12 February 2009
The energy issue has been gaining a lot of attention in many countries in recent years. Among the kinds of energies, the solar energy is one of the most interesting topics of them. In addition to the fabrication process and raw material, another focal point aims at solar concentrator. This paper shows a new and easy way to increase the solar energy efficiency. We utilize the micro-optics principle to design and fabricate a microlens array of the solar concentrator. With this concentrator, it can enhance the optical absorption on the solar cell. The microlens array concentrator (MLA-concentrator) is different from the conventional concentrator. The MLA-concentrator does not need any electric equipment to follow the sunlight, and it is easy to manufacture. The size is smaller than conventional concentrator, especially. The MLA-concentrator can decrease the reflection of light at oblique angles and increases the second reflection at the interface between concentrator and solar cell, which makes the sunlight uniform. It also has an interesting characteristic which is the pantoscopic incidence. This new-type MLA-concentrator is fabricated by using LIGA-like process, and then it is integrated to the solar cell for electricity generation. Most important, this kind of structure can be combined with all kinds of solar cell. The solar cell with the MLA- concentrator adds the total watt 3.96% in all angle.
01 December 2013
In recent years, microlenses (ML), which are micro-scale spheres, have been used to overcome physical diffraction limit of optical microscopy (~200 nm). Although the use of such ML has provided highly resolved images of objects beyond the Abbe optical diffraction limit, the process needs to be refined before it can be applied widespread in materials, biological and clinical research. In this research work, we have implemented experiments on super-resolution imaging utilizing MLs of different refractive indices (n) and diameters to provide the scientific and engineering communities with practical guidelines for obtaining high resolution images with ease. With the support from experimental imaging data as well as FDTD simulations, we have shown that optimal super-resolution imaging with microspheres was accomplished under specific parameter range. We have identified ML with n=1.51 as a preferable choice over those MLs with n=1.4, 1.93, and 2.2, because of high reliability and high magnification for ML with n=1.51. With n=1.51 in mind, we have identified a diameter range from 15 μm to 50 μm provides high resolution and magnification for practical purposes. We show that other ML diameters provided high resolution as well; we believe that ML diameters between 15 μm and 50 μm are practically preferred. We were able to achieve <150 nm resolution and further refinement of this tool can potentially yield higher quality imaging results. Ideally, MLs will eventually be directly incorporated as a modular device in an optical microscope providing the researchers an effective, noninvasive, and economical alternative to complex super resolution microscopy techniques. To improve scanning efficiency, we also proposed microtubule (MT) based imaging. With the demonstration of theoretical optics, we conclude, at present time, that there are some practical concerns for MT-based imaging technique that may limit its application as super-resolution imaging technique. For example, MT-based imaging appears to possess a lower contrast than ML-based technique. Thus, although the concept of MT-based imaging is theoretically possible, we think that more work is needed to utilization of this tool for practical applications.
11 September 2007
Computer-aided design and simulation software are used in this thesis. AutoCAD is used to create pattern and mask; Pro/E is applied to build 3D model. TracePro software is used to simulate the optical performance. We use software for simulation and analysis. The data from simulation and analysis will be helpful to increase the strike-rate in process. Photolithography process is applied in this thesis for gapless crack polygonal lens array fabrication. In this process, photo resistance, AZ-4620 is spun on the substrate, and expose it after mask alignment, followed by the developing process. The cylinder column with the same size in diameter is formed after this process. Next, apply heat to photo resist. The cylinder structure becomes semi-sphere due to surface tension effect. Then, sputter silver layer on the semi-sphere. The semi-sphere becomes metal mold after nickel electroforming. Nickel alloy core is formed after electroplaing. Then, apply UV cuve resin on the nickel alloy core, and spinning out the extra UV glue. Then, cure it with UV light. Gapless crack polygonal lens array is completed after this series process. The result shows that it can be applied on different optical devices.
