Mujeri , Mustafa Kamal
<p> This study is an empirical analysis of the international market for raw jute and jute manufactures. The object of the study is to build and estimate an annual simultaneous equation model of the world jute market for the post-Second World War years. The chief purpose of the model is to determine the most important dynamic aspects of this market and, in particular, the causes of the high variability of the world jute prices.</p> <p> The supply side of the model involves the specification and estimation of dynamic equations relating to the annual production of both raw jute and jute manufactures. In the case of raw jute production, equations are estimated for three major producing nations and for the "Rest-of-the-World"; in the case of jute manufactures, there are equations for six major producing nations as well as for a "Rest-of-the-World" sector. In general, jute farmers and the producers of jute manufactures are found to be responsive to economic incentives.</p> <p> The demand side of the model is constructed by specifying and estimating equations explaining the annual net consumption demand of jute manufactures for Bangladesh and India. In the case of other five countries/regions, first, the total current consumption demand for jute manufactures and synthetic substitutes are estimated together and, then, the relative shares of the two are determined. In contrast to the fairly uniform results obtained for the jute production equations, the effects of change in one of the explanatory variables on jute consumption are found to vary widely for the countries studied.</p> <p> Equations explaining end-of-the-year stocks of both raw jute and jute manufactures in the major producing countries have been specified and estimated. Finally, the price equations, explaining the formation of world prices of raw jute and jute manufactures and their relationship with the domestic prices in the major producing countries, have been estimated to complete the empirical model.</p> <p> The final model contains thirty-nine stochastic equations and twenty-five identities, and is decomposed into two blocks: a recursive block, which is estimated by ordinary least squares, and a simultaneous block, which is estimated by two-stage least squares. The study then proceeds to examine the qualitative characteristics of the model by conducting simulation experiments over part of the period of estimation. The model is further tested to explore some interesting hypothetical forms of international jute agreements. Moreover, simulations over future periods are also investigated in order to obtain conditional forecasts and to explore further some of the hypothetical international agreements. In general during the sample period, the basic simulation traces quite satisfactorily, on both the aggregate and the disaggregate level, the trajectories of the important endogenous variable in the model. The simulations over the 1974-1990 period imply practically a stagnation of the position with relatively small increases in world production, consumption, and prices. Moreover, the present trend of decreasing the consumption of jute manufactures in the developed countries is expected to continue.</p> <p> Finally, in respect to possible institution of various international agreements to benefit (in part, at least) the raw jute producers, it has been found that, in most cases, these programs will have very limited benefits (although both the producers and the consumers might benefit from increased price stability) due to high and increasing elasticity of substitution between jute and the synthetic substitutes</p> / Thesis / Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Atouts et limites de la filière coton au Mali / Strenghts and limitations of the cotton sector in MaliMamadou, Camara 09 June 2015 (has links)
Cette thèse analyse les différents aspects de la filière cotonnière au Mali en se basant sur ses atouts et limites à travers une démarche théorique, appliquée et de terrain. Cette filière est issue d’un long processus amorcé au début du 20ème siècle. Les gouvernements successifs après la souveraineté du pays en 1960 ont réservé une place de choix au développement des activités ayant un rapport direct ou indirect avec le coton. L’objectif était et reste d’assurer la participation du pays aux échanges internationaux à travers un produit pour lequel, l’économie bénéficie d’externalités positives en termes d’entrée de devises et de création d’emplois. Notre recherche nous a permis d’identifier les atouts du pays que les acteurs doivent améliorer et les défis endogènes qu’ils doivent relever, afin de pérenniser le développement de ce secteur qualifié de « space maker », au cœur d’une économie encore largement dominée par l’agriculture. La pertinence d’une spécialisation dans la production cotonnière est avérée à travers un modèle économétrique en « données de panel », qui permet de prendre en compte l’aspect temporel et spatial des structures de production cotonnière du pays en les restituant dans le contexte régional des pays d’Afrique de l’Ouest. Les résultats des différentes estimations classent le Mali en bonne position (leader, co-leader ou deuxième). Ce résultat doit conforter les acteurs du coton (États, Compagnie Malienne de Développement des Textiles, Producteurs) et les partenaires techniques et financiers à s’investir davantage pour améliorer la compétitivité de la filière, malgré que le pays soit en situation de preneur de prix « price taker », dans un environnement où certaines grandes puissances économiques (États-Unis, Chine, Espagne) produisent le même