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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Induced microseismicity and the mechanical behaviour of jointed rock during the development of an HDR geothermal reservoir

Jupe, Andrew John January 1990 (has links)
No description available.
2

Experimental and numerical investigations into the mechanical characteristics of rockfill materials

Gharavy, Mojtaba January 1996 (has links)
No description available.
3

Study on slide-hold-slide process of rock discontinuity considering joint surface roughness and aperture change / き裂面のラフネスと開口幅変化を考慮した岩盤不連続面のslide-hold-slide過程に関する研究

Zhang, Jintong 23 March 2022 (has links)
京都大学 / 新制・課程博士 / 博士(工学) / 甲第23860号 / 工博第4947号 / 新制||工||1773(附属図書館) / 京都大学大学院工学研究科都市社会工学専攻 / (主査)教授 岸田 潔, 教授 三村 衛, 教授 木村 亮 / 学位規則第4条第1項該当 / Doctor of Philosophy (Engineering) / Kyoto University / DGAM
4

Förstärkning av betongdammar med slaka bergbultar : en studie av bultars samverkan med bergsprickor

Carlsson, Martin January 2015 (has links)
Internationellt sett är merparten av de dammbrott som ägt rum kopplat till grundläggningen. Det är oftast kopplat till att det finns osäkerhet i de rådande grundförhållandena. Som extra säkerhet, installerades bergförankringar som en åtgärd att behandla osäkerheterna i de rådande grundförhållandena. I Sverige är merparten av kraftverksdammarna uppförda mellan 1940-och1960 talet. Det var inte ovanligt att cementingjutna slakarmerade kamstål sattes under dammarna som en extra säkerhet. När dessa bergbultar installerades var kunskapen om dess verkningssätt begränsat, då teorier om bergbultens verkningssätt började utvecklas under 70- och 80-talet. Vid dimensionering av bergförankring till dammbyggnader i nutid tillämpas RIDAS, Kraftföretagens riktlinjer för dammsäkerhet, som är upprättade av de Svenska dammägarna. I RIDAS framgår att när det endast föreligger en risk för glidning får rostfri slak armering användas som bergförstärkning och dimensioneras enligt BBK, Boverkets handbok för betongkonstruktioner, kap 3.11 "kraftöverföring genom fog". Examensarbetets inledande del är en litteraturstudie som är inriktad på den forskning som har bedrivits rörande bergbultens principiella beteende när den går till brott. Vidare i litteraturstudien har en beräkningsteori som utvecklats av Holmberg (1991) vilken beskriver en bergbults bidrag till bärförmågan för en bergspricka studerats i detalj. Teorin har även jämförts mot experimentellt utförda skjuvförsök av bergbultar. Med hjälp av den teori som presenterades i litteraturstudien genomfördes en stabilitetsanalys av en betongmonolit i utskovsdammen på en typisk Svensk vattenkraftstation. Målet var att undersöka möjligheten för bergbultarna, som är installerade i berggrunden att samverka, med ett antaget horisontell sprickplan under dammbyggnaden. Det bidrag till bärförmågan som bergbultarna och bergsprickan utgör till totalstabiliteten jämförs med de krav som ställs i RIDAS. I slutet av arbetet förs en diskussion om de presenterade teoriernas förmåga att beskriva bultens bärförmåga under olika förhållanden samt hur en bergförankring bör utformas för att säkerställa dragbrott i bulten. Efter det ges förslag på forskning rörande bergbultning som kan utföras, för att bättre förstå bergbultens principiella beteende. / Internationally, the majority of dam failures that have occurred are related to the foundation. It is usually linked to the large uncertainty in the actual propertys of the foundation. A common measure was to install rock bolts as an extra precaution in the subgrade to handle the uncertainties of the subgrade. In Sweden, most of the hydroelectric dams were constructed between 1940 and 1960. It was not uncommon that cemented reinforced rock bolts were installed in the subsoil as an extra precaution. When these rock bolts were installed, understanding of their stress handling was limited, considering the fact that the theory of the rock bolts behavior was first studied between 1970 and 1980. The first part of this thesis is a thorough review of the literature which focuses on the research that has been conducted on the fundamental behavior of the rock bolt when it fails. In this study, a computational theory describing a rock bolts load contribution to a rock joint is presented, verified against experimental shear tests performed on rock bolts. In the design of rock anchoring to the construction of reservoirs in the present application RIDAS, Power Companies' guidelines for dam safety, the guidelines is formed by the Swedish dam owners. Accordingly to RIDAS where there is only a risk for a slide in a rock joint stainless untensioned rock bolts are allowed to be used fore support and dimension according to BBK, Boverkets handbok för betongkonstruktioner, kap 3.11 "kraftöverföring genom fog". Using the theory presented in the literature review, a stability analysis of a monolith on Långbjörn PowerStation was carried out. The goal was to explore the possibility of rock bolts installed in the subgrade to interoperate with a rock joints under the dam building. The load contribution of rock bolts and the rock joints has to overall stability is compared with the requirements of the Swedish power company’s guidelines for dam safety, RIDAS. At the end of the thesis, the presented theories’ applicability under different conditions and how a rock anchor should be designed to be as efficient as possible is discussed. In conclusion, suggestions for research that can be performed on bolting, to gain better understanding of the fundamental behavior of the rock bolt are presented.
5

