Magora, Baboloki Helen
Traditional medicine is widely used in Botswana and in recent years a number of plant species have been submitted to the Botswana Police Forensic Science Laboratory by the Police as exhibits in cases of suspected poisoning by herbal medicine. The request would be for the forensic toxicologist to establish whether the plant material is toxic or not. In this study a selection of these plants are being investigated phytochemically and toxicologically. These include: Jatropha erythropoda Pax. (Euphorbiaceae), Cassia italica (E11.) Lam. Ex. (Leguminosae), Asclepiasfruticosa L. (Asclepiadaceae), Albizzia brevifolia Schinz (Leguminosae), Argemone mexicana L. (Papaveraceae) and Enicostemma axillare L. (Gentianaceae). A DNA-based test capable of identifying the species from powdered fragments of the plant material has also been developed in this project. Albizzia brevifolia, Enicostemma axillare and Jatropha erythropoda have not been investigated before; neither phytochemically nor toxicologically. Dichloromethane, methanol and water extracts of each of the plants were tested for cytotoxicity against a panel of four cell lines - three human and one murine cell line. While all extracts exhibited some degree of cytotoxicity, extracts from A. fruticosa were found to be the most toxic with LD50 values for the crude extracts of 1.3 -3.4. tg/ml. Phytochemical investigation of the extracts revealed the presence of a variety of secondary metabolites from the plants. A. brevifolia yielded terpenoids, phenolics, phenolic glycosides, a component of procyanidins, a lignan glycoside and sugars. E. axillare yielded terpenoids, a secoiridoid, and sugars, whereas A. mexicana yielded alkaloids. Investigation of C. italica and J. erythropoda revealed the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides and sugars and that of A. fruticosa the presence of cardenolide glycosides. Among the compounds isolated and tested for toxicity, sanguinarine, an alkaloid from A. mexicana, was found to be the most toxic with an LD50 value of 0.22-1.4tg/ml1. The compound expresses toxicity by inhibiting Na/K ATPases and by intercalating with DNA bases and thus interfering with the replication process. Swertiamarin, the secoiridoid isolated from E. axillare, constituted about 10% of the dichloromethane extract of this plant, which showed significant toxicity. The plant also yielded swertiamarin as about 60% of the methanol extractive, which in contrast did not show any toxicity. Swertiamarin itself did not show toxicity at the levels tested, an indication that it is not responsible for the toxicity exhibited by the dichloromethane extract. However, secoirridoids such as swertiamarin might transform in vivo to toxic alkaloids. The phenolic compounds (and their glycosides), isolated from A. brevifolia, exhibited very weak or no toxicity, whereas the terpenoid, betulinic acid, showed some cytotoxicity. Another terpenoid, which was isolated from the plant, lupeol, is reported to be cytotoxic. The extracts of the plant showed significant toxicity, especially the methanol extract. The toxicity exhibited by betulinic acid could not account for the toxicity displayed by the extracts, particularly the methanol extract. This toxicity is perhaps due to other compound(s) that were not isolated or to synergistic activity. A DNA-based test has been developed for species identification using allele specific amplicons that show polymorphisms in the length of DNA sequences between two conserved primers. This is going to allow the species identification in cases where only small amounts of plant material are available, sometimes in mixture form. This will particularly be useful where there are no unique chemical markers to be used for identification. The test, is Polymerase Chain Reaction-based (PCR) and therefore very sensitive. Once the species is known more of it can be collected from the source or the wild to allow detailed toxicological and phytochemical work.
Reasons given by caregivers for administering African herbal medicine to children at St Rita's Hospital in Sekhukhune district of Limpopo Province, South AfricaMoshabela, M M 29 May 2010 (has links)
Thesis (M Med (Family Medicine))--University of Limpopo (Medunsa Campus), 2008. / The current study explores reasons provided by caregivers for the administration of African traditional medicines in children. This study seeks to understand the caregivers‟ knowledge, motivation, and the context for traditional medicine administration. The study took place in the children‟s ward at St. Rita‟s Provincial Hospital in Sekhukhune District of Limpopo. An explorative qualitative design was adopted using free-attitude interviews. Purposeful sampling was used to select nine key informants. Healthcare is sought for preventive and curative purposes, depending on mothers‟ cultural beliefs, from either traditional or conventional systems, or both. Contexts of health care include home, traditional, faith and conventional. Perception and differentiation childhood illness form the basis of healthcare-seeking behaviour. Mothers show varying patterns of healthcare utilization with respect to severity of childhood illness. Identity and authority factors act as internal and external stimuli, respectively, in administration traditional medicine to children. The mothers‟ patterns of seeking care in the health system suggest childcare pluralism. Since mothers advocate for their children, and defend their culture, modifying their care-seeking behaviour requires acknowledgement of their cultural practices. The collective household decision-making necessitates endorsement of holistic family-oriented iv practices. Reduction of traditional medicine toxicity requires emphasis of preventive and health promotion strategies.