produit, en utilisant des moyens parfois critiquables, qui pénalisent la situation des producteurs dans les pays non développés.La crise qui a secoué la filière lors de la décennie 2000 a substitué l’or au coton comme première recette d’exportation (Instat-Mali 2012, Mainguy et al., 2013). Est-ce un argument suffisant pour délaisser la filière cotonnière ? Nous ne le croyons pas après avoir constaté lors de nos trois enquêtes de terrain son dynamisme et ses retombées sur les autres secteurs d’activités. En outre, l’impact de la dite filière sur l’amélioration des conditions socioéconomiques des populations demeure essentiel de sorte que, malgré ses défis, elle reste un levier majeur de la croissance économique du pays. / This thesis analyzes the different aspects of the cotton sector in Mali based on its strengths and limitations through a theoretical approach, applied and field. This sector is the result of a long process that began in the early 20th century. Successive governments after the country’s sovereignty in 1960 reserved a special place in the development of activities directly or indirectly related to cotton. The goal was and is to ensure the country’s participation in international trade through a product for which the economy has positive externalities in terms of foreign exchange earnings and job creation.Our research has allowed us to identify the strengths of the country that actors must improve and endogenous challenges they face, in order to sustain the development of this sector called "space maker" in the heart of an economy still largely dominated by agriculture. The relevance of specialization in cotton production has proven through an econometric model "panel data", which allows to take into account the temporal and spatial structures of cotton production in the country by returning in the regional context of West African countries. The results of the various estimates classify Mali in good position (leader, co-leader or second).This result should reinforce the actors of cotton (states, Malian Textile Development Com¬pany, Producers) and technical and financial partners to do more to improve the competitiveness of the sector, despite the country is experiencing "price taker" in an environment where some major economies (USA, China, Spain) produce the same product, using sometimes questionable means, that penalize the situation of producers in non-developed countries.The crisis that hit the industry in the 2000s has replaced cotton by gold as the first export earnings (INSTAT - Mali 2012, Mainguy et al., 2013). Is this a sufficient argument for abandoning the cotton industry? We do not believe it after seeing during our three field surveys its dynamism and its impact on other sectors. In addition, the impact of cotton production on improving socio¬economic conditions of the population remains essential so that, despite its challenges, it remains a major driver of the country’s economic growth.
International Market Selection among Swedish retailers : An exploratory study of how Swedish international retailers identify and select foreign marketsRåberg, Johan, Hedenbergh, Max January 2016 (has links)
In the wake of globalization, an increasing amount of firms must consider internationalization strategies to remain competitive. The strategic decision of where to expand is complex by nature. This is particularly true for retailers, and despite this being generally accepted, relatively little is in fact known about retailers ́ choice of foreign markets. Hence, this study investigates international market selection (IMS) strategies of Swedish retailers with global operations. The purpose of this study is twofold; first, to explore which criteria Swedish retailers use upon making international market selection decisions and investigate the relative importance among these criteria. Second, to assess the possibilities of creating a weighted IMS model for retailers, which can be use as guidance for marketing practitioners. The research questions which will be answered are: How do Swedish international retailers select foreign markets? What are the possibilities of creating a weighted IMS model for retailers? The study embraces a qualitative strategy with an exploratory research approach and a multiple case study design. Through extensive literature review, a conceptual framework is constructed, and subsequently developed, post gaining insight in practitioners’ reasoning. The empirical data was gathered through interviews with managers of Swedish retailers with international presence, as well as strategy consultants who routinely work with strategy conformation for Swedish retailers. Our findings show that criteria which influence IMS decisions among Swedish retailers are quite similar among firms and can be arranged under three main categories; market attractiveness, psychic distance and internal factors. Moreover, as a result of the empirical findings, we suggest previous IMS research lack one important factor which influences the IMS decisions, namely “gut-feeling”/coincidence. The relative importance among factors proved to vary among firms. Consequently, four concepts aiming at explaining the variations were developed. The four concepts include firm size, firm objective, industry of the firm, and ownership structure. Finally, with support from respondents, we arrived at a conclusion suggesting that construction of a weighted IMS model for all types of retailers is unfeasible. However, if the scope is limited to only include firms of similar characteristics as proposed by the four concepts, such model could potentially yield solid validity.
