Socio-economic factors and the schooling of working-class children aged seven and under in seven areas of North London, 1800-1851Browne, Naima 1991 (has links)
In the 1850s publicly-aided schools for infants co-existed with private working-class schools, some of which also catered for very young children. During the first half of the nineteenth century parents of infant-aged children could decide whether or not to send their child to school; if they opted for schooling they might then have had to make decisions about the type of school to use. This investigation set out to establish whether working-class parents' decisions regarding the schooling of their very young children were influenced by a range of socio-economic factors, and whether parents with certain life-styles were more favourably disposed towards the public infant schools than towards the much maligned private working-class schools. This investigation examined the school attendance of infants in relation to a range of socio-economic factors, which included parental occupation, whether or not the mother was at work, the employment and schooling patterns of older children in the family, the parents' religion and country of birth, the size of the family and the ages of the children concerned. The autonomy and independence of members of the working-class was acknowledged throughout the study by emphasising the parents' role in determining the pattern of their children's education. Seven small areas of North London were chosen for in-depth analysis. The areas differed in terms of their social make-up and the availability of schooling facilities. The 1851 census enumerators' returns were used in order to recreate a picture of school attendance in the survey area, and school attendance was analysed in relation to the socio-economic profiles of the families. The study concludes with a summary of the findings and a comparison between the school attendance patterns in the seven areas.
Law, Vivien Cheryl
This thesis shows that the first wave Women's Movement continued the struggle for the franchise during the Great War and throughout the 1920s until its success in 1928. It also details the campaigns for the social and economic emancipation of women in the period from 1918 to 1928. It provides a first step in recovering this history of political activity carried out through a network of women's organizations which expanded to embrace all aspects of women's lives. Chapter 1 acts an introduction and clarifies some questions of treatment and perspective. Chapter 2 describes the Movement's membership and details the suffragists' activities throughout the War and their contribution to the success of the franchise in 1918. In Chapter 3, the consequences for the women's organizations of re-ordering agendas and constitutions because of the vote, is followed in the next three chapters by a detailed examination of the post-War period of reconstruction. This includes the progress of women's political participation, the scale of the reforms it pursued and the economic problems of demobilisation and political opposition. The documentation•of the growth of political confidence and skill in the three General Elections from 1922 to 1924 in Chapter 7, also serves to illustrate the diversity of approach enshrined in the non-party and party organizations. The reappraisal of feminist ideology is set within the context of the development of the equalitarian and welfare theories in Chapter 8. Chapter 9 deals with the campaign which united the Movement in a concerted effort to win the vote for all women. The thesis concludes in Chapter 10, with a brief description of the Movement's response to its franchise success and its remit for future activity in.
Shearing, Douglas Kenneth
There is a consensus of academic opinion that for approximately 100 years stretching from 1688, the date of the 'Glorious Revolution', to the onset of industrialisation England enjoyed relative stability, the condition being attributed to political pragmatism. The purpose of this thesis is twofold; to document the educational developments that characterized the period and to examine their effect, nature and scope, about which historians sharply disagree. The principle that in any age education is a social tool whose practical possibilities rest on people's assumptions determined the strategy of pursuing four main lines of enquiry. These form thematic chapters, the contents of which are briefly summarized as follows: 1. Provision; the Church of England's supervisory role; incidental management of schools. 2. The curriculum and teaching methodology employed in the various scholastic institutions. 3. A survey of scholars in attendance at elementary schools, grammar schools and academies. 4. A consideration of the teaching force with sections on religious attitudes, financial standing and professionalism. Although the study has a national dimension its distinct regional focus is intentional because the bulk of surviving records relate to a locality, enabling its educational system to be largely reconstructed. The Peterborough diocese proved to be an eminently suitable choice being both the setting for educational diversity and extremely rich in source material. The evidence which accrued was not used merely to illustrate what is already known; rather, it made possible more realistic interpretations of the macro situation than hitherto. It is argued in the conclusion that education neither stagnated nor regressed. The principal finding is that the classical tradition of the grammar schools and the universities gradually lost ground to Dissent with its insistence on science and 'the relief of man's estate'. Consequently, new ideas were enterprisingly translated into commendable practice.
