The construction and testing of an interactive model for understanding alcohol misuse in middle adolescenceTsiboukli, Anna B. 1995 (has links)
A synthesis of two distinct research methods was used to investigate the extent to which Rhodes & Jason's (1988) Social Stress model, Olson's et.al. (1985) Family Cohesion and Adaptability theory and the Self-Efficacy construct (Lawrance, 1988) were associated with adolescent drinking behaviour. Two studies were carried out, one qualitative and one quantitative, based on the responses of a non-random sample of 60 and 238 adolescents respectively. Differences between Abstainers, Drinkers and Occasional Drinkers were investigated. No significant gender differences were identified in both studies, in regard to drinking practices reported by adolescents themselves. Analyses of the data in the qualitative and quantitative study reveal that family interactional patterns, locus-of-control, self-efficacy, peer drinking and peer pressure to drink accounted for the differences between Drinkers, Abstainers and Occasional Drinkers. In contrast, the three groups did not differ significantly in self-esteem, knowledge, social anxiety. social support and ability to resist pressure to drink. The findings are interesting in focusing on the fact that Drinkers differ significantly in a variety of measures from Occasional Drinkers and not just from Abstainers. Implications for future research are discussed.
Re-thinking education in a world with HIV and AIDS : a qualitative inquiry into HIV- and AIDS-related education in MozambiqueMiedema, Esther 2013 (has links)
There exists broad consensus as to the importance of HIV- and AIDS-related education in efforts to decrease young people’s vulnerability to the epidemic. As illustrated by the broad variety of HIV prevention education initiatives implemented around the world, less agreement exists as to the form such education should take. This thesis has developed a conceptual framework to support analysis of school-based HIV- and AIDS-related education and, specifically, to support efforts to increase understanding of this particular and diverse field of education. The specific objectives of the study were to: i. develop an overview of research into the quality of HIV- and AIDS-related education; ii. investigate the theoretical underpinnings of school-based HIV- and AIDS-related education a) overall, and b) in Mozambique; iii. examine conceptions of the aims of HIV- and AIDS-related education in relation to the broader aims of school education in Mozambique; and iv. investigate the potential for the conceptual framework, developed as part of the study, to support comparison of perspectives on HIV- and AIDS-related education in Mozambique. Addressing key gaps in available literature on HIV- and AIDS-related education, two analytical frameworks were developed. Based on an analysis of current programmes worldwide and a review of a multidisciplinary body of literature on HIV- and AIDS-related education, the first framework draws a distinction between three broad approaches to HIV- and AIDS-related education: those building on moral concerns, and those that might be understood as informed by notions of rights, or science. The second analytical framework developed in the study distinguishes three principal conceptions of the aims of education, namely the achievement of autonomy, (civil) enculturation or vocational preparation. This latter heuristic device was informed by an examination of key educational philosophical debates on the aims of education. A qualitative multi-method empirical study was subsequently undertaken, gathering data from young people, (peer) educators, policy makers and representatives of 3 international agencies in Maputo, Mozambique on their views regarding the aims of (HIV- and AIDS-related) education. The analysis revealed that participants drew on varying and strongly gendered understandings of what was considered (im)moral behaviour and a commitment to rights in efforts to reduce the spread and impact of the epidemic. Furthermore, in different ways, policy makers, educators and international agency staff identified both the causes of and solution for the epidemic as existing in various forms of modern and traditional ‘culture’. Policy makers and educators, for instance, stressed their concerns regarding the relationship between modernity and the spread of HIV and AIDS in Mozambican society, while staff members of international agencies identified the causes of the epidemic in inequitable - ‘traditional’ - interpersonal relationships. Young people were often found to appropriate dominant discourse, but also challenged opinions, particularly in relation to gendered perceptions of (im)moral behaviour. Building on the analysis, a fourth broad approach to HIV- and AIDS-related education was identified, namely that informed by notions of culture. The analysis illustrates that within HIV- and AIDS-related education, where concepts such as rights and culture are seen as central to many programmes, the different actors involved in the development, delivery and uptake of such education draw on a considerable variety of discourses. An important consequence is that within and across these various sets of actors, understandings of what issues should be addressed and how, can vary widely. At other times, such understandings may differ in more subtle but, nonetheless, crucial ways. A critical implication of the study, therefore, concerns the need for more meaningful dialogue across and between different actors. The thesis concludes by elucidating how dialogue about HIV- and AIDS-related education as well as HIV prevention education might be enhanced by drawing on a pragmatic epistemology of ‘knowing’, i.e. one whereby dialogue and education are acknowledged as ongoing processes of growth and, crucially, as ways to deal with uncertainty, rather than leading to closed-ended certainties.
4 December 2009
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No description available.