by Suk-Fung Tsang. / Thesis (M.Phil.)--Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1993. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 101-112). / Abstract --- p.i / Acknowledgement --- p.iii / Abbreviation --- p.iv / Chapter Chapter 1 --- Introduction --- p.1 / Chapter 1.1 --- TNF molecule / Chapter 1.2 --- Molecular biosynthesis of TNF / Chapter 1.3 --- Antitumor activity of TNF / Chapter 1.4 --- Macrophage-mediated immunity / Chapter 1.5 --- Endogenous production of TNF / Chapter 1.6 --- LPS : the potent inducer for TNF release / Chapter 1.7 --- Natural product: as primer or inducer / Chapter 1.8 --- Aim of this project / Chapter Chapter 2 --- Materials and Methods --- p.22 / Chapter 2.1 --- Materials / Chapter 2.2 --- Animals / Chapter 2.3 --- Cell line / Chapter 2.4 --- Transformed cell line : EAT cells invivo / Chapter 2.5 --- Reagents / Chapter 2.6 --- Methods / Chapter Chapter 3 --- Preparation of sample --- p.33 / Chapter 3.1 --- Alcohol precipitaion of Bupleuri radix / Chapter 3.2 --- Endogenous TNF production by BR fractions / Chapter Chapter 4 --- Purification of BRI --- p.38 / Chapter 4.1 --- Gel filtration chromatography of BRI / Chapter 4.2 --- Anion exchange chromatography / Chapter Chapter 5 --- Purification of PQI --- p.52 / Chapter 5.1 --- Gel filtration chromatography of PQI / Chapter 5.2 --- Anion exchange chromatography / Chapter Chapter 6 --- Capacity of BR and PQ as eliciting agent for endogenous TNF production --- p.62 / Chapter 6.1 --- Time course of endogenous TNF production by BRI subfractions / Chapter 6.2 --- Time course of endogenous TNF production by PQI subfractions / Chapter 6.3 --- BRI subfractions as eliciting agents / Chapter 6.4 --- PQI subfractions as eliciting agents / Chapter Chapter 7 --- Are BR and PQ priming agents in endogenous TNF production ？ --- p.71 / Chapter 7.1 --- Priming by intraperitoneal route / Chapter 7.2 --- Priming by intravenous route / Chapter Chapter 8 --- Removal of LPS by acetic acid treatment --- p.79 / Chapter Chapter 9 --- Antitumor activities of BRI subfractionsin relationship with TNF production --- p.86 / Chapter 9.1 --- BRI subfraction as eliciting agent / Chapter 9.2 --- Pretreatment with BRIA subfractions followed by LPS treatment / Chapter Chapter 10 --- Conclusion --- p.95 / Bibliography --- p.101
Physical and biological activities of a chymotrypsin-specific inhibitor purified from the seeds of momordica cochinchinensis.January 2003 (has links)
by Yuen-Kam Tsoi. / Thesis (M.Phil.)--Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2003. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 160-173). / Abstracts in English and Chinese. / Abstract --- p.i / 論文摘要 --- p.iv / List of figures --- p.vii / List of tables --- p.x / Abbreviations --- p.xi / Chapter Chapter 1 --- Purification and characterization of the chymotrypsin inhibitor (MCCI) from the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis / Chapter 1.1 --- Introduction l / Chapter 1.1.1 --- Classification of protease inhibitor --- p.2 / Chapter 1.1.2 --- Therapeutic potential of protease inhibitors --- p.4 / Chapter 1.2 --- Rationale of the present study --- p.6 / Chapter 1.3 --- Materials and methods / Chapter 1.3.1 --- Materials --- p.9 / Chapter 1.3.2 --- Preparation of chymotrypsin-Sepharose 4B affinity column --- p.10 / Chapter 1.3.3 --- Protein extraction --- p.11 / Chapter 1.3.4 --- Chymotrypsin-Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography --- p.12 / Chapter 1.3.5 --- Reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography --- p.12 / Chapter 1.3.6 --- Assays for protease inhibitory activities --- p.14 / Chapter 22.214.171.124 --- Assay for chymotrypsin activity --- p.15 / Chapter 126.96.36.199 --- Assay for trypsin activity --- p.15 / Chapter 188.8.131.52 --- Assay for elastase activity --- p.16 / Chapter 184.108.40.206 --- Assay for subtilisin activity --- p.16 / Chapter 1.3.7 --- Determination of protein concentration --- p.17 / Chapter 1.3.8 --- Titration of chymotrypsin --- p.17 / Chapter 1.3.9 --- Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis --- p.18 / Chapter 1.3.10 --- Determination of molecular