Hodgkinson, Peter John
This thesis is concerned with theorising educational change. This involves the identification of a distinct theoretical object; the conceptualisation of a dynamic of educational change and the delimitation of the fundamental units of analysis. Together, these provide the basis for the development in Part One of the thesis of a content-theoretical model. Working within a Marxist Reproduction problematic, power and domination are theorised in terms of Social Forms - wage, state and civil-forms - which are the product of the social relations of production within the Capitalist Mode of Production. The education system is taken to be the most public and formal site of their reproduction. Since social forms are a feature of the social structure, including the education system, a 'translation effect' can be identified between different levels of analysis. This approach therefore entails recognition of the fact that reproduction is contested and has a political aspect. The object of analysis has been to reveal this political aspect by delineating the relationship between the economic and the political ( the wage and state-forms), thereby demonstrating how 'the political' makes possible the reproductive role of the education system. In Part Two of the thesis, this content-theoretical model is employed in an analysis of the introduction of the 'new vocationalism' into Further Education. Focussing upon the FE teachers' trade union organisation NATFHE, this analysis reveals that, faced with the introduction of the new vocationalism in the shape of the Youth Training Scheme, a 'strategy of opportunism' has been the dominant logic informing their collective action. Such a strategy is shown to contribute to the proletarianisation of FE teachers, thereby rendering their opposition to the new vocationalism ineffective.
I spy with my little eye : a history of the policing of class and gender relations in Eugene, Oregon (USA)Websdale, Neil Stuart 1991 (has links)
My thesis is that local police in Eugene and Lane County, Oregon, have been integral parts of a process of governmentality which was directed at the constitution and reconstitution of various forms of social order. In terms of class relations we find police mediating and managing a number of antagonisms. This management role took both coercive and consensual forms and was largely concerned with the historical regulation of the proletariat. We witness a more passive role for police in the field of patriarchy. Here law enforcement strategies were non-interventionist vis a vis domestic violence, rape and prostitution. This passivity tended to reproduce the sovereign powers of men over women. In order to grasp the historical function of policing I argue that we must consider its utility in terms of both class and gender relations. While selective policing served to ensure the ongoing governability of the increasing numbers of male wage workers, it also allowed men in general to remain as sovereigns within families. In Section I I draw upon Marxism, Feminism, Poststructuralism and Phenomenology to make explicit my theoretical and methodological approach. My recognition of the importance of human agency is reflected in my use of qualitative sources such as oral histories, government documents, newspapers and court archival material. These sources are augmented by a guarded quantitative analysis of census data, crime statistics and police annual reports. Sections II and III provide historical outlines of national, state and local levels of class (II) and gender (III) relations respectively. In Section IV I discuss the rise of local policing and its relationship to other forms of governmentality. This leads me into a detailed appreciation of the policing of class (V) and gender conflict (VI).
Percy, Pamela Violet
Within sociology, technology is not a common subject for sociological analysis; technology is often treated as if it were no more than an asocial physical product. The argument of this thesis is that technology is as available for sociological analysis as any other social phenomenon. In popular representation, technology is treated as if it were special, and this treatment has had particular consequences for sociological analysis. This thesis attempts to put this special, deferential, attitude to technology aside, and to reveal technology as an unexceptional topic for sociological investigation. Stated baldly, two ideas are demonstrated in this thesis. The first of these is: The way that technology is constructed as a category in sociological literature makes the topic technology resistant to sociological analysis. The second idea follows from this: It is possible to develop a sociological account of technology by reference to a reconceptualised notion of work. The thesis considers those sociological approaches which appear to offer some potential for an elaborated sociology of technology. These move from conventionally academic discussions of a sociology of technology through marxian, culturalist and feminist accounts of work and of technology, to a consideration of the views of technology embodied in particular instances of policy and local action. A view of technology emerges which draws on the divergent traditions of marxian political economy and marxian cultural studies. The thesis concludes with an attempt to embrace both these perspectives in the development of a sociology of technology.