Analytical and numerical approaches to estimate peak shear strength of rock joints

Ríos Bayona, Francisco January 2019 (has links)
In Sweden, there exists a large number of dams. Many of them are founded on rock masses normally affected by the presence of sub-horizontal rock fractures, which makes sliding along rock joints under the dam foundation one of the most critical failure mechanism. Various attempts have been made to relate the peak shear strength of rock joints to measurable parameters. However, the uncertainty in the determination of the shear strength of rock joints is nonetheless still significant.The main aim of this thesis is to investigate, develop and apply analytical and numerical techniques for estimation of peak shear strength of natural and unfilled rock joints. In a first step, the peak shear strength of several natural and unfilled rock joint was calculated by using surface aperture measurements from high-resolution optical scanning and a modified version of the analytical criterion previously developed by Johansson and Stille in 2014. In a second step, PFC2D was utilised to perform numerical shear tests on two-dimensional profiles selected from high-resolution optical scanning on unweathered and perfectly mated tensile induced rock joints.The results from the analytical approach show that the calculated peak shear strengths of the analysed samples are in good agreement compared with the laboratory investigations. Conversely, the obtained results from the numerical approach show lower peak shear strengths in the analysed two-dimensional profiles compared with the conducted laboratory shear tests.The analytical approach together with the advanced techniques to measure surface roughness available today, may be a possible way forward towards a methodology to determine peak shear strength of large-scale natural rock joints in-situ. / Bergsprickors skjuvhållfasthet är en avgörande faktor för att kunna bestämma säkerheten mot gliding för dammar där sub-horisontella utbredda bergsprickor existerar. Samtidigt är parametern svår att bestämma då den påverkas av flera faktorer som sprickytans råhet, vittringsgrad, normalspänning, skala samt passning. Skjuvhållfasthet av bergsprickor kan bestämmas genom att använda empiriska och analytiska brottkriterier samt numeriska metoder. Problemet med de befintliga metodikerna är att de inte beaktar inverkan från sprickans passning. Detta innebär att hållfastheten riskerar att överskattas.Det övergripande syftet med denna licentiatuppsats är att studera, utveckla och tillämpa analytiska och numeriska metoder för uppskattning av skjuvhållfasthet för naturliga och ofyllda bergsprickor. I ett första steg beräknades skjuvhållfastheten för ett antal naturliga och ofyllda bergsprickor. Detta gjordes genom att mäta aperturen baserat på högupplöst skanning och en vidareutvecklad version av det analytiska kriteriet som föreslogs av Johansson och Stille 2014. I ett andra steg användes PFC2D för att genomföra numeriska skjuvtester på två-dimensionella sprickprofiler baserat på högupplöst skanning av perfekt passade och draginducerade bergsprickor.Resultaten från uppskattad skjuvhållfasthet med den analytiska metodiken visar på en bra överensstämmelse i jämförelse med de utförda skjuvförsöken. Resultaten från de utförda analyserna med PFC2D visar på en något lägre skjuvhållfasthet än vad som observeras i verkligheten.Den utvecklade analytiska metodiken, tillsammans med de avancerade tekniker som idag finns för att mäta sprickytornas råhet, bedöms kunna utgöra ett första steg mot att bättre kunna bestämma den storskaliga skjuvhållfastheten för bergsprickor i fält. / <p>QC 20190402</p>
6

