar was waargeneem. Kleiner eilande het minder brande aangeneem as groot eilande en die vasteland. Hierdie herhaalde oor-uitbrei over-extended vuur-interval het die stogastisiteit verminder van die plaaslike vuur-bedeling wat stabiele tog spesie-arme plantegroei gemeenskappe veroorsaak het. Plantegroei gemeenskappe in die kunsmatige fragmente is bevind om spesie- area -verhouding uitsterwings-skuld te bevat, moontlik as gevolg van die relatiewe lang termyn demografiese omset wat tipies voorkom in fynbos. Voëllewe gemeenskappe het gewissel in hul reaksie tot die fragmentering relatief tot die plantegroei. Voëls – weens hul beweeglikheid – blyk om nie beinvloed te word deur isolasie afstand of omliggende habitat-matriks tipe nie - hul reaksie blyk meer asgevolg van veranderinge wat ervaar word in die plantegroei gemeenskap as geografiese beperkinge. Fynbos-tipiese voëls reageer op die post- vuur ouderdom van plantegroei. Vrugte-etende voëls en die habitat-matriks rand is geïdentifiseer as bronne van uitheemse en nie-fynbos plantspesies wat die kunsmatige fragmente koloniseer, wat potensieel die kwaliteit van hierdie habitatte vir voëls verminder. Gefragmenteerde gemeenskappe van Suid Outeniqua Sandsteen Fynbos het die potensiaal om as biologiese reserwes te funksioneer. Hierdie potensiaal kan verwesenlik word deur die implementering van 'n vuur-bedeling wat erkenning verleen aan die stogastiesiteit vereis deur die plantegroei, die frekwensie wat deur die plantegroei en die voëllewe vereis word , en die praktiese vereistes van die omliggende menslike grondgebruike.
2050-12-31 Interactions between Cryptococcus Laurentii and the medicinal Sclerophyll, Agathosma Betulina(BERG.) PillansCloete, Karen Jacqueline 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD (Microbiology))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010. / Dissertation presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Microbiology at the University of Stellenbosch. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The interaction between a soil yeast, Cryptococcus laurentii and a medicinal plant, Agathosma betulina (Berg.) Pillans (Rutaceae), was studied. Cryptococcus laurentii CAB 578 was isolated from the rhizosphere of wild A. betulina and liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the yeast was capable of producing polyamines such as cadaverine and spermine. Since the exogenous application of polyamines are known to impact on root growth, these findings supported the results obtained when A. betulina seedlings grown under axenic and low nutrient conditions were inoculated with C. laurentii CAB 578 and cultivated for five months under glasshouse conditions. The presence of the yeast increased root growth by 51%. Using soil dilution plates, it was demonstrated that yeast numbers were greater in the vicinity of the roots than in the bulk soil. Furthermore, fluoromicroscopy, in combination with the fluorescent probes Calcofluor White and Fungolight revealed the presence of metabolic active yeast colonies on the rhizoplane. The first part of the study thus provided evidence for a symbiosis between A. betulina and C. laurentii CAB 578. During the second part of the investigation, the effect of this symbiosis on quantitative elemental distribution in A. betulina roots grown under axenic, nutrient-poor conditions was assessed using micro-particle-induced x-ray emission spectrometry. To aid in the interpretation of heterogeneous elemental distribution patterns, apoplastic barriers and endophytic C. laurentii CAB 578 in root tissues were located using fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The results showed that the average concentrations of iron, manganese and phosphorus were significantly (P < 0.05) higher within roots of yeast-inoculated plants, compared to control plants. It was shown that the yeast was not a root endophyte and that elemental enrichment in the epi/exodermal-outer cortical tissues correlated with the presence of Casparian bands in the exodermal cells of both treatments. This was the first report describing the role of a soil yeast as a plant nutrient-scavenging microsymbiont. In the final part of the investigation, the effect of C. laurentii CAB 578 on the photosynthetic nitrogen, phosphorus and water-use efficiencies, as well as the carbon economy of A. betulina was studied. Agathosma betulina plants inoculated with C. laurentii CAB 578, as well as controls, were grown under axenic conditions and the following parameters measured: Apparent photon yield, foliar nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, leaf dark respiration, maximum photosynthetic rate, photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency, photosynthetic phosphorus-use efficiency, photosynthetic wateruse efficiency, root construction cost, stomatal conductance, substomatal CO2 and transpiration rate. The data showed that the higher photosynthetic resource-use efficiencies in yeast-inoculated plants were a consequence of higher maximum rates of CO2 assimilation, which was not related to foliar nitrogen and phosphorus content. We hypothesize that photosynthetic stimulation in yeast-inoculated plants was a result of the increased demand for photosynthates of the yeast-root symbiosis. In summary, the study revealed that a symbiosis exists between A. betulina and the soil yeast C. laurentii CAB 578. This interaction has a significant effect on the size of the yeast population as well as on the physiology of the plant. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die interaksie tussen ‘n grondgis, Cryptococcus laurentii, en ‘n medisinale plant, Agathosma betulina (Berg.) Pillans, is ondersoek. Cryptococcus laurentii CAB 578 is vanuit die risosfeer van A. betulina in sy natuurlike omgewing geisoleer en vloeistof chromatografie tandem massa spektrofotometriese analise het bewys dat die gis poliamiene insluitend kadaverien en spermien produseer. Dit is bevind dat die eksogene aanwending van poli-amiene wortelgroei bevorder. Hierdie bevinding staaf die waargenome 51% verhoging in wortelgroei van mikroob-vrye A. betulina saailinge geinokuleer met C. laurentii CAB 578 en gekweek vir vyf maande onder lae nutriënt kondisies in ‘n glashuis. Met gebruik van die grond verdunningsplaat-metode, is dit verder bewys dat gisgetalle hoër was in die teenwoordigheid van wortels as in die omliggende grond. Dit is ook bewys met die gebruik van die fluoressente peilers Calcofluor White en Fungolight, in kombinasie met fluoressensie-mikroskopie, dat metabolies aktiewe giste die wortels se oppervlak gekoloniseer het. Die eerste deel van die studie het dus bewys dat ‘n simbiose tussen A. betulina en C. laurentii CAB 578 bestaan. Tydens die tweede deel van die ondersoek is die effek van C. laurentii CAB 578 op die konsentrasie en verspreiding van elemente binne A. betulina wortels, gekweek onder lae-nutriënt, mikroob-vrye kondisies, bepaal met behulp van mikro-partikel geinduseerde X-straal emissie spektrofotometrie. Om die interpretasie van heterogene verspreidingspatrone van die onderskeie elemente te ondersteun, is daar met behulp van fluoressensie en transmissie-elektron-mikroskopie vir apoplastiese versperrings en endofitiese C. laurentii CAB 578 in die wortelweefsel getoets. Dit is bevind dat die gemiddelde konsentrasie van fosfaat, mangaan en yster beduidend (P < 0.05) hoër was in gis-geinokuleerde plante, as in kontrole plante. Die gis was nie ‘n wortel endofiet nie en elementale verryking in die epi/eksodermale-buitenste korteks weefsels het gekorreleer met Casparian bande in die eksodermale selle van beide behandelings. Hierdie was die eerste verslag wat die rol van ‘n grondgis as ‘n nutriënt-bekommende mikrosimbiont vir plante beskryf het. In die laaste gedeelte van hierdie ondersoek is die effek van C. laurentii CAB 578 op die fotosintetiese fosfaat, stikstof en water-verbruiksdoeltreffendheid, asook die koolstof ekonomie in mikroob-vrye Agathosma betulina plante geinokuleer met C. laurentii CAB 578 asook kontrole plante bestudeer. Die volgende parameters is getoets: Blaar donker respirasie, blaar fosfaat en stikstof konsentrasies, fotosintetiese fosfaatverbruiksdoeltreffendheid, fotosintetiese stikstof-verbruiksdoeltreffendheid, fotosintetiese water-verbruiksdoeltreffendheid, huidmond konduktansie, huidmond CO2 konsentrasie, klaarblyklike foton opbrengs, maksimum fotosintetiese spoed, wortel konstruksie-koste, en transpirasie spoed. Die resultate het getoon dat die hoër maksimum fotosintestiese spoed in gis-geinokuleerde plante gelei het tot ‘n hoër fotosintetiese verbruiksdoeltreffendheid van fosfaat, stikstof en water en dat dit nie verband gehou het met blaar fosfaat en stikstof konsentrasies nie. Dit word voorgestel dat die stimulasie van fotosintese in gisgeinokuleerde plante ‘n gevolg is van die verhoogde aanvraag na fotosintaat deur die giswortel simbiose. Om op te som, die bevindings van hierdie studie het bewys dat ‘n simbiose tussen A. betulina en C. laurentii CAB 578 bestaan. Hierdie simbiose het ‘n beduidende effek op die populasie grootte van die gis sowel as die fisiologie van die plant.
