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Características de resistência ao cisalhamento de rochas fraturadas. / Sem título em inglêsFujimura, Fernando 17 November 1981 (has links)
A presente dissertação enfoca as características de resistência ao cisalhamento e os mecanismos básicos que governam o fenômeno de atrito em rochas fraturadas. Especial atenção é dedicada à identificação de fatores geométricos e geotécnicos importantes e a sua relação com o comportamento e esforços resistentes de rochas fraturadas. A caracterização de fraturas por meio de parâmetros geomecânicos adequados permitirá incluílos nos modelos de cálculo e simular mais realisticamente o comportamento geomecânico do maciço rochoso fraturado. / This thesis focuses on the shear strenght and mechanisms that change the shear characteristics of jointed rocks. Special attention was devoted to the identification of geometric and geotechnical factors and its relationship with the behavior and strenght of jointed rocks. The characterization of the fractures by apropriated geomechanical parameters Will permite to include them in the models and to simulate more realistically the behavior of fractured rock mass.

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Características de resistência ao cisalhamento de rochas fraturadas. / Sem título em inglêsFernando Fujimura 17 November 1981 (has links)
A presente dissertação enfoca as características de resistência ao cisalhamento e os mecanismos básicos que governam o fenômeno de atrito em rochas fraturadas. Especial atenção é dedicada à identificação de fatores geométricos e geotécnicos importantes e a sua relação com o comportamento e esforços resistentes de rochas fraturadas. A caracterização de fraturas por meio de parâmetros geomecânicos adequados permitirá incluílos nos modelos de cálculo e simular mais realisticamente o comportamento geomecânico do maciço rochoso fraturado. / This thesis focuses on the shear strenght and mechanisms that change the shear characteristics of jointed rocks. Special attention was devoted to the identification of geometric and geotechnical factors and its relationship with the behavior and strenght of jointed rocks. The characterization of the fractures by apropriated geomechanical parameters Will permite to include them in the models and to simulate more realistically the behavior of fractured rock mass.

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Elastic Wave Propagation and Evaluation of Low Strain Dynamic Properties in Jointed RocksSebastian, Resmi January 2015 (has links) (PDF)
When the point under consideration is not near to the source of vibration, the strains developed in the rock mass due to the passage of waves are usually of small magnitude, and within the elastic range. However, the rock mass may be subjected to a wide range of strain levels depending on the source of vibration and the wave frequency, even within the elastic limit. The present study is based on the two general conditions existing at field, long wave length propagation of waves and intermediate wavelength propagation of waves. When the wavelength of propagating wave is much longer than the joint spacing, it is referred to as long wavelength condition and is associated with propagation of low frequency waves across closely spaced joints. When wavelength of propagating wave is nearly equal to joint spacing, it is known as intermediate wavelength condition and is associated with propagation of high frequency waves. Long wave length propagation of waves has been studied by conducting laboratory experiments using Resonant Column Apparatus on developed plaster gypsum samples. The influence of joint types, joint spacing and joint orientation on wave propagation has been analyzed at three confining stresses under various strain levels. The wave velocities and damping ratios at various strain levels have been obtained and presented. Shear wave velocities are more dependent on confining stress than compression wave velocities across frictional joints whereas, compression wave velocities are more dependent on confining stress than shear wave velocities across filled joints. Wave velocities are at minimum and wave damping is at maximum across horizontal joints whereas wave velocities are at maximum and wave damping is at minimum across vertical joints. Shear wave velocity and shear wave damping are more dependent on joint orientations than compression wave velocity and compression wave damping. As Resonant Column Apparatus has some limitations in testing stiff samples, a validated numerical model has been developed using Discrete Element Method (DEM) that can provide resonant frequencies under torsional and flexural vibrations. It has been found from numerical simulations, that reduction of normal and shear stiffness of joint with increasing strain levels leads to wave velocity reduction in jointed rock mass. Intermediate wave length propagation of waves has been studied by conducting tests using Bender/ extender elements and the numerical simulations developed using 3DEC (Three Dimensional Distinct Element Code).Parametric study on energy transmission, wave velocities and wave amplitudes of shear and compression waves, has been carried out using the validated numerical model. The propagation of waves across multiple parallel joints was simulated and the phenomenon of multiple reflections of waves between joints could be observed. The transformations of obliquely incident waves on the joint have been successfully modeled by separating the transmitted transformed P and S waves. The frequency dependent behavior of jointed rocks has been studied by developing a numerical model and by applying a wide range of wave frequencies. It has been found that low frequency shear waves may involve slips of rock blocks depending on the strength of rock joint, leading to less transmission of energy; while low frequency compression waves are well transmitted across the joints. High frequency shear and compression waves experience multiple reflections and absorptions at joints.