Elastic Wave Propagation and Evaluation of Low Strain Dynamic Properties in Jointed Rocks

Sebastian, Resmi January 2015 (has links) (PDF)
When the point under consideration is not near to the source of vibration, the strains developed in the rock mass due to the passage of waves are usually of small magnitude, and within the elastic range. However, the rock mass may be subjected to a wide range of strain levels depending on the source of vibration and the wave frequency, even within the elastic limit. The present study is based on the two general conditions existing at field, long wave length propagation of waves and intermediate wavelength propagation of waves. When the wavelength of propagating wave is much longer than the joint spacing, it is referred to as long wavelength condition and is associated with propagation of low frequency waves across closely spaced joints. When wavelength of propagating wave is nearly equal to joint spacing, it is known as intermediate wavelength condition and is associated with propagation of high frequency waves. Long wave length propagation of waves has been studied by conducting laboratory experiments using Resonant Column Apparatus on developed plaster gypsum samples. The influence of joint types, joint spacing and joint orientation on wave propagation has been analyzed at three confining stresses under various strain levels. The wave velocities and damping ratios at various strain levels have been obtained and presented. Shear wave velocities are more dependent on confining stress than compression wave velocities across frictional joints whereas, compression wave velocities are more dependent on confining stress than shear wave velocities across filled joints. Wave velocities are at minimum and wave damping is at maximum across horizontal joints whereas wave velocities are at maximum and wave damping is at minimum across vertical joints. Shear wave velocity and shear wave damping are more dependent on joint orientations than compression wave velocity and compression wave damping. As Resonant Column Apparatus has some limitations in testing stiff samples, a validated numerical model has been developed using Discrete Element Method (DEM) that can provide resonant frequencies under torsional and flexural vibrations. It has been found from numerical simulations, that reduction of normal and shear stiffness of joint with increasing strain levels leads to wave velocity reduction in jointed rock mass. Intermediate wave length propagation of waves has been studied by conducting tests using Bender/ extender elements and the numerical simulations developed using 3DEC (Three Dimensional Distinct Element Code).Parametric study on energy transmission, wave velocities and wave amplitudes of shear and compression waves, has been carried out using the validated numerical model. The propagation of waves across multiple parallel joints was simulated and the phenomenon of multiple reflections of waves between joints could be observed. The transformations of obliquely incident waves on the joint have been successfully modeled by separating the transmitted transformed P and S waves. The frequency dependent behavior of jointed rocks has been studied by developing a numerical model and by applying a wide range of wave frequencies. It has been found that low frequency shear waves may involve slips of rock blocks depending on the strength of rock joint, leading to less transmission of energy; while low frequency compression waves are well transmitted across the joints. High frequency shear and compression waves experience multiple reflections and absorptions at joints.
7

Reliability-Based Analysis of Concrete Dams

Fouhy, David, Ríos Bayona, Francisco January 2014 (has links)
Dams are designed and assessed based on traditional factor of safety methodology. Several drawbacks of this approach exist; for example varying failure probability for structures where the factor of safety is the same. This traditional factor of safety methodology imposes conservative assumptions in terms of both design and analysis. A probability-based analysis has been suggested to account for the omission of uncertainties and provide a less conservative analysis (Westberg &amp; Johansson, 2014). Through the stability analyses of three existing dam structures, a minimum level of reliability or maximum failure probability may be calculated with the ultimate goal of defining a target safety index (β-target) for buttress and gravity dams. These analyses shall in turn contribute to the formulation of a probability-based guideline for the design and assessment of Swedish concrete dams. This probability-based guideline shall be known as the ‘Probabilistic Model Code for Concrete Dams.’ The calculations carried out in this study adhere to the methodologies and specifications set out in the preliminary draft of the Probabilistic Model Code for Concrete Dams. These methodologies encompass analyses within two dominating failure modes for concrete dams; sliding stability and overturning stability. Various load combinations have been modelled for each dam structure to account for the probabilistic failure of each dam under commonly occurring circumstances. A parametric study has been carried out in order to provide insight into the contribution that existing rock bolts provide to the stability of each dam. Furthermore, a study has been carried out into the existence of a persistent rock joint or failure plane in the rock foundation and the effects its presence would have on the sliding stability of a dam. Finally a discussion had been carried out in order to provide suggestions into the formulation of a target safety index through the data envisaged by our analyses for the design and assessment of Swedish concrete dams.
8

