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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Utilisation of evanescent fields for the characterisation of thin biosensing layer systems

Zacher, Thomas. January 2002 (has links) (PDF)
München, Techn. University, Diss., 2002.
2

Utilisation of evanescent fields for the characterisation of thin biosensing layer systems

Zacher, Thomas. January 2002 (has links) (PDF)
München, Techn. Univ., Diss., 2002. / Computerdatei im Fernzugriff.
3

Utilisation of evanescent fields for the characterisation of thin biosensing layer systems

Zacher, Thomas. January 2002 (has links) (PDF)
München, Techn. Univ., Diss., 2002. / Computerdatei im Fernzugriff.
4

Stimuli-Responsive Hydrogel Microlenses

Kim, Jongseong 08 January 2007 (has links)
This dissertation is aimed towards using stimuli-responsive pNIPAm-co-AAc microgels synthesized via free-radical precipitation polymerization to prepare stimuli-responsive hydrogel microlenses. Chapter 1 gives a detailed background of hydrogels, and their applications using responsive hydrogels. Chapter 2 describes the use of colloidal hydrogel microparticles as microlens elements and the fabrication method to form the hydrogel microlens arrays via Coulombic interactions. Chapter 3 shows the demonstration of tunable microlenses prepared by the method used in Chapter 2. In this chapter the microlenses are subjected to various pH and temperature in aqueous solutions. Chapter 4 describes that the microlens arrays constructed on Au nanoparticle-functionalized glass substrates by self-assembly display dramatic changes in lensing power in response to an impingent frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The microlens photoswitching is highly reversible, with sub-millisecond lens switching times. Chapter 5 describes the development of bioresponsive hydrogel microlenses as a new protein detection technology. The microlens method is shown to be very specific for the target protein, with no detectable interference from nonspecific protein binding. Chapter 6 describes the use of bioresponsive hydrogel microlenses as a label-free biosensing scaffolding. These microstructures simultaneously act as the biosensors scaffolding/immobilization architecture, transducer, amplifier, and also allow for broad tunability of the analyte concentration to which the microlens is sensitive.
5

Collagen–Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Hydrogels with Tunable Properties

Barnes, A.L., Genever, P.G., Rimmer, Stephen, Coles, M.C. 19 December 2015 (has links)
No / There is a lack of hydrogel materials whose properties can be tuned at the point of use. Biological hydrogels, such as collagen, gelate at physiological temperatures; however, they are not always ideal as scaffolds because of their low mechanical strength. Their mechanics can be improved through cross-linking and chemical modification, but these methods still require further synthesis. We have demonstrated that by combining collagen with a thermoresponsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), the mechanical properties can be improved while maintaining cytocompatibility. Furthermore, different concentrations of this polymer led to a range of hydrogels with shear moduli ranging from 105 Pa down to less than 102 Pa, similar to the soft tissues in the body. In addition to variable mechanical properties, the hydrogel blends have a range of micron-scale structures and porosities, which caused adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) to adopt different morphologies when encapsulated within and may therefore be able to direct cell fate. / EPSRC
6

Biodegradable microdevices for biological detection and smart therapy

Snelling, Diana Kathryn 01 September 2010 (has links)
Biodegradable, pH-responsive hydrogel networks composed of poly(methacrylic acid) crosslinked with varying mol percentages of polycaprolactone diacrylate were synthesized. These materials were characterized using NMR and FTIR. The equilibrium and dynamic swelling properties of these pH-responsive materials were studied. Also, the materials’ degradation was characterized using swelling studies and gel permeation chromatography. Methods were developed to incorporate these novel hydrogels as sensing components in silicon-based microsensors. Extremely thin layers of hydrogels were prepared by photopolymerizion atop silicon microcantilever arrays that served to transduce the pH-responsive volume change of the material into an optical signal. Organosilane chemistry allowed covalent adhesion of the hydrogel to the silicon beam. As the hydrogel swelled, the stress generated at the surface between the hydrogel and the silicon caused a beam deflection downward. The resulting sensor demonstrated a maximum sensitivity of 1nm/4.5E-5 pH unit. Sensors were tested in protein-rich solutions to mimic biological conditions and found to retain their high sensitivity. The existing theory was evaluated and developed to predict deflection of these composite cantilever beams. Another type of hydrogel-based microsensor was fabricated utilizing porous silicon rugate filters as transducers. Porous silicon rugate filters are garnering increased attention as components of in vivo biosensors due to their ability for remote readout through tissue. Here, the biodegradable, pH-responsive hydrogel was polymerized within the pores of a porous silicon rugate filter to generate a novel, completely degradable sensor. Silicon was electrochemically etched in hydrofluoric acid to generate the porous silicon rugate filter with its reflectance peak in the near infrared region. Poly(methacrylic acid) crosslinked with polycaprolactone diacrylate was polymerized within the pores using UV free radical photopolymerization. The reflectance peak of this sensor varied linearly with pH in the region pH 2.2 to 8.8. This work shows promise towards utilizing porous silicon rugate filters as transducers for environmentally responsive hydrogels for biosensing applications. / text
7

