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11 
Multiple comparison procedures based on marginal pvaluesEkenstierna, Martin January 2004 (has links)
No description available.

12 
Critical point theory with applications to semilinear problems without compactnessMaad, Sara January 2002 (has links)
<p>The thesis consists of four papers which all regard the study of critical point theory and its applications to boundary value problems of semilinear elliptic equations. More specifically, let Ω be a domain, and consider a boundary value problem of the form L u + u = f(x,u) in Ω, and with the boundary condition u=0. L denotes a linear differential operator of second order, and in the papers, it is either the classical Laplacian or the Heisenberg Laplacian defined on the Heisenberg group. The function f is subject to some regularity and growth conditions.</p><p>Paper I contains an abstract result about nonlinear eigenvalue problems. We give an application to the given equation when L is the classical Laplacian, Ω is a bounded domain, </p><p>and f is odd in the u variable. </p><p>In paper II, we study a similar equation, but with Ω being an unbounded domain of Ndimensional Euclidean space. We give a condition on Ω for which the equation has infinitely many weak solutions. </p><p>In papers III and IV we work on the Heisenberg group instead of Euclidean space, and with L being the Heisenberg Laplacian. </p><p>In paper III, we study a similar problem as in paper II, and give a condition on a subset Ω of the Heisenberg group for which the given equation has infinitely many solutions. Although the condition on Ω is directly transferred from the Euclidean to the Heisenberg group setting, it turns out that the condition is easier to fulfil in the Heisenberg group than in Euclidean space. </p><p>In paper IV, we are still on the Heisenberg group, Ω is the whole group, and we study the equation when f is periodic in the x variable. The main result is that also in this case, the equation has infinitely many solutions. </p>

13 
Critical point theory with applications to semilinear problems without compactnessMaad, Sara January 2002 (has links)
The thesis consists of four papers which all regard the study of critical point theory and its applications to boundary value problems of semilinear elliptic equations. More specifically, let Ω be a domain, and consider a boundary value problem of the form L u + u = f(x,u) in Ω, and with the boundary condition u=0. L denotes a linear differential operator of second order, and in the papers, it is either the classical Laplacian or the Heisenberg Laplacian defined on the Heisenberg group. The function f is subject to some regularity and growth conditions. Paper I contains an abstract result about nonlinear eigenvalue problems. We give an application to the given equation when L is the classical Laplacian, Ω is a bounded domain, and f is odd in the u variable. In paper II, we study a similar equation, but with Ω being an unbounded domain of Ndimensional Euclidean space. We give a condition on Ω for which the equation has infinitely many weak solutions. In papers III and IV we work on the Heisenberg group instead of Euclidean space, and with L being the Heisenberg Laplacian. In paper III, we study a similar problem as in paper II, and give a condition on a subset Ω of the Heisenberg group for which the given equation has infinitely many solutions. Although the condition on Ω is directly transferred from the Euclidean to the Heisenberg group setting, it turns out that the condition is easier to fulfil in the Heisenberg group than in Euclidean space. In paper IV, we are still on the Heisenberg group, Ω is the whole group, and we study the equation when f is periodic in the x variable. The main result is that also in this case, the equation has infinitely many solutions.

14 
On the theory and numerical analysis of viscosity solutionsJakobsen, Espen Robstad January 2001 (has links)
Paper IV reprinted with kind permission of Elsevier, sciencedirect.com