In the 1980's a dramatic increase in graduate and school leaver unemployment in Morocco, raised the question of the relevance of education. Education was often blamed by policy-makers and employers for graduate unemployment and for the mismatch between supply and demand observed in the labour market. In this context, the state launched a reform of vocational training aimed at developing the vocational and practical training supposedly needed by the private sector and the economy. But the reform has failed to meet its objectives. Why ? This general problem is explored through three broad research questions: 1. To what extent does vocational training policy address 1-ne problem of youth unemployment in Morocco? 2. What are the socio-economic factors which affect and determine employment/unemployment of vocationally trained graduates in Morocco? 3. To what extent does evidence from the Moroccan labour market confirm or modify a segmented approach to vocational training and labour market recruitment? The field work for this research consisted mainly of an extensive documentary search on the educational and vocational training systems and the Moroccan labour market, and two case studies using primary data on training systems and recruitment in two contrasting segments of the labour market. These were agricultural schools and employment in large-scale private sector farming and a training centre for educational planners and school advisors and civil service employment. Chapter 1 presents the problem and a literature review of the relationship between education and work. Chapter 2 proposes a segmented framework to the Moroccan Labour market. At this stage of building knowledge on the Moroccan labour market, the segmented framework suggested in this thesis appeared relevant to the employment of vocationally trained graduates. Chapter 2 also presents the rationale and working propositions for the research. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the educational and vocational training systems, and the labour market and employment in Morocco respectively. Chapter 5 presents the method and techniques used in the field work. Chapters 6 and 7 present case studies of graduates from agricultural schools and the agricultural segment of employment: and educational planners and school advisors and their related employment. Chapter 8 supplements the two case studies with a survey of recruitment agencies and newspaper announcements. Chapter 9 synthesises the findings of the research, and draws some theoretical implications. Overall the thesis suggests that job prospects are limited and that an adequate understanding of relations between education, training and the labour market requires an appreciation of the context within which those relations occur. Three aspects of that context are highlighted: (i) general economic trends affecting job creation; (ii) attitude of employers; (iii) variations between segments of employment in (i) and (ii).
The following thesis is concerned with what I have termed professional discourse. I have used the term to call attention to two elements. With professional, I have indicated a recent move in educational analysis and research on teachers and other practitioners which represents a shift to a concern with practical activities, a tacit or explicit resistance to theory, and an attempt to displace the cognitive paradigm of research and theorizing. With the notion of discourse, I have indicated that, in order that the as yet limited debate on professional activity be opened up, it has to be linked with the discourse on practice. By the latter, I mean the opposition between practice and theory at the analytical level, and its most recent unfoldings and manifestations. The thesis identifies a vocabulary of practice, implicating such concepts as reflection, repetition, judgment, skill, example, exemplar, and a series of oppositional terms, such as saying/showing, competence/performance, explicit/implicit knowledge. These serve as a link between the professional and the practical. The problematic of the theory/practice relation in its various formulations is, then, explicitly addressed in the work of Dreyfus, Habermas, Lyotard and Derrida. The thesis claims that (a) it is Dreyfus' thesis on exemplarity that makes the link possible between the professional and the practical, but (b) it is only with Habermas, Lyotard and Derrida that the professional/practical discourse can take its linguistic turn. Then the thesis addresses the implications of the linguistic turn. It argues that it is only through an examination of the metaphysical presuppositions of the linguistic turn that the claim of professional discourse to be free from the determinations of theory can be assessed; in particular, the research methodologies of professional discourse have not made a decision concerning metaphysics and thus they are reduced to methodological technicity.
McLaughlin, Terence Henry
This thesis engages in a critical examination of parents' rights in religious upbringing and religious education within a liberal perspective. One of the central features of a 'liberal perspective' is taken here to be a commitment to the importance of valuing and developing the autonomy of the child. This commitment has important implications for the defensibility of both religious upbringing and religious education, and for the scope of parental rights that can be exercised in relation to them. In the first three chapters it is argued that, given this perspective, parents have a right to give their children a certain kind of religious upbringing; one where their children are brought up to have an initial determinate religious commitment, but one which is both open to, and compatible with, the child's eventual achievement of autonomy. This view is defended against a range of objections and the character of such an upbringing is explored in some detail. In the next four chapters it is argued that, following on from this claim about religious upbringing, a broadly similar claim can be made about religious education and schooling. Parents are seen as having the right to give their children a distinctive kind of liberal education, including a form of religious schooling, which seeks the development of their child's autonomy from a particular starting point. The argument proceeds from an analysis of parents' rights in general concerning education, through a critical exploration of the notion of liberal education, to an outline of the concept of the `liberal religious school' and an analysis of the difficulties to which it gives rise. The thesis concludes with an exploration of further considerations which support the view that a plurality of forms of liberal education, including education in religion, should be acknowledged, in relation to which parental rights can legitimately be claimed and exercised.
Dyab, Mahra Amin
The main concern of this research is to study the influence of class power, culture and ideologies on educational policies, access and practices in the context of the changing political, economic and social policies of Egypt during the modern period. In order to study that, the thesis works on two levels, theoretical and empirical. The theoretical level presents the historical, methodological and theoretical broad context for the empirical study. This includes the study of the following: 1.- The economic and political situation in Egypt, 2.- State power and social class formation, and 3.- The system and policies of education in Egypt. The empirical study is concerned with study of the following subjects: 1.- Cultural and ideological perspectives of members from different class positions, 2.- Class perspectives on general educational issues, 3.- The ways in which 1 and 2 influence the distribution of educational opportunities for members from different class positions, and 4.- Differences between and within social classes concerning the above points.