Swelling induced deformation and instability of hydrogels

Kang, Min Kyoo 16 November 2010 (has links)
A hydrogel consists of a cross-linked polymer network and solvent molecules, capable of large, reversible deformation in response to a variety of external stimuli. In particular, diverse instability patterns have been observed experimentally in swelling hydrogels under mechanical constraints. The present study develops a general theoretical framework based on a variational approach, which leads to a set of governing equations coupling mechanical and chemical equilibrium conditions for swelling deformation of hydrogels, along with proper boundary conditions. A specific material model is employed for analytical and numerical studies, for which the nonlinear constitutive behavior of the hydrogel is derived from a free energy function combining rubber elasticity with a polymer solution theory. A finite element method is then developed and implemented as a user-defined material (UMAT) in the commercial package, ABAQUS. By numerical simulations, the effect of constraint on inhomogeneous swelling of substrate-attached hydrogel lines is elucidated. It is found that crease-like surface instability occurs when the width-to-height aspect ratio of the hydrogel line exceeds a critical value. Next, by considering a hydrogel layer on a rigid substrate, swell-induced surface instability is studied in details. A linear perturbation analysis is performed to predict the critical condition for onset of the surface instability. In contrast to previously suggested critical conditions, the present study predicts a range of critical swelling ratios, from about 2.5 to 3.4, depending on the material properties of the hydrogel system. A stability diagram is constructed with two distinct regions for stable and unstable hydrogels with respect to two dimensionless material parameters. Numerical simulations are presented to show the swelling process, with evolution of initial surface perturbations followed by formation of crease-like surface patterns. Furthermore, with combined swelling and mechanical compression, the stability analysis is extended to predict a general critical condition that unifies the swell-induced surface instability of hydrogels with mechanically induced surface instability of rubbers. The effect of surface tension is found to be critical in suppressing short-wavelength modes of surface instability, while the substrate confinement suppresses long-wavelength modes. With both surface tension and substrate confinement, an intermediate wavelength is selected at a critical swelling ratio for onset of surface instability. Both the critical swelling ratio and the characteristic wavelength depend on the initial thickness of the hydrogel layer as well as other material properties of the hydrogel. It is found that the hydrogel layer becomes increasingly stable as the initial layer thickness decreases. A critical thickness is predicted, below which the hydrogel layer swells homogeneously and remains stable at the equilibrium state. Finally, three-dimensional finite element models are developed to simulate swelling deformation of hydrogel lines. Depending on the aspect ratio of the cross section as well as the material properties of the hydrogel, two types of swell-induced instability patterns are envisaged, i.e., localized surface instability versus global buckling. / text
8

Mise en œuvre d’un système de confinement et de délivrance moléculaire pour la production in situ de glucose au sein d’un hydrogel conçu pour l'ingénierie tissulaire / A molecular delivery system for the in situ production of glucose in a tissue engineering hydrogel

Boisselier, Julie 09 November 2016 (has links)
En ingénierie tissulaire, la survie in vivo de cellules souches implantées au sein d’un biomatériau est limitée par les conditions d’un environnement ischémique qui se caractérise par un déficit en oxygène et en nutriments. Récemment, dans le cadre d’un projet de recherche dédié au développement d’un hydrogel composite à base de fibrine, biomatériau conçu pour améliorer la survie de cellules souches post-implantation, il a été mis en évidence la nécessité de contrôler dans le temps et l’espace la disponibilité du glucose au sein de ce matériau. Cet apport in situ de glucose est réalisé par dégradation contrôlée de l’amidon, un polymère de glucose. Cette production est assurée par action enzymatique d’un catalyseur spécifique de l’hydrolyse de l’amidon, l’amyloglucosidase (AMG).Toutefois, il convient de maitriser différents paramètres tels que la fuite de l’AMG en dehors de l’hydrogel ou encore sa perte d’activité au cours du temps. Dans ce contexte, l’encapsulation de l’AMG dans des nanoparticules d’un polymère biodégradable et biocompatible, ici l’acide poly(lactique-co-glycolique) (PLGA), devrait permettre le contrôle des paramètres susmentionnés.Des nanoparticules de type core-shell contenant l’AMG (NPe) ont été synthétisés par l’adaptation d’un protocole de double émulsion (water-oil-water). Différentes méthodes ont été développées pour déterminer les propriétés physico-chimiques et biochimiques des nanoparticules produites. Le protocole de synthèse a été optimisé afin de produire des nanoparticules reproductibles et stériles utilisables dans des hydrogels implantables in vivo.Le cahier des charges de l’hydrogel enrichi en amidon et en NPe impose un apport continu du glucose pendant 1 mois. La stabilité des nanoparticules a été étudiée en solution et dans les hydrogels. La production de glucose grâce à ces NPe a été investiguée en solution et en hydrogel mettant en avant l’intérêt de ces nanoparticules au sein du dispositif. / In tissue engineering, the in vivo survival of stem cells located within a biomaterial is limited by an ischemic environment characterized by a low supply of oxygen and nutrients. Recent studies on fibrin based hydrogels (designed to improve stem cells survival after implantation) have highlighted the need to control the spatiotemporal availability of glucose within a biomaterial scaffold. Glucose release occurs through the degradation of starch, a glucose polymer, at a rate controlled by the action of the enzyme amyloglucosidase (AMG), a specific catalyst for the hydrolysis of starch.In order to eventually be of clinical impact, critical parameters must be tuned, such as the AMG leakage outside the hydrogel and its loss of activity over time. In this context, AMG encapsulation within nanoparticles of a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer, here poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), is a promising means toward controlling the above parameters.The AMG-containing core-shell type nanoparticles (NPe) were synthesized by an adaptation of the double emulsion technique (water-oil-water). Different methods have been developed to determine the physicochemical and biochemical properties of the resulting nanoparticles. The synthesis was optimized to produce sterile and reproducible nanoparticles appropriate for in vivo implantable hydrogels.Nanoparticle stability and glucose release were investigated in solution and in hydrogels. A key specification of the hydrogel system, enriched in starch and NPe, is the continuous supply of glucose over 1 month. Glucose production was observed to meet this specification, highlighting the potential advantages of this approach.
9