Howell, Alexandra Louise
30 April 2015
This document is submitted in partial fulfilment for the degree: Master of Architecture [Professional] at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, in the year 2014. / ‘Unless someone like you cares an awful lot, nothing is going to get better, it’s not.’ (The Lorax, Dr Seuss) How can architecture play a role to make us understand and realise the vulnerability of Fynbos? The Western Cape is the habitat for one of the six species of the floral kingdom, Fynbos. This botanical treasure is in danger of becoming extinct. There are thousands of types of Fynbos, each endemic to a specific region within the Western Cape and it is important to raise awareness of this unique species as creating a familiarity and deeper personal connection with the plant can help to protect this endangered flora. I propose a Fynbos Research and Education Centre set in Clanwilliam, a historical area within the Cederberg Mountain Range. The centre will be created to allow a deeper understanding of Fynbos and to this effect, aims to educate people about Fynbos so as to give them a better knowledge about sustainable living and the value of this plant species. It will be a place of calm and learning and the landscape will have a fundamental effect on the form. A vital part of the work to be carried out by this centre will be research into methods of conservation as well as into possible medical and cosmetic uses inherent in this species. Looking to plant structure, organic architecture and the analogy of nature, and its influence on architecture from both the geology of the region and the natural landscape setting, to discover what this then means for the architecture of the centre. The idea of Nature’s constant generation and degeneration, life coming from death and the influence of ruins on architectural imaginations will be fundamental in this building. Fynbos is endangered but this centre will aim to prevent it from becoming a memory and perhaps once it has been saved the structure will be left for nature to take over once again. The relationship between Fynbos and the landscape will shape and determine the architecture and materiality. Organic rammed earth walls will rise out of the sandstone formations which are the foundation of the Cederberg, to create this centre. The walls, made up of the very sand that sustains the Fynbos will exemplify it as at one with nature. As fire reignites life within the Fynbos seeds which lie dormant beneath the soil, so too can the building and the garden ignite passion to save this species, incorporating various design mechanisms into the architecture representing fire and its giving of life, in the case of the Fynbos, or preventing destruction in terms of the building. The creation of an education centre, restaurant and research facility will encourage a steady stream of visitors to Clanwilliam throughout the year. This will help to build tourism and eco-tourism to the town and surrounding areas, giving a much needed economic injection by creating job opportunities. Importantly, it will also increase awareness and exposure to the Fynbos species, with the building encouraging the visitor to linger and get involved with the plants and site and to develop a deeper affinity with this dwindling flora. This thesis aims to take its visitors on a journey, by means of architecture, creating a human experience and therefore a connection with their surroundings, exploring and uncovering the landscape of the Cederberg and its local identity and heritage, creating a bond forged by a new understanding.
Botanical inventory and phenology in relation to foraging behaviour of the Cape honeybees (Apis Mellifera Capensis) at a site in the Eastern Cape, South Africa /Merti, Admassu Addi. January 2003 (has links)
Thesis (M. Sc. (Botany))--Rhodes University, 2003. / Title in graduation programme: The ecology of honey plants in the Eastern Cape.
The ecology of large herbivores native to the coastal lowlands of the fynbos biome in the Western Cape, South Africa /Radloff, Frans Gustav Theodor. January 2008 (has links)
Dissertation (DSc)--University of Stellenbosch, 2008. / Bibliography. Also available vir the Internet.
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