08 January 2007
This dissertation is aimed towards using stimuli-responsive pNIPAm-co-AAc microgels synthesized via free-radical precipitation polymerization to prepare stimuli-responsive hydrogel microlenses. Chapter 1 gives a detailed background of hydrogels, and their applications using responsive hydrogels. Chapter 2 describes the use of colloidal hydrogel microparticles as microlens elements and the fabrication method to form the hydrogel microlens arrays via Coulombic interactions. Chapter 3 shows the demonstration of tunable microlenses prepared by the method used in Chapter 2. In this chapter the microlenses are subjected to various pH and temperature in aqueous solutions. Chapter 4 describes that the microlens arrays constructed on Au nanoparticle-functionalized glass substrates by self-assembly display dramatic changes in lensing power in response to an impingent frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The microlens photoswitching is highly reversible, with sub-millisecond lens switching times. Chapter 5 describes the development of bioresponsive hydrogel microlenses as a new protein detection technology. The microlens method is shown to be very specific for the target protein, with no detectable interference from nonspecific protein binding. Chapter 6 describes the use of bioresponsive hydrogel microlenses as a label-free biosensing scaffolding. These microstructures simultaneously act as the biosensors scaffolding/immobilization architecture, transducer, amplifier, and also allow for broad tunability of the analyte concentration to which the microlens is sensitive.
Effect of Curvature Radius and Offset on Coupling Efficiency in Double-Variable-Curvature Fiber MicrolensWang, Li-Jin 02 August 2011 (has links)
A study of double-variable-curvature microlenses (DVCM) for promoting coupling efficiency between the high-power 980-nm pumping laser diodes and the single-mode fibers has been proposed. In comparison with the previous works on asymmetric fiber microlenses fabricated by the multi-step processes with complicated fabrication, the advantages of the DVCM structure for achieving high coupling are a single-step fabrication, a reproducible process, and a high-yield output. In the fusing procedure, the slight arc fusion was mainly applied for fine polishing merely instead of reshaping for the reason that the fabricated double-variable-curvature fiber endface (DVCFE) was very close to the ideal shape. Hence, the fabrication time was reduced and the yield was promoted due to the withdrawn step of tip elimination. In this study, the geometric center of the fiber was defined through, the cladding diameter and the core diameter, for comparison to measure the offset. The offset measured by the core diameter was more accurate and coincidence with the coupling efficiency in the experiment. In the fabricated 45 DVCMs, to achieve the average coupling efficiencies higher than 84%, the offsets were ought to be controlled in merely less than 0.6£gm with the curvature radii in the minor axis ranged from 2.4 to 2.9£gm (with tolerance of 0.5£gm). Alternatively, the offsets were ought to be controlled in less than 0.3£gm though the curvature radii in the minor axis ranged from 2.4 to 3.7£gm (with larger tolerance of 1.3£gm). However, it was more difficult to control over the offsets than the curvature radii in the minor axis while fabricating the DVCMs. In conclusion, to achieve higher yield, it was relatively practical to control the offsets of fiber microlenses to be less than 0.6£gm with 2.4 to 2.9£gm curvature radius. As a result, the coupling efficiencies were all higher than 80%.
26 July 2010
For the shortage of energy and the environmental issues, the development of solar cells has become an important technology. However, solar cells have low efficiency of energy conversion due to their high surface reflection on a flat Si substrate which is 38 %. To decrease the surface reflectance of the silicon solar cells, anti-reflection coatings (ARCs) are proposed on the solar cells. We use Lighttools software to investigate several kinds of ARCs to decrease the surface reflectance. We first consider the reflectance of the single-layer ARC with quarter wavelength. It can effectively decrease about 30 % surface reflection as compared with a flat Si substrate. The half-cylinder texture and the wave texture are designed on a PMMA single-layer coating. It is found that the half-cylinder ARC and the wave ARC can usefully diminish the surface reflectance for perpendicular light. Low reflectance can be achieved in the hemispherical microlens ARCs over an extended spectral region for omnidirectional incident light. The impact of the microlens sizes, periods, and arrangements are investigated. The lowest normal reflectance of the closely-packed triangular-lattice hemispherical microlens ARC is 4.8%. By adding smaller hemispherical microlenses, the surface reflectance of the hemispherical microlens ARC can be as low as 1.86 %. To obtain the lowest average surface reflectance, both-sided patterned surface texture ARCs are designed. Their lowest average surface reflectance is 2.24%. Finally, we simulate the reflectance of the nanowire ARCs. The influence of the wire length and the angle of inclination are discussed for high-efficiency and low-cost solar cells.