The current study aims to investigate the feasibility of international apparel and footwear retailers to expand their business in Pakistan and compete with other brands. It also highlights the business opportunities in Pakistan apparel retail sector and the motivations of international brands behind expansions. This study was conducted with the help of interviews based on diamond model of Porter, and Hofsetede cultural dimensions. The open ended questions were delivered to the professionals electronically while interviews were conducted by telephone. Seven companies from Pakistan were selected for study purpose. Data was analyzed and assessed manually. The study revealed that there is a significant opportunity for international apparel retailers to launch their retail outlets in Pakistan along with some risks. International brands which are financially strong can tackle these risks. However it was concluded that the companies with less financial strength may find it difficult to go in a new market within 5 years. UK brands are already there and brands from other countries are also opening. Overall Pakistan retail sector is growing and people are becoming fashion conscious. This study provides information to International apparel brands which they can take into consideration while entering Pakistan's apparel retail market. It also gives an opportunity for assessment of market in the light of theoretical modules and shows a direction of getting better market share by launching.
Emerging Market Selection for Offshore Production : A case study on the international market selection into an emerging marketMagnusson, Sebastian, Källgren, Jimmy, Viberg, Tom January 2015 (has links)
The purpose of this thesis is to conduct an international market selection which will result in a suitable choice of market for an SME that is about to place offshore production in an emerging market. A focus during the thesis is directed towards potential risks that may occur and how SMEs can manage these. In order to fulfill this purpose the authors have developed two main research questions:How can an SME use the IMS-framework to select an emerging market for offshore production?How can an SME manage potential risks when placing offshore production in an emerging market?The theoretical framework consists of the description of the international market selection process that is relevant as it is the framework from which the selection of a target market originates. Further, a description of theories on entry modes and risk management is presented in order to provide insight on how SMEs can manage risks when placing production in an emerging market. The empirical chapter consists of interviews from a case company as well as Business Sweden and is structured in accordance to the theoretical chapter.In the analysis the theoretical frameworks are discussed and connected to the empirical findings. In the initial part of the analysis the international market selection is presented and discussed before it culminates in the authors chosen target market. The latter part of the analysis addresses the risk management SMEs is faced with when placing offshore production in an emerging market.The conclusion provides the reader with the chosen target market for the case company. It also shows that SMEs ought to apply a risk averse mindset when placing their production in an emerging market. The authors finally present suggestions for further research regarding SMEs ventures to place production in emerging markets.
Isaac, Fábio Lucheta [UNESP]
19 May 2006
(has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:28:23Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2006-05-19Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T19:36:51Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 isaac_fl_me_jabo.pdf: 199137 bytes, checksum: f1174c481ad59881ca1ef1860eb3f27f (MD5) / Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) / Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar a estrutura de mercado internacional de carne bovina e os efeitos da política cambial adotada pelo Brasil sobre as exportações e o preço da carne bovina brasileira, no período entre 1967 e 2003. A equação de demanda e oferta de exportação de carne bovina é estimada por meio do método de análise de regressão dos mínimos quadrados de dois estágios (2SLS), a fim de determinar as elasticidades das variáveis que compõem essas equações, objetivando-se avaliar os efeitos das variáveis selecionadas sobre as exportações de carne bovina do Brasil. Para se analisar o efeito da taxa de câmbio sobre os preços internacionais da carne bovina em moeda nacional, faz-se uso do método de análise conhecido por shift-share. Nessa análise, obtêm-se os efeitos isolados das variações dos preços da carne bovina em dólares (efeito dólar) e da taxa de câmbio (efeito câmbio) sobre as variações dos preços em moeda nacional (efeito total). Os resultados obtidos sinalizam que o modelo teórico utilizado, que considera as exportações em grande parte sendo determinadas pelos excedentes do mercado doméstico, mostra-se apropriado para a análise proposta. / This study aims at analyzing the structure of the international beef market and the effects of exchange rate policies employed by Brazil on the exports and the price of the Brazilian beef from 1967 through 2003. The beef export demand and supply equation is estimated by the method of analysis of regression of the Two Stages Least Squares (2SLS), in order to determine the elasticities of the variables that compose those equations and to evaluate the effects of the selected variables on the exports of Brazilian beef. In order to analyze the effect of the exchange rate on international beef prices in Brazilian currency (real), the method known as shift-share is used. In that analysis, it is possible to obtain the isolated effect of the variations on beef prices in dollars (dollar effect) and on the exchange. rate (exchange rate effect) accross the variations of beef prices in national currency (total effect). Findings reveal that the used theoretical model is appropriate for the current analysis, considering that exports are largely determined by the excess of beef supply in the domestic market.
Isaac, Fábio Lucheta.