Mechanical behavior of rock joints : influence of joint roughness on its closure and shear behavior / Comportement mécanique de joint rocheux : influence de leur rugosité dans le comportement de fermeture et cisaillement / Comportamiento mecánico de juntas rocosas : influencia de la rugosidad en los fenómenos de cierre y cizalladura

Varela Valdez, Alberto 17 September 2015 (has links)
Le comportement mécanique en cisaillement sous contrainte normale constante de joints rocheux est étudié en utilisant une approche numérique par éléments discrets (DEM Discrete Element Model). Les influences respectives de la rugosité des surfaces des joints, de l'élasticité des épontes, de la rupture des aspérités de surface et du niveau de contrainte de compression sur les comportements en fermeture et cisaillement des joints rocheux sont particulièrement analysées. Pour la première fois la rugosité des joints considérée comme auto-affine est utilisée avec DEM pour étudier le frottement des joints rocheux. Cette rugosité est décrite par l’intermédiaire de trois paramètres :exposant de rugosité auto-affine, longueur de corrélation auto-affine et variance des fluctuations de hauteur. Sur la base d’un algorithme fondé sur la méthode spectrale, huit surfaces auto-affines isotropes correspondant à différentes rugosités ont été générées. Ces surfaces numériques sont utilisées comme moules permettant de générer les surfaces composées d’éléments discrets utilisées dans la suite de l’étude. La modélisation par éléments discrets s’appuie sur une calibration des propriétés élastiques effectuée à partir d’un volume élémentaire représentatif suivie de l’implémentation d’un critère elliptique de contraintes de rupture (au niveau des lois d’union entre éléments) permettant de simuler les grandes lignes du comportement quasi-fragile d’un mortier(utilisé lors d’expérimentations antérieures). Sur cette base et une fois les surfaces rugueuses implémentées dans les modèles DEM, les essais de fermeture (test de compression) des huit joints sont effectués sous deux niveaux de contrainte de compression : 14 MPa et 21 MPa. Par la suite, les joints sont cisaillés selon deux directions perpendiculaires. Pour chaque direction de cisaillement et chaque niveau de contrainte de compression, les joints sont testés en utilisant trois modèles mécaniques différents : 1) modèle rigide dans lequel, à l’exception des surfaces de joint en contact,les épontes ne peuvent pas se déformer, 2) modèle élastique dans lequel les épontes peuvent se déformer dans leur volume et 3) modèle élastique-fracture dans lequel les épontes peuvent se déformer dans leur volume et les liens entre les particules peuvent rompre selon le critère elliptique de contrainte. L'utilisation de ces trois modèles mécaniques différents permet d'étudier de façon systématique l'influence de la rugosité seule (modèle rigide), l'influence de l'élasticité et de la rugosité (modèle élastique) et enfin, l'effet combiné de la rugosité, de l'élasticité et de la rupture(modèle élastique-fracture). L’étude des résultats obtenus lors des simulations DEM est accompagnée d’une analyse énergétique permettant d’estimer l’évolution de l’énergie élastique stockée dans le système, de l’énergie de friction, du travail associé à la dilatance du joint et de l’énergie dissipée au cours de l’essai de cisaillement. / The shear behavior of rock joints under constant normal stress is studied using Discrete Element Method (DEM). The respective influences of joint surface roughness, elasticity of medium, fracture of surface asperities, and level of compression load on the closure and shear behaviors of rock joints are particularly analyzed. For the first time the roughness of the joints considered as self-affine is use dwith DEM to study the friction of rock joints, the roughness is described through three parameters:self-affine roughness exponent, self-affine correlation length and height variance. Using a numerical algorithm based on spectral method, eight isotropic self-affine surfaces corresponding to different roughness are generated. Latter, numerical surfaces are used as molds to generate the discrete elements surfaces. The discrete element modeling is premised on a preliminary calibration of the elastic properties performed on a representative elementary volume and on the implementation of the fracture properties (elliptic fracture criterion expressed in stress) describing with a