L'inertie des systèmes urbains et le tempo des politiques publiques face aux risques énergétiques et climatiquesGusdorf, François 7 February 2008 (has links) (PDF)
Les estimations des coûts du changement climatique et les exercices de prospective énergétique, n'ont laissé que très peu de place aux spécificités des villes. Les systèmes urbains, concernant les richesses et les hommes, sont pourtant responsables d'une bonne part des émissions à gaz à effet de serre, et leur fonctionnement devra être profondément modifié dans le siècle à venir. Cette thèse, à l'aide d'une série de modèles stylisés, analyse l'importance des inerties urbaines pour la mise au point des politiques urbaines. Ces inerties sont liées aux durées de vie des infrastructures, au fonctionnement du marché foncier, et à la rigidité des localisations des activités et des hommes. Toute modification du système ville entraîne une période de transition durant laquelle la situation est significativement dégradée, ainsi que des phénomènes redistributifs forts entre les agents économiques. Dans ce contexte, une action précoce montant en puissance progressivement doit commencer dès aujourd'hui, dans le but d'éviter un enfermement dans des formes urbaines à la fois plus consommatrices d'énergie, et plus vulnérables face aux changements.
Intégration du lien consommateur-ressource dans l'étude de l'influence des activités humaines sur l'hivernage des bernaches cravant dans un écosystème littoral fortement anthropiséDesmonts, Diane 30 November 2007 (has links) (PDF)
Les activités humaines peuvent entraîner des modifications de comportement et de distribution spatiale chez les animaux susceptibles d'avoir un impact non négligeable au niveau de leur population. Pour des espèces migratrices, elles peuvent rendre un site d'hivernage inutilisable en raison d'un dérangement trop important, obligeant les individus à utiliser d'autres sites. Dans ces sites de report, le niveau d'interférence risque d'être plus élevé ce qui peut entraîner une diminution de l'efficacité alimentaire de tout ou partie des individus. Cependant, l'influence des activités humaines ne peut être évaluée correctement sans tenir compte, dans ce cas précis, des ressources alimentaires de l'espèce étudiée. Le travail de cette thèse a été d'intégrer le lien consommateur-ressource dans l'étude de l'influence des activités humaines. Le sujet a porté plus précisément sur l'hivernage de la bernache cravant Branta bernicla dans le golfe du Morbihan (Bretagne Sud), où elle s'alimente essentiellement de phanérogames marines : des zostères, dont la zostère naine Zostera noltii. Nous avons caractérisé la relation bernaches-Z. noltii, en termes de distribution essentiellement, à trois échelles spatiales et temporelles imbriquées. De l'évolution en trente ans de la distribution sur l'ensemble du golfe à la position par rapport à la lame d'eau lors d'un cycle tidal, nous avons montré que les ressources alimentaires conditionnaient largement la distribution des bernaches, ainsi que leur comportement à l'échelle du groupe. Nous avons également montré que les activités humaines sont susceptibles de modifier cette relation. En effet, selon leur type, leur position et la taille du groupe de bernaches, le coût énergétique potentiel qu'elles entraînent pourrait conduire certains individus à éviter certains herbiers, ce coût étant trop élevé pour être compensé par un temps d'alimentation plus long. Ce travail a donc contribué à une catégorisation plus générale et robuste des activités humaines en terme de coût potentiel sur les oiseaux hivernant. Si ce travail a permis de mieux comprendre le rôle majeur des ressources dans la distribution des bernaches en hivernage, ainsi que la façon dont les activités humaines peuvent influer sur cette relation, il s'est aussi inscrit dans une démarche de définition d'indicateur d'état des herbiers de zostères. Et nos résultats suggèrent que le comportement et la distribution des bernaches sont de bons indicateurs de l'état de ces herbiers à l'échelle locale mais également régionale.
10 December 2007
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Les organismes vivants utilisent des ressources pour vivre, croître et se reproduire.Derrière ce lieu commun se cache une théorie importante en Ecologie : la théorie desTraits d'Histoire de Vie (voir Stearns 1992, par exemple). Selon cette théorie, lesindividus optimisent l'utilisation de ressources limitées (ressources alimentaires,habitat, mais aussi partenaire sexuel entre autres) afin de maximiser des traits telsque la croissance, la survie ou la reproduction. Dans le cadre de la théorie de lasélection naturelle, les individus favorisés sont ceux qui adoptent les stratégiesd'acquisition des ressources les plus efficaces dans un environnement donné. Ceconcept très simple est extrêmement puissant pour comprendre l'écologie et lavariété des stratégies adoptées par les espèces, les populations ou les individus.Cette théorie est d'ailleurs centrale en Ecologie Evolutive (Stearns 1992).
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