weight by mass spectrometry --- p.19 / Chapter 1.3.11 --- Partial amino acid sequencing --- p.20 / Chapter 1.3.12 --- Effects of chymotrypsin on MCCI --- p.20 / Chapter 1.3.13 --- Stability assay --- p.21 / Chapter 1.4 --- Results --- p.21 / Chapter 1.4.1 --- Isolation of MCCI from the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis --- p.21 / Chapter 1.4.2 --- N-terminal amino acid sequencing --- p.27 / Chapter 1.4.3 --- Determination of molecular weight --- p.31 / Chapter 1.4.4 --- Inhibitory activity of MCCI towards different proteases --- p.33 / Chapter 1.4.5 --- Effects of chymotrypsin on MCCI --- p.37 / Chapter 1.4.6 --- Stability of MCCI on heating and at different pH --- p.37 / Chapter 1.5 --- Discussion --- p.42 / Chapter Chapter 2 --- Immunomodulatory effect of MCCI / Chapter 2.1 --- Introduction of the immune system and protease inhibitors --- p.51 / Chapter 2.2 --- Rationale of the present study --- p.55 / Chapter 2.3 --- Materials and methods --- p.56 / Chapter 2.3.1 --- Materials --- p.56 / Chapter 2.3.2 --- Isolation of different types of immune cells --- p.57 / Chapter 2.3.3 --- Determination of cell proliferation --- p.60 / Chapter 2.3.4 --- Determination of H2O2 formation --- p.61 / Chapter 2.3.5 --- Assay of interleukin-2 --- p.61 / Chapter 2.3.6 --- Determination of cell viability --- p.62 / Chapter 2.4 --- Results --- p.63 / Chapter 2.4.1 --- Murine splenocytes --- p.63 / Chapter 220.127.116.11 --- In vitro effect of MCCI on the proliferation of murine splenocytes --- p.63 / Chapter 18.104.22.168 --- Effect of MCCI on cytokine production --- p.63 / Chapter 2.4.2 --- Murine lymphocytes --- p.66 / Chapter 22.214.171.124 --- In vitro effect of MCCI on the proliferation of lymphocytes --- p.66 / Chapter 126.96.36.199 --- Effect of MCCI on cytokine production --- p.66 / Chapter 2.4.3 --- Murine bone marrow cells --- p.69 / Chapter 188.8.131.52 --- Effect of MCCI on the growth of murine bone marrow cells --- p.69 / Chapter 2.4.4 --- Murine neutrophills --- p.69 / Chapter 184.108.40.206 --- Effect of MCCI on H2O2 formation --- p.69 / Chapter 2.4.5 --- Murine macrophages --- p.71 / Chapter 220.127.116.11 --- Effect of MCCI on the growth of macrophages --- p.71 / Chapter 18.104.22.168 --- Effect of external ATP on the growth of macrophages --- p.71 / Chapter 22.214.171.124 --- Effect of ATP on the growth of macrophages pre-treated with MCCI --- p.76 / Chapter 126.96.36.199 --- Effect of MCCI on the growth of macrophages pre-treated with ATP --- p.76 / Chapter 188.8.131.52 --- Effect of MCCI on H201production --- p.79 / Chapter 2.5 --- Discussion --- p.82 / Chapter Chapter 3 --- Anti-oxidative effect of MCCI in primary rat hepatocytes culture / Chapter 3.1 --- Introduction --- p.91 / Chapter 3.1.1 --- Liver disease and protease inhibitors --- p.91 / Chapter 3.1.2 --- Primary rat hepatocyte as a pharmacological model --- p.93 / Chapter 3.1.3 --- tert-Butyl hydroperoxide as an oxidative stress inducer --- p.94 / Chapter 3.1.4 --- Endogenous antioxidant enzymes against ROS --- p.96 / Chapter 3.2 --- Rationale of the present study --- p.99 / Chapter 3.3 --- Materials and methods --- p.101 / Chapter 3.3.1 --- Materials --- p.101 / Chapter 3.3.2 --- Isolation of primary rat hepatocytes --- p.101 / Chapter 184.108.40.206 --- Liver perfusion --- p.101 / Chapter 220.127.116.11 --- Preparation of collagen pre-coated culture plates --- p.103 / Chapter 18.104.22.168 --- Hepatocytes culturing --- p.103 / Chapter 3.3.3 --- Drug treatment and oxidative stress induction --- p.104 / Chapter 3.3.4 --- Cytotoxicity assessment --- p.105 / Chapter 3.3.5 --- Cellular GSH content determination --- p.105 / Chapter 3.3.6 --- Protein determination by Lowry's method --- p.106 / Chapter 3.3.7 --- Medium MDA determination --- p.106 / Chapter 3.3.8 --- Medium GSSG determination --- p.107 / Chapter 3.3.9 --- Antioxidant enzymes measurement --- p.108 / Chapter 22.214.171.124 --- Catalase measurement --- p.108 / Chapter 126.96.36.199 --- SOD measurement --- p.109 / Chapter 188.8.131.52 --- GST measurement --- p.109 / Chapter 184.108.40.206 --- GR measurement --- p.110 / Chapter 3.3.10 --- Statistical