Gilroy, David Peter
The thesis begins by making two distinctions which are central to its methodology. The first is that between valid and invalid criticism, the second between philosophy of language and meaning theory. These distinctions combine to produce the methodology which informs the thesis, namely that a theory of meaning can be validly criticised in terms of its account, implicit or explicit, of first language acquisition and, conversely, an account of first language acquisition can be validly criticised in terms of its theory, implicit or explicit, of meaning. The thesis continues by testing the appropriateness of the methodology against the classical empiricist and rationalist accounts of meaning expressed in terms of Ideas, arguing that the majority of criticisms of these accounts misfire as they do not operate within the framework of the positions they purport to criticise. Such invalid criticism is replaced with that argued for here, the conclusion being that the classical accounts of meaning are to be rejected on the grounds that they make use of a phenomenon, language, whose acquisition they cannot, within the terms of their own position, explain. Modern, post-Fregean, empiricist and rationalist positions, those of Quine and Chomsky respectively, are then subjected to similar treatment. Both of these positions have explicit accounts of first language acquisition and so the conclusion to this section of the thesis reverses that reached when discussing the classical positions, in that the explanations of first language acquisition given by modern empiricists and rationalists are based on meaning theories which, for a variety of reasons, do not justify their explanations of the phenomenon of first language acquisition. In an attempt to move towards a more positive position two alternative accounts of meaning theory, the formal and the descriptive, are then examined. The formal account, Davidson's, is defended against those critics who produce attacks centering upon its meaning theory as being, in the sense described above, invalid. However, as it is then shown not to be able to account for first language acquisition, it is eventually rejected. The descriptivist account is identified by tracing the development of Wittgenstein's philosophy to support a particular interpretation of his later account of meaning as being a descriptive one and a defence is offered to a number of criticisms of that position. A poorly worked out experiential account of first language acquisition is then identified, and this is developed further by introducing the area of non-linguistics, where meaning can be given without words. The thesis concludes by suggesting that this area's account of first language acquisition, although having a number of difficulties with its implied meaning theory, can be combined with the later work of Wittgenstein to produce what is at least a descriptively adequate account of both meaning and first language acquisition.
The causes, processes and consequences of student drop-out from Junior Secondary School (JSS) in Ghana : the case of Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abrem (K.E.E.A.) districtYokozeki, Yumiko 1997 (has links)
Despite open access to both primary and junior secondary school (JSS), non-enrolment and dropout have been countrywide problems in Ghana. This thesis investigates the nature of student dropout from JSS in one district in the country, through four main questions. What is the relationship between drop-out rates and school characteristics of JSS in K.E.E.A. district? What are the factors causing students to drop out? What are the processes of dropping out? What are the consequences of dropping out? The thesis investigates the above questions in two phases: the first on a macro level, by means of a school survey of all 39 schools in the district; and the second on a micro level, by means of an in-depth study of drop-outs from four schools. In the school survey, among the school factors included in the current study, few showed significant association with the drop-out rates. (However, in subsequent in-depth study, the school characteristics were found to exert some influence; for example, the schools with low drop-out rates had stronger teacher commitment). In the school survey, drop-out rates were clearly associated with gender. The in-depth study of 32 drop-outs from four schools suggested that the cause of drop-out was predominantly finance for males and pregnancy for females. In a comparison of 32 drop-outs and 32 stay-ins, where age, gender, academic achievement and economic status were matched, few differences were found in family composition and school experience. In the examination of matched pairs, drop-outs tended to display particular characteristics, such as belonging to a minority language/ethnic group, or having a slight physical handicap. Parental divorce was common among both drop-outs and stay-ins. The investigation of the process of leaving school revealed that the problem was more complicated than the surface cause might suggest; there were often multiple causes leading drop-outs to abandon their education. When problems such as parents' divorce, belonging to a minority language/ethnic group, or having a slight physical handicap were coupled with poverty, the combination of these factors could cause students to leave school. Although a cause might not be serious enough to effect drop-out by itself, many students were already on the verge of dropping out; thus very little pressure was necessary to cause them to discontinue their schooling. Girls were more vulnerable than boys. Girls in general showed fewer risk factors yet more girls than boys dropped out. In some cases girls would not have dropped out if they had not become pregnant. After leaving school, most drop-outs engaged in economic activities. Only a few drop-outs wished to go back to school, and almost all wished to undertake an apprenticeship to lead to selfemployment. The occupational skills learned in apprenticeship were gender-specific, and women had fewer choices. Inequality was evident at every step; girls were disadvantaged in enrolment, retention, examination results, and in economic activities after leaving school. Education can be an effective tool for empowering the disadvantaged population. However, schooling in rural Ghana was not always meeting the strategic needs of the disadvantaged. Drop-outs, therefore, searched for other alternatives in which they could be successful, such as self-employment in microenterprises.