09 September 2009
In this paper, we searched the parameter of BEF (Brightness enhancement film) using commercial FRED server for backlight module. The pattern analysis was carried out to understand its characteristic. The current structures used in LCD backlight are double-layer BEF. In addition, BEF of 3M takes the lion¡¦s share. But this may increase the thickness and cost of backlight module. In order to avoid those disadvantages, we tried to design single-layer BEF and characterize the effect through parameters study by using FRED software simulation. pyramid-shaped microlens array of BEF was constructed. Therefore, the effect of the variation of the structure parameters can be analyzed, such as prismatic degree (£c), prismatic structure on the brightness enhancement. It can be found from the result of simulation that the changes of the prismatic degree (£c) of 85 degree influence the brightness enhancement the most.
03 July 2003
Abstract We propose a new scheme of lensed fiber employing a quadrangular-pyramid-shaped fiber endface (QPSFE) for the coupling high-power 980nm laser diodes and single-mode fibers. The quadrangular-pyramid-shaped fiber was accomplished by first grinding and polishing a flat surface to the center of fiber at the desired inclination angle of £c, rotating the fiber to £p and polishing to the center of fiber, repeating the same process on the other sides of the fiber by rotating the fiber to £k-£p and £p. Then the QPSFE was fabricated by heating the tip of quadrangular-pyramid-shaped fiber in a fusing splicer to form an elliptical microlens endface. A coupling efficiency of 85% has been demonstrated. This higher coupling efficiency of the QPSFE lensed fiber is attributed to the better matching of the elliptical Gaussian field distribution between the laser source and the fiber.
15 July 2008
In recent years, even though the light output of GaN-related LED continues to increase, the brightness is still low compared to conventional lighting systems and it is necessary to further improve the light extraction of LEDs. In this study, the characteristics of LPD-SiO2 film and Al/SiO2/GaN MOS diode were investigated in advance of the formation of SiO2 micro structure for improving the oxide quality and controlling the deposition parameters. Temperature-difference method, post-annealing treatment, photochemical treatment, sulfurated treatment and etc. were used for the purposes of better properties of the MOS structure and the LED. To obtain higher light extraction efficiency of GaN LED, hemispherical SiO2 microlens was formed on the conventional and the flip-chip LEDs. The deposition mechanism had been developed to obtain the further improvements on the electrical and optical properties. The influences of epoxy encapsulation on the LEDs without and with microlens were also studied. Considering the refractive index of SiO2 is close to that of the epoxy, the enhancements of light extraction efficiency and angular optical distribution of GaN LED by using SiO2 microlens will be degraded after encapsulating. Therefore, we also tried to deposit ZnO film and rod on GaN LED by LPD method to maintain or further enhance the light extraction efficiency of GaN LEDs by the combining the micro structure and the epoxy encapsulation.
29 July 2009
Integrated microlens array on a transparent film, called an optical film, provides interesting applications for various fields. In a FPD (Flat Panel Display), the optical films are the more important components to improve the efficiency and quality. In this dissertation, a diffuser film which consisted of two different microlens arrays on the two surfaces of a film was developed and used to enhance the brightness and uniformity of a light source. There were also several microlens arrays developed, such as a hexagonal microlens array with gap and gapless, a gapless dual-curvature microlens array and a diffuser film. A process called polygonal microlens array process had been used to manufacture them. It had advantages of mass production, various polygonal shapes and 100% fill-factor. A softer mold of PDMS and a metal mold of NiCo alloy were utilized to replicate the MLAs. In this dissertation, several replication processes were applied to mass product and to find out which one is more suitable for the diffuser film. In this dissertation, the results of different shapes and dimensions of microlens arrays showed various light distribution. Therefore, for searching a more suitable and novel layout of a diffuser, Taguchi Method with simulation was used to design the layout of a diffuser film before fabrication process. Finally, a diffuser film was measured and demonstrated its optical effects. According to the results of measurement and simulation, the average intensity and the S/N ratios were shown. The trend of simulation and measurement was also similar.
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