Preparation of Copolymers of Acrylic Acid and Acrylamide for Copper (II) Capture from Aqueous Solutions

Zhang, Yudong 01 October 2009 (has links)
Cross-linked copolymers of acrylic acid (sodium acrylate) and acrylamide were synthesized by free radical polymerization. The copolymer hydrogel was studied for capture of copper ion from aqueous solution. Effects of macromolecular structure (i.e., content of the acrylic acid, the quantity of the carboxyl groups neutralized with sodium hydroxide, and the degree of cross-linking) on water-sorption and copper ion uptake were investigated. With an increase in the content of acrylic acid (sodium acrylate), the copper sulfate uptake increases, and water sorption decreases quickly and then slowly increases when the acrylic acid content is high enough. The copper ion uptake is accompanied with a release of sodium ions from the copolymer. Increasing the percentage of the carboxyl groups neutralized by sodium hydroxide will increase the uptake of copper sulfate and water. With an increase in the content of the cross-linking agent, both copper sulfate uptake and water sorption decrease. Even though valence of copper ion is two times that of sodium ion, the copper ions sorption and sodium ions release do not follow a simple ion exchange relation because of insertion of acrylamide co-monomers in macromolecular chain. When copper ions interact with carboxyl groups in the copolymer to form chelating complexes, the water sorption decreases substantially. An analysis of adsorption isotherm indicates that at relatively low concentrations of CuSO4 in water, the copper ion sorption into the copolymer follows the Langmuir model. The wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) data reveal that the copper sulfate sorbed in the hydrogel is not in crystalline state.
10

Metal-polymer nanoparticulate systems for externally-controlled delivery

Gran, Martin Luke 09 February 2011 (has links)
Metal-polymer nanocomposites consisting of gold nanorods and temperature-responsive hydrogel nanoparticulates were investigated for use in externally-controlled drug delivery systems. Several different thermo-responsive hydrogels including poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and poly(N-isopropryl acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (P(NIPAAm-co-AA)) nanoparticles were synthesized for these nanocomposites using an aqueous dispersion polymerization method. In addition, nanoparticles of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) composed of poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were synthesized using a water-in-oil emulsion polymerization. Temperature-responsive equilibrium swelling behavior of nanoparticles with varying crosslinking densities was characterized using dynamic light scattering. IPN systems exhibited a positive swelling response upon heating while PNIPAAm and copolymer systems collapsed upon increase in temperature above the transition point. Nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which demonstrated shape and morphology of polymer particles. Gold-polymer nanocomposites were formed by grafting gold nanorods to the surface of the polymer nanoparticles. Amine-functionalized gold nanorods were coupled to polymers using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (Sulfo-NHS) to activate carboxyl groups on the surface of the polymer nanoparticles. TEM confirmed successful formation of the metal-polymer nanocomposites. Loading and release of a model therapeutic were done to assess the potential use of the polymer component of the nanocomposite for drug delivery. Fluorescein, a model for chemotherapeutics, was loaded into P(NIPAAm-co-AA) polymer nanoparticulates. Loading of the compound was shown to be a function of crosslinking density in the polymer network. Maximum loading was achieved using nanoparticles synthesized with a 10 mol% crosslinker feed ratio with entrapment efficiencies of 80.0 % and loading capacities of 12.0 %. Cytotoxicity studies were performed using a NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblast cell model. Cell viabilities in presence of P(NIPAAm-co-AA) nanoparticles were comparable to (not statistically different than) controls at concentrations up to 4 mg/ml. Similarly, gold-polymer composite concentrations up to 0.5 mg/ml caused limited cell death. / text

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