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Formulação micromecânica do comportamento poroelástico de um meio rochoso fraturado / Formulation of the micromechanical behavior of a poroelastic jointed rock mediaLorenci, Giordano Von Saltiél January 2013 (has links)
Os meios rochosos são compostos por blocos de rochas intactos e por descontinuidades. As descontinuidades representam zonas de baixa rigidez, onde as propriedades do maciço estão degradadas, reduzindo a resistência do mesmo. Elas também constituem caminhos para o fluxo de fluidos no interior da rocha. O estudo do comportamento hidráulicomecânico acoplado existente nos meios porosos é realizado pela poroelasticidade, que relaciona os campos de tensões e deformações no maciço, gerados pela deformação mecânica do esqueleto e pela ação do fluido pressurizado nos poros. Uma abordagem micromecânica permite estender os resultados clássicos da teoria de poroelasticidade para o caso de juntas que são capazes de transferir esforços ao longo de suas faces. Neste contexto, o meio rochoso heterogêneo é substituído por um meio homogêneo equivalente, pela aplicação do conceito de mudança de escala da teoria da homogeneização, que possibilita a determinação das propriedades efetivas do maciço. Demonstrase que, para certas distribuições geométricas das juntas, é possível obter soluções analíticas para o comportamento do maciço pela aplicação de estimativas como, por exemplo, o esquema MoriTanaka, onde as juntas são modeladas como esferoides. Um modelo numérico via método dos elementos finitos, que considera explicitamente as juntas, é usado para comparar os resultados obtidos. / Rock media are composed by blocks of intact rock and discontinuities. Discontinuities represent zones of low stiffness, where the mass properties of the rock are degraded, with reduced resistance. They also provide ways for fluid flow within the rock. The study of coupled mechanicalhydraulic behavior existing in porous media is perfomed by poroelasticity, which relates the stress and strain fields in a rock mass generated by the mechanical deformation of the skeleton and the action of pressurized fluid in the pores. A Micromechanics approach allows to extend the classical results of the theory of poroelasticity to the case of joints that are able to transfer stresses along their faces. In this context, a heterogeneous rock media is replaced by an equivalent homogeneous medium by applying the micromacro approach from the theory of homogenization, which allows the determination of the effective properties of the rock mass. It is shown that, for some geometric distributions of the joints, it is possible to obtain analytical solutions for the rock behavior by applying estimates methods as the MoriTanaka scheme, where the joints are modeled as oblong spheroids. A numerical model via the finite element method, where the joints are considering explicitly, is used in order to compare the results.

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Formulação micromecânica do comportamento poroelástico de um meio rochoso fraturado / Formulation of the micromechanical behavior of a poroelastic jointed rock mediaLorenci, Giordano Von Saltiél January 2013 (has links)
Os meios rochosos são compostos por blocos de rochas intactos e por descontinuidades. As descontinuidades representam zonas de baixa rigidez, onde as propriedades do maciço estão degradadas, reduzindo a resistência do mesmo. Elas também constituem caminhos para o fluxo de fluidos no interior da rocha. O estudo do comportamento hidráulicomecânico acoplado existente nos meios porosos é realizado pela poroelasticidade, que relaciona os campos de tensões e deformações no maciço, gerados pela deformação mecânica do esqueleto e pela ação do fluido pressurizado nos poros. Uma abordagem micromecânica permite estender os resultados clássicos da teoria de poroelasticidade para o caso de juntas que são capazes de transferir esforços ao longo de suas faces. Neste contexto, o meio rochoso heterogêneo é substituído por um meio homogêneo equivalente, pela aplicação do conceito de mudança de escala da teoria da homogeneização, que possibilita a determinação das propriedades efetivas do maciço. Demonstrase que, para certas distribuições geométricas das juntas, é possível obter soluções analíticas para o comportamento do maciço pela aplicação de estimativas como, por exemplo, o esquema MoriTanaka, onde as juntas são modeladas como esferoides. Um modelo numérico via método dos elementos finitos, que considera explicitamente as juntas, é usado para comparar os resultados obtidos. / Rock media are composed by blocks of intact rock and discontinuities. Discontinuities represent zones of low stiffness, where the mass properties of the rock are degraded, with reduced resistance. They also provide ways for fluid flow within the rock. The study of coupled mechanicalhydraulic behavior existing in porous media is perfomed by poroelasticity, which relates the stress and strain fields in a rock mass generated by the mechanical deformation of the skeleton and the action of pressurized fluid in the pores. A Micromechanics approach allows to extend the classical results of the theory of poroelasticity to the case of joints that are able to transfer stresses along their faces. In this context, a heterogeneous rock media is replaced by an equivalent homogeneous medium by applying the micromacro approach from the theory of homogenization, which allows the determination of the effective properties of the rock mass. It is shown that, for some geometric distributions of the joints, it is possible to obtain analytical solutions for the rock behavior by applying estimates methods as the MoriTanaka scheme, where the joints are modeled as oblong spheroids. A numerical model via the finite element method, where the joints are considering explicitly, is used in order to compare the results.