reasonable accuracy the quasi-brittle fracture behavior of mortar (used in previous experimental tests). On this basis and once the roughness surfaces implemented in DEM, the simulations of the compression/closure test are performed on the eight joints and this for two compression stress levels: 14 MPa and 21 MPa. Then, the eight DEM joints are sheared along two perpendicular directions. For each shear direction and each level of compression stress, the joints are tested through three different mechanical models: 1) rigid model in which the medium cannot deform excepted at the contact surface of joints, 2) elastic model in which the medium can deform in its volume and 3) elastic-fracture model in which the medium can deform in its volume and the bondsbetween discrete elements can failed according to the elliptic fracture criterion. The use of these three mechanical models allows studying systematically the influence of the roughness alone (rigidmodel), the influence of elasticity and roughness (elastic model) and finally, the combined effect ofthe joint roughness, of the elasticity and of the fracture (elastic-fracture model). The study of the results obtained from the DEM simulations is followed by an energetic analysis allowing theestimation of the evolutions, as a function of the shear displacement, of the elastic energy stored inthe system, of the friction energy, of the work related to the joint dilatancy and of the energy dissipated by internal damping of the DEM. / En esta tesis se estudia la fricción en juntas rocosas utilizando el Método de Elementos Discretos (DEM). En particular, se estudia la influencia de la rugosidad de las superficies de la junta, la elasticidad, la fractura, y el nivel de carga de compresión sobre el comportamiento de cierre y de cizalla de las juntas rocosas. Por primera vez la rugosidad de las juntas considerada como auto-afín esutilizada para estudiar la fricción de juntas rocosas, la rugosidad se describe mediante tres parámetros: el exponente de rugosidad, la longitud de correlación auto-afín y la varianza de alturas. Mediante un algoritmo de computadora basado en métodos espectrales, ocho superficies autoafines isotrópicas con diferente rugosidad fueron creadas. Posteriormente, las ocho superficies fueron utilizadas como moldes para generar las juntas utilizando elementos discretos. Antes de realizar las simulaciones de compresión y cizallaura, se calibraron las propiedades elásticas y defractura (criterio de fractura elíptico basado en esfuerzos) de las juntas numéricas a los datos experimentales (obtenidos previamente) de unas muestras de mortero mediante la utilización de un volumen elemental representativo (REV). Una vez que las propiedades mecánicas de las juntas se obtuvieron mediante la calibración del REV, se realizaron las pruebas de cierre (prueba de compresión) de las ocho juntas DEM. Se utilizaron dos niveles de esfuerzo de compresión para laspruebas de cierre: 14 MPa y 21 MPa. Después, las ocho juntas DEM fueron cizalladas en dos direcciones mutuamente perpendiculares. Para cada dirección de cizalla y cada nivel de esfuerzo decompresión (14 y 21 MPa), las juntas fueron cizalladas usando uno de los tres modelos mecánicos siguientes: 1) un modelo rígido, en el que las juntas no se pueden deformar, excepto en su superficie,2) un modelo puramente elástico, en el que las juntas se pueden deformar en todo su volumen y 3)un modelo elástico con fractura en el que las juntas se pueden deformar en su volumen y, si elesfuerzo sobre las uniones entre partículas excede cierto nivel de esfuerzo máximo, las uniones se rompen de una manera irreversible. El uso de estos tres modelos mecánicos nos permitirá estudiar de manera sistemática: la influencia de la rugosidad (modelo rígido), la influencia de la elasticidad y rugosidad (modelo puramente elástico) y, finalmente, el efecto combinado de la rugosidad de las juntas, la elasticidad y la fractura (modelo elástico con fractura). El estudio de los resultados obtenidos de las simulaciones DEM es seguido por una análisis energético el cual permite estudiar la evolución de los diferentes tipos de energía en función del desplazamiento de cizalla: energía elástica almacenada en el sistema, energía de fricción entre elementos discretos, el trabajo relacionado conla dilatación de la junta y la energía disipada por el amortiguamiento interno del DEM.

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