analysis --- p.110 / Chapter 3.4 --- Results --- p.111 / Chapter 3.4.1 --- Cytotoxicity of MCCI on rat hepatocytes --- p.111 / Chapter 3.4.2 --- Effect of tBHP and MCCI on hepatocytes viability --- p.111 / Chapter 3.4.3 --- Effects of tBHP and MCCI on hepatocytes GSH and GSSG content --- p.117 / Chapter 3.4.4 --- Effect of MCCI on lipid peroxidation of hepatocytes --- p.121 / Chapter 3.4.5 --- Effect of MCCI on antioxidant enzymes activities --- p.121 / Chapter 3.4.6 --- Comparison with typical antioxidants --- p.125 / Chapter 3.5 --- Discussion --- p.127 / Chapter Chapter 4 --- Cytotoxicity of MCCI on tumor cell lines / Chapter 4.1 --- Introduction --- p.134 / Chapter 4.1.1 --- Relationship between protease inhibitors and cancer --- p.134 / Chapter 4.1.2 --- Cell cycle and apoptosis --- p.137 / Chapter 4.2 --- Rationale of the present study --- p.140 / Chapter 4.3 --- Materials and methods --- p.141 / Chapter 4.3.1 --- Materials --- p.141 / Chapter 4.3.2 --- Cell culture --- p.141 / Chapter 4.3.3 --- MTT assay --- p.142 / Chapter 4.3.4 --- Cell cycle analysis --- p.142 / Chapter 4.3.5 --- DNA fragmentation --- p.143 / Chapter 4.4 --- Results --- p.136 / Chapter 4.4.1 --- Cytotoxicity of MCCI --- p.144 / Chapter 4.4.2 --- Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis --- p.147 / Chapter 4.5 --- Discussion --- p.152 / Conclusion and future perspectives --- p.157 / References --- p.160
Immunomodulatory effects of traditional Chinese herbal formulation, ginseng and dang gui ten combination (PS10)Thomsen, Michael, n/a January 2006 (has links)
The severe debility and immune dysfunction associated with serious disease may respond well to treatment with the tonic formulas from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). One of these, Ginseng and Dang Gui Ten Combination has gained prominence as the formula most suitable to assist convalescence after chemotherapy and radiotherapy. A literature review of the herbal combination suggests that it synergistically provides a broad range of pharmacological activity with a very low level of toxicity. The herbs may have haemopoietic, antimutagenic, antitumour, immunomodulatory and anticomplement activities and they seem to promote lymphocyte activation, interleukin production, protect various organs against toxicity, inflammation and ulceration, and promote drug delivery and radiation sensitising while protecting healthy tissue. The specific immunomodulatory effects of PS10 combination were investigated in 10 healthy volunteers (7 males and 3 females aged 43 to 58 years). The study was a longitudinal study (28 days), using a repeated measures design to investigate the pre and then post intervention changes in Natural Killer (NK) cell activity as well as total and differentiated lymphocyte counts. Furthermore, liver function tests (LFT) were included to assess any adverse effects on the liver. It was envisaged that NK cells or other white blood cell subset variation could indicate an immunomodulatory effect of the herbal formulation, PS10. Investigative methodologies included NK cell function assessment via the ability of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) to lyse the human erythroleukemia cell line K562.(Lozzio and Lozzio, 1975) Target cells are labelled by incubation with radioactive chromium, washed, then added to a dilution series of PBMC's and incubated for 4 hours. Supernatants are harvested and the amount of intracellular chromium- 51 released into the supernatant is measured with a gamma counter. The amount of chromium-51 released is proportional to the lytic activity of the NK cells. The gradient of the line of best fit through the plotted points was recorded as the measure of cytotoxicity or killing.(Brooks and Flannery, 1980) The steeper the gradient, the greater the cytotoxicity. This pilot study demonstrated that the herbal preparation Ginseng and Dang Gui Ten Combination (PS10) increased the total number of lymphocytes cells in healthy human volunteers (n=10) (p<0.007). Although the test formulation increased NK cell activity in some participants, the change in mean NK cell cytotoxicity was not significant.