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Formulação micromecânica do comportamento poroelástico de um meio rochoso fraturado / Formulation of the micromechanical behavior of a poroelastic jointed rock mediaLorenci, Giordano Von Saltiél January 2013 (has links)
Os meios rochosos são compostos por blocos de rochas intactos e por descontinuidades. As descontinuidades representam zonas de baixa rigidez, onde as propriedades do maciço estão degradadas, reduzindo a resistência do mesmo. Elas também constituem caminhos para o fluxo de fluidos no interior da rocha. O estudo do comportamento hidráulicomecânico acoplado existente nos meios porosos é realizado pela poroelasticidade, que relaciona os campos de tensões e deformações no maciço, gerados pela deformação mecânica do esqueleto e pela ação do fluido pressurizado nos poros. Uma abordagem micromecânica permite estender os resultados clássicos da teoria de poroelasticidade para o caso de juntas que são capazes de transferir esforços ao longo de suas faces. Neste contexto, o meio rochoso heterogêneo é substituído por um meio homogêneo equivalente, pela aplicação do conceito de mudança de escala da teoria da homogeneização, que possibilita a determinação das propriedades efetivas do maciço. Demonstrase que, para certas distribuições geométricas das juntas, é possível obter soluções analíticas para o comportamento do maciço pela aplicação de estimativas como, por exemplo, o esquema MoriTanaka, onde as juntas são modeladas como esferoides. Um modelo numérico via método dos elementos finitos, que considera explicitamente as juntas, é usado para comparar os resultados obtidos. / Rock media are composed by blocks of intact rock and discontinuities. Discontinuities represent zones of low stiffness, where the mass properties of the rock are degraded, with reduced resistance. They also provide ways for fluid flow within the rock. The study of coupled mechanicalhydraulic behavior existing in porous media is perfomed by poroelasticity, which relates the stress and strain fields in a rock mass generated by the mechanical deformation of the skeleton and the action of pressurized fluid in the pores. A Micromechanics approach allows to extend the classical results of the theory of poroelasticity to the case of joints that are able to transfer stresses along their faces. In this context, a heterogeneous rock media is replaced by an equivalent homogeneous medium by applying the micromacro approach from the theory of homogenization, which allows the determination of the effective properties of the rock mass. It is shown that, for some geometric distributions of the joints, it is possible to obtain analytical solutions for the rock behavior by applying estimates methods as the MoriTanaka scheme, where the joints are modeled as oblong spheroids. A numerical model via the finite element method, where the joints are considering explicitly, is used in order to compare the results.

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Strength And Deformation Behaviour Of Jointed Rocks : An Equivalent Continuum ModelMaji, Vidya Bhushan 08 1900 (has links)
Most rock masses encountered in civil and mining engineering projects contain preexisting discontinuities. These discontinuities weaken the rock masses to an extent, which depends very much on the size of engineering structure relation to discontinuity spacing. The strength and deformability of rock mass is controlled not only by the intact portion of rock, but by the characteristic of the joints that break up the mass, particularly their pattern and their orientation with respect to the insitu stresses. In considering the effect of joints, the discrete approach emerged as an efficient tool and advocated since 1970s (Cundall, 1971). However, the numerical approach with modelling the joints explicitly has the limitation of computational complexity for modelling largescale problems with extremely large number of joints. As an alternative to this limitation, the equivalent continuum approach models the jointed rock masses as a continuum with the equivalent properties that represent implicitly the effects of the joints.