Post-war developments in music education : an investigation of music education policy and practice, as implemented within three local education authorities during the period, 1944-1988Adams, Pauline 2013 (has links)
In recent times there has been a resurgence of interest in the history of music education, which has opened up new opportunities for the re-interpretation of both established and changing philosophies, pedagogies and practices. Historical research into music services within LEAs is still a fertile area for investigation. This thesis brings new arguments and evidence to bear upon an under-researched and emerging area of study. The focus of this particular investigation emerged from the author’s earlier research into the history of the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) music service, the findings of which revealed three interrelated factors underpinning its development: funding and commitment, strong leadership, and the ‘London’ factor. These earlier research findings prompted further questions leading to the conception of the rationale and focus for this thesis. The first was to ask if government reports, and the ensuing initiatives they fuelled, had led to other LEAs developing their approaches to state music education in similar or parallel ways and at similar rates, and the second was to examine the role that individuals played in steering the direction of music education within the different authorities. Empirical research has provided an overview of the developments in England within three separate demographically contrasting LEAs: Leicestershire, London and Manchester, which in turn represent a large rural county, the capital city, and a relatively large northern industrial city. During the period of the chosen time frame of this study the LEAs, and those appointed to lead them, were at their most powerful and influential, but, from the mid-1970s onwards, their autonomy gradually declined as education became more centralised through government intervention, resulting in loss of power and the consequent sidelining of their role, a situation which impacted significantly on state provision for music. This thesis examines the consequences of the effects of decision making, by organisations, and their individual interpretation, on music education thinking and practice.
Conditions of service for secondary schoolmasters in England and Wales, 1891-1951, with special reference to the work of the Assistant Masters AssociationWalker, Geoffrey 1995 (has links)
This thesis examines to what extent and by what means the Assistant Masters Association (AMA) was able to influence provision in relation to conditions of service for the secondary schoolmaster in England and Wales in the 60-year period from the AMA's foundation in 1891. A thematic approach is adopted with chapters devoted to the specific issues of tenure, salaries, superannuation, registration and training. Within each chapter there is a necessary concentration on the earlier period of the AMA's history when the impetus to create acceptable conditions of service was at its most imperative. The thesis draws upon much previously unused material from the Assistant Masters Archive, lodged at the University of London Institute of Education Library. The study builds upon and extends the earlier research of Baron, Tropp and Gosden, and provides an alternative interpretation to the more recent work of Lawn, Ozga, Grace, and others, which presents the behaviour of organized teachers in terms of employeremployee conflict. The strike, confrontational stratagem and the coercion of its membership are seen as alien to the AMA's philosophy. The AMA's participation with Joint Four, and its interaction with other teacher unions, are fully explored. The significant contribution of the AMA to enhanced provision across the spectrum of teacher employment is shown to be primarily the result of the Association's persistent, professional dialogue with government - both central and local - via carefully researched data and targeted argument.
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