15 
Nonlinear Topics in the Bayesian Approach to Inverse Problems with Applications to Seismic InversionKolbjørnsen, Odd January 2002 (has links)
Paper I considers piecewise affine inverse problems. This is a large group of nonlinear inverse problems. Problems that obey certain variational structures are of this type. In inverse problems it is frequently such that some features are well determined by the observations while others are poorly resolved. In the Bayesian approach this imply that the likelihood forces the posterior distribution to be concentrated near hyper surfaces in the parameter space. In nonlinear problems this causes most generic sampling algorithms to be slow. The structure that is enforced in piecewise affine inverse problems allows the posterior distribution to be decomposed as a mixture of truncated Gaussian distributions. Under given regularity conditions this mixture distribution is non singular even if the observations are exact. A sampling algorithm that exploit this decomposition is proposed. The decomposition can however be used in a variety of sampling algorithms and is not limited to the sampling algorithm used here. Two small example problems are used to illustrate the theory as it is developed. Paper II treats a problem in reflection seismic within the framework of piecewise affine inverse problems. Assuming a known, constant velocity in a layer, the problem is to determine the position of a reflector in the subsurface based on zero offset traveltimes. This is a standard simplification of the problem in reflection seismic. A synthetic example show that the uncertainty is well represented if there is a small number of observations, whereas the subsurface is satisfactory reconstructed when a large number of observations are considered. In the example it is demonstrated that the current approach improve the standard approach. In Paper III cross well tomography is discussed in a Bayesian setting. In cross well tomography the slowness field, being the inverse of the velocity, is reconstructed based on the traveltimes of a signal generated in one well and received in an other well. The travel time recorded is the shortest time that is physically possible. The inverse problem is approximated by a piecewise affine inverse problem of the form considered in Paper I. The calculations are carried through for this problem by exploiting Fermat's principle of least time. The methodology is tested for a synthetic example. In the Bayesian approach to this problem, several slowness fields are sampled from the posterior distribution. All the proposed samples honor the traveltime observations up to the specified error structure. These slowness fields are averaged to produce the Bayesian estimator. The resulting estimator does not honor the the traveltime observations as the individual samples do, but generally have larger traveltimes. This is due to the nonlinearity in the problem. This effect is carefully explained in the paper. The synthetic example further show that a linearized approach is reasonable in the sense that it capture the main features in the estimate. The nonlinear estimate does however reduce the loss with about 10 % in the synthetic example. The linearized approach does not give a realistic representation of the uncertainty. In synthetic example the linearized approach underestimate the integrated variance by 30 %. In Paper IV the objective is inversion of seismic pressure amplitudes recorded in a marine seismic survey. After several steps of preprocessing, the seismic observations can be modeled by a linear relation to the seismic reectivity, which again may be approximated by a linear relation to the material parameters on a logarithmic scale. The material parameters considered are pressure wave velocity, shear wave velocity and rock density. The seismic data that correspond to reections below one location at the surface are given as angle gathers. In Paper IV each angle gather is inverted independently. The main concern in Paper IV is that the seismic reectivity have heavier tails than what is predicted by a standard Gaussian model. A prior distribution based on superposition of a Cauchy process and Gaussian processes is proposed. As a test case material parameters observed in a well log at the Sleipner Øst Field is used to generate synthetic seismic observations. This is used as a basis for comparison between the proposed Cauchy model and a purely Gaussian model. The well log is used to estimate the parameters in the prior distribution both for the Cauchy model and for the pure Gaussian model. In a region with large variability the estimator for the pressure wave velocity resulting from the Cauchy model improves the risk by as much as 14 %. The Cauchy model also cause the uncertainty bounds to vary such that regions with low variability have shorter credibility intervals and regions with high variability have longer credibility intervals than for a pure Gaussian model. The model is also tested for real seismic observations. The results are satisfactory, although the uncertainty is large due to large observation errors in the seismic data. Paper V has the same objective as Paper IV, that is to estimate pressure wave velocity, shear wave velocity and rock density, based on preprocessed data from a marine seismic survey. In Paper V it is however assumed that the Gaussian assumption can be justified. The focus in this paper is to incorporate lateral dependencies in the estimates. When latteral dependencies are included, all parameters are coupled, and must be solved simultaniously. This lead to a high dimensional problem. Paper V exploits the fact that a Fourier transform of the problem yield a block diagonal form such that a small problem may be solved for each frequency component independently. Both the posterior mean and the posterior covariance can be computed and stored efficiently, due to the special structure of the problem. This opens the possibility for including additional information such that well data to obtain a refined solution around the well. The methodology is tested on a seismic cube from the Sleipner Øst Field, where 12 million parameters are estimated. The total computing time after preprocessing is 6 minutes, the posterior covariance can be computed in additional 3 minutes on a single 400 Mhz Mips R12000 CPU. Hence the algorithm is extremely rapid.