Several numerical methods have been developed by various researchers to model jointed rock masses as equivalent continuum, using various techniques. However, the existing equivalent continuum models are complicated and need more input data from experimental or field testing in order to carry out the analysis. Present approach attempts to use statistical relations, which are simple and obtained after analyzing a large data from the literature on laboratory test results of jointed rock masses. Systematic investigations were done including laboratory experiments to develop the methodologies to determine the equivalent material properties of rock mass and their stressstrain behaviour, using a hyperbolic approach (Duncan and Chang, 1970). Present study covers the development of equivalent continuum model for rock mass right from developing statistical correlations to find out equivalent material properties based on experimental results, to the implementation of the model in FLAC3D for 3dimensional applications and subsequently verification leading to real field application involving jointed rocks.
Experimental work carried out to study the strength and deformation characteristics of jointed rock by using standard laboratory tests on cylindrical specimens of plaster of Paris by introducing artificial joints. The objective was to derive the compressive strength and elastic modulus of rock mass as a function of intact rock strength/modulus and joint factor. The obtained experimental results and developed relations were compared with the previous experimental data on jointed rocks. Further, a failure criterion as proposed by Ramamurthy (1993) has been validated from these experimental results of intact and jointed rock specimens. Empirical relationships similar to Ramamurthy’s relations are established for the prediction of rock mass strength and were compared with proposed equation by Ramamurthy (1993) and are found comparable. However, the equations by Ramamurthy were based on different variety of rocks and therefore recommended for further use and were used in numerical models.
For efficient application to the field problems the equivalent continuum model is implemented in the program Fast Lagrangian analysis of continua (FLAC3D). The model was rigorously validated by simulating jointed rock specimens. Element tests were conducted for both uniaxial and triaxial cases and then compared with the respective experimental results. The numerical test program includes laboratory tested cylindrical rock specimens of different rock types, from plaster of Paris representing soft rock to granite representing very hard rock. The results of the equivalent continuum modelling were also compared with explicit modelling results where joints were incorporated in the model as interfaces. To represent highly discontinuous system, the laboratory investigation on block jointed specimens of gypsum plaster (Brown and Trollope, 1970) was modelled numerically using equivalent continuum approach.
To extend the applicability of the model to field applications, investigation were done by undertaking numerical modelling of two case studies underground caverns, one Nathpa Jhakri hydroelectric power cavern in Himachal Pradesh, India, and the other one Shiobara hydroelectric power cavern in Japan. This study verifies the efficiency of the present approach in estimating ground movement and stress distribution around the excavations in jointed rock masses. The modelling results were also compared with six other computation models as presented by Horii et al. (1999) for the Shiobara power house cavern. An attempt has also been made to numerically model the support system for the cavern and investigate the efficiency of reinforcements using FLAC3D. The model was also used for analyzing large scale slope in jointed rocks using the equivalent continuum model by undertaking numerical modelling of Anji bridge abutment slopes, in Jammu and Kashmir, India. Slope stability analysis is done using equivalent continuum approach for both, the original profiles as well as with the pier loads on cut profiles. Attempt was also made to exhibit the shear strength dependency of the strain though the hyperbolic stress strain model. The shear strain developed in the slope increases with reducing the shear strength. The relationship between the shear strength reduction ratio ‘R’ and axial strain ‘ε’, for different values of failure ratio ‘Rf’ was studied and it was observed that, the value of ‘ε’ increases, as the value of ‘R’ increases especially it increases rapidly when the value ‘R’ approaches certain critical value, which varies with the value of ‘Rf’. This critical value of R is known as the critical shear strength reduction factor Rc and is highly sensitive to the confining stress. As the value of Rf increases, representing a transition from linear elastic nature to nonlinear nature, the value of critical shear strength reduction ratio also decreases. Relationship between the critical shear strength reduction ratio and the safety factor were examined to elucidate their physical meaning. It was observed that at critical value of the shear strength reduction ratio, a well defined failure shear zone developed from the toe to the crest of the slope.
Intelligent models using ANNs were also developed to predict the elastic modulus of jointed rocks as an alternative to empirical equations and without predefining a mathematical model to correlate the properties.