The use of traditional medicines and rituals in the prevention and treatment of postnatal depression, among the Kadazan/Dusun and Bajau/Malay communities of East MalaysiaWong, Rosaline Christina January 1998 (has links)
No description available.
Whitelegg, Margaret Ellen
No description available.
Personalizing Western Herbal Medicine: Weaving a Tapestry of Right Relationships, a Grounded Theory StudyNiemeyer, Kathryn Jean January 2013 (has links)
Western herbal medicine (WHM) is a whole system of medicine that is based on beliefs and practices that evolved distinct from conventional Western medicine. Practitioners of WHM use naturally-occurring crude plant materials, such as roots or flowers with little processing for persons with chronic disease. Herbal medicines are formulated and designed for each person's unique symptom variations, energetic profile, cause and supporting mechanisms of the health issue. This approach to herbal medicine is not explicated in the literature and contrasts the use of highly-processed herb products in a one-size-fits-all approach that fails to reflect WHM as a whole complex system. The purpose of this study was to develop a grounded theory explaining the basic social psychological process WHM practitioners use to formulate plant medicines for individuals. Data were collected from a theoretical sample of 17 North American WHM practitioners contributing a total of 39 interviews and analyzed using the constant comparison method. The process of Personalizing Western Herbal Medicine consists of five steps with a decision-making subprocess of five steps. The core concept of Weaving a Tapestry of Right Relationships explains what practitioners do when Personalizing Western Herbal Medicine. Right relationship is emergent coherence and accounts for wholeness as the relationship of the parts and weaves through connecting each step in Personalizing Western Herbal Medicine. Creating Concordance describes right relationship between the person and the herbal medicine. Concordance is achieved when an herbal medicine fits the whole person and there is a personal shift or restoration of dynamic equilibrium.
Blouws, Tarryn Alicia
Hypertension is a common chronic health problem worldwide due to contributing factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet and changes in lifestyle. The standard of care for hypertension in South Africa is prescription medication, as well as a stepwise programme; this treatment approach is for the treatment of hypertension according to severity using diuretics, beta-blockers, vasodilators in a stepwise progressive manner. In South Africa, traditional herbal medicines have been used to treat many ailments especially hypertension. Garlic and African olive has been reported as herbal medicines that have anti-hypertensive properties and may be used to control hypertension, either individually or in combination.The objective of this study is to 1) prevalence of these traditional herbal medicines will be investigated and 2) determine the prevalence of garlic and/ or African olive use among hypertensive patients lieu of/or in combination with prescription medication.The study design was cross-sectional, comprising of two phases. Phase one was the administration of questionnaires concerning the participants’ demographics, medical/clinical history, chronic illness and traditional herbal treatment. One hundred and eighty participants from Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological study (PURE) cohort were administered questionnaires. Of the 180 participants, 139 indicated that they are hypertensive, 30 hypertensive participants were selected to participate in the in-depth interviews. Phase two was divided into two parts which were detailed interviews including in-depth interviews and a focus group discussion. The focus group discussion was conducted with a convenience sample of 10 hypertensive patients who were available on the day of data collection. The questionnaire data was analysed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and the interviews and focus group discussion was analysed using thematic content analysis.The results show that the participants with hypertension who are on prescription medication are also using traditional herbs, garlic and African olive as part of a dualistic health care treatment for their hypertension. The use of garlic is more prevalent than the use of African olive, as African olive was not well known among the participants.The results will facilitate in the acknowledgment of traditional herbal medicine use for hypertension, as either a home remedy for (other) chronic conditions or treatment in combination with prescription medication. It also highlights the necessity to educate participants and healthcare providers in the use of traditional herbal medicine. Furthermore, healthcare workers needs to be trained about THM and should also be obligated to ask about traditional herbal medicine among their patients. / >Magister Scientiae - MSc
by Chun Yiu-to. / Thesis (M.Phil.)--Chinese University of Hong Kong. / Bibliography: leaves 72-79.
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