Resumo: Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar a estrutura de mercado internacional de carne bovina e os efeitos da política cambial adotada pelo Brasil sobre as exportações e o preço da carne bovina brasileira, no período entre 1967 e 2003. A equação de demanda e oferta de exportação de carne bovina é estimada por meio do método de análise de regressão dos mínimos quadrados de dois estágios (2SLS), a fim de determinar as elasticidades das variáveis que compõem essas equações, objetivando-se avaliar os efeitos das variáveis selecionadas sobre as exportações de carne bovina do Brasil. Para se analisar o efeito da taxa de câmbio sobre os preços internacionais da carne bovina em moeda nacional, faz-se uso do método de análise conhecido por shift-share. Nessa análise, obtêm-se os efeitos isolados das variações dos preços da carne bovina em dólares (efeito dólar) e da taxa de câmbio (efeito câmbio) sobre as variações dos preços em moeda nacional (efeito total). Os resultados obtidos sinalizam que o modelo teórico utilizado, que considera as exportações em grande parte sendo determinadas pelos excedentes do mercado doméstico, mostra-se apropriado para a análise proposta. / Abstract: This study aims at analyzing the structure of the international beef market and the effects of exchange rate policies employed by Brazil on the exports and the price of the Brazilian beef from 1967 through 2003. The beef export demand and supply equation is estimated by the method of analysis of regression of the Two Stages Least Squares (2SLS), in order to determine the elasticities of the variables that compose those equations and to evaluate the effects of the selected variables on the exports of Brazilian beef. In order to analyze the effect of the exchange rate on international beef prices in Brazilian currency (real), the method known as shift-share is used. In that analysis, it is possible to obtain the isolated effect of the variations on beef prices in dollars (dollar effect) and on the exchange. rate (exchange rate effect) accross the variations of beef prices in national currency (total effect). Findings reveal that the used theoretical model is appropriate for the current analysis, considering that exports are largely determined by the excess of beef supply in the domestic market. / Orientador: Jose Gilberto de Souza / Coorientador: Waldir Barros Fernandes Júnior / Banca: Maria Inez Espagnoli Geraldo Martins / Banca: Hildo Meireles de Souza Filho / Mestre
Podmínky pro vstup vybraného podniku na zahraniční trh / Terms of expansion of selected organisation into international marketKUČEROVÁ, Iveta January 2013 (has links)
This thesis describes the selected organisation. There is presented a SWOT analysis of the company in this thesis. Describes the terms of expansion of selected organisation into international market, specifically for entry into the German market. The result is a proposal for the application of the chosen company to market a full description of the situation on the market.
20 June 2005
The thesis goal – analysis of main difficulties of stocks supply to Lithuanian plants and presentation of possible solutions acording to the experience and practice of supply management in foreign countries. The main goal of stocks supply is to satisfy the needs of engineering by materials supply at the same time getting the greatest economical benefit. In the analytical part of the thesis the author briefly discusses the conception and the goals of stocks supply, analyses the management of materials flow and the control of the main subjects of stocks supply in Lithuanian and foreign countries. There are also described the peculiarities of purchasing in international market. The project part of the work presents the research of main aspects of stocks supply in Lithuanian firms. The author analyses the impact to the stocks prices of Lithuania’s entry to European Union. According to the results of the analysis performed, the author proposes the plan of choosing the most qualified suppliers, practicing the Electronic data interchange, using experience of foreign countries which working in international market. There are also given the possibilities of supply management in E – commerce and the strategy of making of purchasing management teams.
Verslumo kompetencijų ugdymas bendrojo lavinimo mokykloje / The education and training of enterpreneurship in the secondary schoolDanikauskienė, Regina 21 June 2006 (has links)
SUMMARY The education and training of entrepreneurship is a new thing in Lithuania. It includes knowledge, skill development, and individual qualities corresponding student’s age and logic level. Primary, secondary, and vocational training schools develop entrepreneurship and learning by doing. Because of entrepreneurship, the cooperation between training institutions and business enterprises, teachers’ training, encouragement of business initiatives at universities takes place. The work’s research problem consists of questions like entrepreneurship conception, aspects, and growth potential. The objective of this research is to show secondary schools students and teacher’s attitude towards entrepreneurship education competence. To achieve this objective and to reveal problematic aspects, different scientific pedagogical, psychological, and other issues were used. The research is made to evaluate the importance of entrepreneurship education from the secondary schools students and teacher’s viewpoint; to develop the ways of entrepreneurship teaching, to explore education abilities of the entrepreneurship competences; to determine the necessary qualities and skills for entrepreneurship competence and give recommendations. The work reveals the essence of entrepreneurship competence: entrepreneurship is not only the creation of your business, but the growth of your qualities as well. Entrepreneurship competences are influenced by the growth of certain natural and acquired... [to full text]
Page generated in 0.165 seconds