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Development of a Failure Criterion for Rock Masses Having NonOrthogonal Fracture SystemsMehrapour, Mohammad Hadi, Mehrapour, Mohammad Hadi January 2017 (has links)
Two new threedimensional rock mass strength criteria are developed in this dissertation by extending an existing rock mass strength criterion. These criteria incorporate the effects of the intermediate principal stress, minimum principal stress and the anisotropy resulting from these stresses acting on the fracture system. In addition, these criteria have the capability of capturing the anisotropic and scale dependent behavior of the jointed rock mass strength by incorporating the effect of fracture geometry through the fracture tensor components. Another significant feature of the new rock mass strength criterion which has the exponential functions (equation 6.7) is having only four empirical coefficients compared to the existing strength criterion which has five empirical coefficients; if the joint sets have the same isotropic mechanical behavior, the number of the empirical coefficients reduces to two in this new strength criterion (equation 6.10).
The new criteria were proposed after analyzing 452 numerical modeling results of the triaxial, polyaxial and biaxial compression tests conducted on the jointed rock blocks having one or two joint sets by the PFC3D software version 5. In this research to have several samples with the same properties a synthetic rock material that is made out of a mixture of gypsum, sand and water was used. In total, 20 joint systems were chosen and joint sets have different dip angles varying from 15 to 60 at an interval of 15 with dip directions of 30 and 75 for the two joint sets. Each joint set also has 3 persistent joints with the joint spacing of 42 mm in a cubic sample of size 160 mm and the joints have the same isotropic mechanical behavior. The confining stress combination values were chosen based on the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) value of the modeled intact synthetic rock. The minimum principal stress values were chosen as 0, 20, 40 and 60 percent of the UCS. For each minimum principal stress value, the intermediate principal stress value varies starting at the minimum principal stress value and increasing at an interval of 20 percent of the UCS until it is lower than the strength of the sample under the biaxial loading condition with the same minimum principal stress value.
The new rock mass failure criteria were developed from the PFC3D modeling data. However, since the joint sets having the dip angle of 60 intersect the top and bottom boundaries of the sample simultaneously, the joint systems with at least one of the joint sets having the dip angle of 60 were removed from the database. Thus, 284 data points from 12 joint systems were used to find the best values of the empirical coefficients for the new rock mass strength criteria. λ, p and q were found to be 0.675, 3.16 and 0.6, respectively, through a conducted grid analysis with a high R2 (coefficient of determination) value of 0.94 for the new criterion given by equation 6.9 and a and b were found to be 0.404 and 0.972, respectively, through a conducted grid analysis with a high R2 value of 0.92 for the new criterion given by equation 6.10.
The research results clearly illustrate how increase of the minimum and intermediate principal stresses and decrease of the joint dip angle, increase the jointed rock block strength. This dissertation also illustrates how different confining stress combinations and joint set dip angles result in different jointed rock mass failure modes such as sliding on the joints, failure through the intact rock and a combination of the intact rock and joint failures.
To express the new rock mass strength failure criteria, it was necessary to determine the intact rock strengths under the same confining stress combinations mentioned earlier. Therefore, the intact rock was also modeled for all three compression tests and the intact rock strengths were found for 33 different confining stress combinations. Suitability of six major intact rock failure criteria: MohrCoulomb, HoekBrown, Modified Lade, Modified Wiebols and Cook, Mogi and DruckerPrager in representing the intact rock strength was examined through fitting them using the aforementioned 33 PFC3D data points. Among these criteria, Modified Lade, Modified Mogi with power function and Modified Wiebols and Cook were found to be the best failure criteria producing lower Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values of 0.272, 0.301 and 0.307, respectively. Thus, these three failure criteria are recommended for the prediction of the intact rock strength under the polyaxial stress condition.
In PFC unlike the other methods, macro mechanical parameters are not directly used in the model and micro mechanical parameter values applicable between the particles should be calibrated using the macro mechanical properties. Accurate calibration is a difficult or challenging task. This dissertation emphasized the importance of studying the effects of all micro parameter values on the macro mechanical properties before one goes through calibration of the micro parameters in PFC modeling. Important effects of two micro parameters, which have received very little attention, the particle size distribution and the cov of the normal and shear strengths, on the macro properties are clearly illustrated before conducting the said calibration. The intact rock macro mechanical parameter values for the Young’s modulus, uniaxial compression strength (UCS), internal friction angle, cohesion and Poisson's ratio were found by performing 3 uniaxial tests, 3 triaxial tests and 5 Brazilian tests on a synthetic material made out of a mixture of gypsum, sand and water and the joint macro mechanical parameter values were found by conducting 4 uniaxial compression tests and 4 direct shear tests on jointed synthetic rocks with a horizontal joint. Then the micro mechanical properties of the Linear Parallel Bond Model (LPMB) and Modified Smooth Joint Contact Model (MSJCM) were calibrated to represent the intact rock and joints respectively, through the specific procedures explained in this research. The similar results obtained between the 2 polyaxial experiments tests of the intact rock and 11 polyaxial experimental tests of the jointed rock blocks having one joint set and the numerical modeling verified the calibrated micro mechanical properties and further modification of these properties was not necessary.