16 
Depth consistent pp and ps seismic angle tomographyFoss, StigKyrre January 2004 (has links)
This thesis addressed the problem of finding background models yielding depth consistent migrated PP and PS images, i.e. geologically equivalent reflectors should be imaged at the same depth in the two images. The tomographic approach in search of a background medium, is performed as a combination of migration velocity analysis by differential semblance in angle and map migration. A practical strategy for obtaining estimates of all parameter values in a transversely isotropic medium with a known symmetry axis is presented. The approach combines the search of a background medium yielding optimum focusing ability by differential semblance and the matching of PP and PS key reflectors in depth by means of map migration. This can also be used to match the imaged reflectors with known depths e.g. from well markers. For the purpose of fast and computationally inexpensive imaging and tomography in angle, a complete review and analysis for the 2.5D case is performed. The theory is also extended to anisotropic media under necessary and sufficient assumptions. An analysis is performed with regards to parameter issues in 2.5D in anisotropic media. All inversion and migration results are derived in the natural coordinate system, namely scattering/reflection angle at the imaging point by means of the generalized Radon transform.

17 
Lower estimates for a number of closed trajectories of generalized billiardsDuzhin, Fedor S. January 2005 (has links)
QC 20101006

18 
MatematiksvårigheterSköldin, AnnMargret January 2007 (has links)
No description available.

19 
Matematik i förskolan : Hur arbetar man med matematik i förskolan?Andresén, Anja January 2006 (has links)
The word mathematics is often associated to addition, subtraction, division or multiplication. This is not the kind of mathematics that belongs to preschool. In my essay I have chosen to write about how mathematics is used in preschool. In the literature it is written that the best way of becoming familiar with mathematics, is to integrate it in the every day life but that there are educators that use traditional mathematics education in preschool. The questions I would like to answer are: 1. How is mathematic used in preschool? 2. What are the educators’ opinions in preschool regarding the introduction of the curriculum? In order to answer the questions I will use qualitative interviews. I have interviewed six preschool teachers in two different schools in a middle sized town in Sweden. I have chosen six departments in order to get two educators’ views on three types of children groups, infants, siblings and an integrated group. The answers showed that the level of using specific mathematics education is very low. Instead mathematics is integrated with everyday life situations such as when laying the table or portioning food. The investigation also showed that all persons interviewed expressed a positive attitude towards the implementation of the curriculum for several reasons. The addition has given them a sense of acknowledgement in their earlier work, given their jobs a higher status and also strengthened and broadened their view on mathematics in preschool.

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Matematikerfarenheter : en studie av hur elever i matematiksvårigheter resonerar kring matematik och matematikundervisningKarlsson, Anna, Magnusson, Emma January 2008 (has links)
Forskning visar att cirka 15 % av svenska elever har specifika matematiksvårigheter samt att många elever även har låg tilltro till sitt kunnande i matematik. Forskning åskådliggör även att det finns en skillnad mellan pojkar och flickor. Om pojkar och flickor ökar sitt självförtroende lika mycket, ökar pojkars prestation betydligt mer än flickors. I vår studie har vi valt att utgå ifrån ett elevperspektiv och genomfört 12 intervjuer med elever i matematiksvårigheter för att studera vilka upplevelser de har haft av matematikundervisning. Vårt syfte med detta arbete var dels att studera hur elever i matematiksvårigheter funderar och resonerar kring ämnet samt att försöka ta reda på om det går att urskilja deras självförtroende. Vi genomförde intervjuerna enskilt på de skolor där vi arbetar. Eleverna valde vi slumpmässigt ut bland de elever som inte klarade de nationella proven i matematik i år fem. Det var 6 pojkar och 6 flickor som intervjuades. Av resultatet framgick att de flesta elever i vår studie har en negativ bild av ordet matematik. Eleverna anser sig dock ha nytta av matematiken utanför skolan. De äldre eleverna fokuserar här mer på kommande yrken och arbeten. Resultatet visade också att läraren, proven och andra elever påverkar elevernas självförtroende. Vårt arbete bidrar med att ge en tydligare bild av hur elever i matematiksvårigheter tänker och resonerar kring ämnet matematik. Denna kunskap ger pedagoger en insikt som kan vara behjälplig vid matematikundervisningen.

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