This dissertation also proposes a modification to the Smooth Joint Contact Model (SJCM) to overcome the shortcoming of the SJCM to capture the nonlinear behavior of the joint closure varying with the joint normal stress. Modified Smooth Joint Contact Model (MSJCM) uses a linear relation between the joint normal stiffness and the normal contact stress to model the nonlinear relation between the joint normal deformation and the joint normal stress observed in the compression joint normal stiffness test. A good agreement obtained between the results from the experimental tests and the numerical modeling of the compression joint normal test shows the accuracy of this new model. Moreover, another shortcoming associated with the SJCM application known as the interlocking problem was solved through this research by proposing a new joint contact implementation algorithm called joint sides checking (JSC) approach. The interlocking problem occurs due to a shortcoming of the updating procedure in the PFC software related to the contact conditions of the particles that lie around the intended joint plane during high shear displacements. This problem increases the joint strength and dilation angle and creates unwanted fractures around the intended joint plane.

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Numerical Modeling Of Jointed Rock MassJade, (B) Sridevi 04 1900 (has links)
The behavior of jointed rock mass is very complex and is influenced by many factors such as location of joints, joint frequency, joint orientation and joint strength. A thorough review of literature on different aspects of jointed rock mass indicate that the discontinuities or planes of weakness present in rock mass significantly influence its behavior. Numerous experimental tests were conducted to study the behavior of natural as well as artificial joints in rocks. Laboratory tests are time consuming and give results applicable to specific joint fabric and confining pressure. Numerical methods are the best alternative to laboratory tests to study the behavior of jointed rock mass. With the advent of computers numerical methods of analysis have become very popular, as they are highly flexible and can represent all complex geometries and material behavior. The accuracy of a numerical model depends upon the how well constitutive relations for the jointed rock mass are defined in the analysis. Empirical relationships for describing the mechanical behavior of discontinuities obtained from scaling the laboratory data is crucial unresolved problem, which will affect the quality of results obtained. One more important aspect in the numerical model is strength criteria used for jointed rock mass. The applicability of existing strength criteria to a particular jointed rock has to be carefully examined before they are used.
Equivalent continuum approach simplifies the modeling of jointed rock mass as the joints are not modeled separately. Instead in equivalent continuum approach the jointed rock mass is represented by an equivalent continuum whose properties are defined by a combination of intact rock properties and joint properties. The accuracy of this kind of modeling depends upon the relationships used to define the jointed rock mass properties as a function of intact rock properties and joint properties. In the present study, an effort has been made (i) to establish empirical relations to define the properties of jointed rock mass as a function of intact rock properties and joint factor (ii) to develop a numerical model based on equivalent continuum approach using the empirical relations derived above, for easy and efficient modeling of jointed rock mass (iii) comparison of existing strength criteria for jointed rock masses using the equivalent continuum model developed above (iv) Modeling of joints explicitly and comparing these results with the equivalent continuum model results.
Empirical relationships expressing the uniaxial compressive strength and elastic modulus of jointed rock as a function of corresponding intact rock properties and joint factor have been derived based on the statistical analysis of large amount of experimental data of uniaxial and triaxial tests collected from the literature. The effect of joints in the jointed rock is taken in to account by the joint factor. A comparative study of the empirical relationships arrived by the above analysis has been made to choose the best relation for the numerical analysis. Empirical relationships thus arrived for jointed rock mass are used in the equivalent continuum approach to represent the jointed rock properties as a combination of intact rock properties and joint factor. Equivalent continuum model developed is thoroughly tested, validated and applied for single, multiple and block jointed rocks. The equivalent continuum model developed has been applied for analysis of the power cavern for Shiobara power station. Different strength criteria available for jointed rock namely MohrCoulomb, Hoek and Drown, Yudhbir et al. and Rarnamurthy are incorporated in the equivalent continuum model to evaluate their applicability for jointed rock masses. Ramarnurthy's strength criterion gives the best values of failure stress for almost all the test cases and hence used in the equivalent continuum model.
Alternatively, the joints in jointed rock mass are represented explicitly using interface element in the nonlinear finite element analysis. The explicit finite element model has been tested and validated using the experimental stress strain curves and failure stress values. Comparison of results obtained using equivalent continuum analysis and explicit modeling of joints has been given in the form of stress strain curves and failure stress plots for jointed rock masses along with the experimental results.
Some of the major conclusions from the present study are as follows. Statistical relationships arrived to express the properties of the jointed rock as a function of intact rock and joint factor give a fair estimate of jointed rock in the absence of experimental data. Equivalent continuum model developed using statistical relations arrived above simplifies the numerical modeling of jointed rock to a large extent and also gives a fair estimate of jointed rock behavior with minimum input data. From the equivalent continuum analysis of Shiobara power cavern, it can be concluded that this approach is very advantageous for modeling highly discontinuous systems provided the joint factor is estimated properly so that it represents the real fabric of the joints present in the system. Comparison of different strength criteria shows that Ramamurthy's strength criterion is the best for jointed rocks. When the rock mass has one or two major joints it is advantageous to model it explicitly so that the behavior of the joint can be studied in detail. Explicit representation of the joints in the finite element analysis gives a lair estimate of the zones most susceptible to failure in a jointed rock. From comparison of experimental values, equivalent continuum model results and the explicit joint model results, it can be concluded that results obtained using equivalent continuum model are nearest to the experimental results in almost all the cases.

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Factors Affecting The Static And Dynamic Response Of Jointed Rock MassesGaraga, Arunakumari 01 September 2008 (has links)
Infrastructure is developing at an extremely fast pace which includes construction of metros, underground storage places, railway bridges, caverns and tunnels. Very often these structures are found in or on the rock masses. Rock masses are seldom found in nature without joints or discontinuities. Jointed rocks are characterized by the presence of inherent discontinuities of varied sizes with different orientations and intensities, which can have significant effect on their mechanical response. Constructions involving jointed rocks often become challenging jobs for Civil Engineers as the instability of slopes or excavations in these jointed rocks poses serious concerns, sometimes leading to the failure of structures built on them. Experimental investigations on jointed rock masses are not always feasible and pose formidable problems to the engineers. Apart from the technical difficulties of extracting undisturbed rock samples, it is very expensive and time consuming to conduct the experiments on jointed rock masses of huge dimensions. The most popular methods of evaluating the rock mass behaviour are the Numerical methods. In this thesis, numerical modelling of jointed rock masses is carried out using computer program FLAC (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua).
The objective of the present study is to study the effect of various joint parameters on the response of jointed rock masses in static as well as seismic shaking conditions. This is achieved through systematic series of numerical simulations of jointed rocks in triaxial compression, in underground openings and in large rock slopes. This thesis is an attempt to study the individual effect of different joint parameters on the rock mass behaviour and to integrate these results to provide useful insight into the behaviour of jointed rock mass under various joint conditions.
In practice, it is almost impossible to explore all of the joint systems or to investigate all their mechanical characteristics and implementing them explicitly in the model. In these cases, the use of the equivalent continuum model to simulate the behaviour of jointed rock masses could be valuable. Hence this approach is mainly used in this thesis. Some numerical simulations with explicitly modelled joints are also presented for comparison with the continuum modelling. The applicability of Artificial Neural Networks for the prediction of stressstrain response of jointed rocks is also explored. Static, pseudostatic and dynamic analyses of a large rock slope in Himalayas is carried out and parametric seismic analysis of rock slope is carried out with varying input shaking, material damping and shear strength parameters.
Results from the numerical studies showed that joint inclination is the most influencing parameter for the jointed rock mass behaviour. Rock masses exhibit lowest strength at critical angle of joint inclination and the deformations around excavations will be highest when the joints are inclined at an angle close to the critical angle. However at very high confining pressures, the influence of joint inclination gets subdued. Under seismic base shaking conditions, the deformations of rock masses largely depend on the acceleration response with time, frequency content and duration rather than the peak amplitude or the magnitude of earthquake. All these aspects are discussed in the light of results from numerical studies presented in this thesis.

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