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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

Synthèse et évaluation in vivo de microparticules d'hydrogel

Jean-François, Jacques January 2004 (has links) (PDF)
Des microparticules d'hydrogel ont été synthétisées par une émulsion eau dans huile sous agitation mécanique. Elles résultent de la réticulation chimique de poly(éthylène glycol) et d'albumine de diverses sources (boeuf, rat). Leur diamètre varie entre 3 et 50µm et leur contenu en eau (EWC) oscille entre 95 et 98%. La vitesse d'agitation mécanique et la masse moléculaire du poly(éthylène glycol) utilisé pour la synthèse sont les deux paramètres les plus importants déterminant la taille des microparticules. Ces dernières possèdent une charge de surface négative, se dispersent très bien et sont stables à 4°C pour des périodes de 1 à 10 mois. Des microparticules de diamètre 3 et 10µm ont été synthétisées par la méthode d'émulsion et marquées à l'iode-125 pour étudier leur biodistribution et leur temps de résidence dans la circulation sanguine chez le rat mâle Sprague Dawley. Les microparticules de 10µm, administrées par injection intraveineuse, se retrouvent à plus de 90% dans le poumon et sont absents de la circulation sanguine. Quatre-vingt % des particules de 3µm se retrouvent au foie mais leur temps de résidence dans la circulation est très faible. Le mécanisme de capture de ces microparticules de 3µm est renversé par des injections multiples de ces microparticules qui induit une saturation du mécanisme de capture ou en incubant au préalable les microparticules dans du Triton X-100. Des modifications chimiques de surface (amination, pegylation, lipidation) de microparticules de 31lm incubées dans du Triton X-100 n'ont pas altéré significativement la biodistribution cependant la clairance sanguine semble être affectée par la charge de surface ou potentiel zêta. Ainsi les particules aminées qui ont le plus faible potentiel zêta (-11 mV) résident plus longtemps dans la circulation sanguine que les particules pegylées (-18mV). La présence du surfactant Triton X-100 est nécessaire cependant pour retrouver les temps de demi-vie élevés allant de 6 à 8 heures chez le rat. Les études de biocompatibilité effectuées dans la cavité péritonéale du rat avec les particules natives ou modifiées chimiquement ont montré des réponses similaires à celles d'une solution saline au niveau des marqueurs de l'activation des macrophages péritonéaux. La seule différence significative notée se retrouve au niveau de l'activité phagocytique supérieure des macrophages péritonéaux isolés des rats traités avec des microparticules natives, pegylées ou lipidées de 3µm. Les macrophages isolés des rats traités avec des microparticules aminées possèdent par contre une activité phagocytique significativement moindre comparativement à ceux provenant de rats injectés avec du salin. L'administration de microparticules natives de 3µm marquées à l'iode-125 par instillation intratrachéale a montré une distribution non-uniforme dans les lobes pulmonaires du rat. On observe une accumulation préférentielle dans le poumon gauche avec une activité spécifique de 84nCi/g de tissu. Une étude de biocompatibilité pulmonaire effectuée à une dose de 133mg de matériel humide/kg d'animal n'a décelé aucun effet adverse au niveau des divers marqueurs de l'inflammation pulmonaire chez le rat normal. La seule exception se situe au niveau de l'activité phagocytique significativement inférieure des macrophages alvéolaires isolés des rats traités avec des microparticules problablement dû à un phénomène de saturation. A cause de leur diamètre de 3µm et la faible réponse pulmonaire suite à leur administration, ces microparticules constituaient un vecteur idéal pour évaluer l'efficacité in vivo de l'insuline. Des rats diabétiques ont été traités par une instillation unique de microparticules de 3µm chargées d'insuline (5.4lU); 3 heures après l'injection, la glycémie résiduelle se situait à 20% et se maintenait à cette valeur pour la durée de l'expérience soit huit heures. A doses similaires, une solution d'insuline administrée par instillation ou par voie sous-cutanée revenaient à des valeurs normales 3 à 4 heures après le début du traitement. Les rats provenant de cette étude et sacrifiés 7 jours après le traitement ont subi un lavage bronchoalvéolaire. L'examen des marqueurs de l'inflammation pulmonaire chez des rats diabétques traités avec des microbilles vides (Groupe 3) ou des microbilles chargées avec de l'insuline (Groupe 4) montre une augmentation significative du nombre de cellules, de l'activité LDH et de l'activité phagocytaire des macrophages péritonéaux par comparaison au Groupe 1 composé de rats sains et instillés avec une solution saline. La comparaison avec d'autres groupes contrôles souligne l'influence de l'état diabétique sur la réponse observée au niveau des différents marqueurs de l'inflammation pulmonaire. Les résultats obtenus dans le cadre de ce projet concordent pour démontrer que les microparticules hydrophiliques à base de PEG-albumine possèdent certaines des propriétés requises pour leur utilisation in vivo. Elles sont versatiles à cause de la simplicité de la synthèse et de la capacité à moduler leur taille ou leur chimie de surface en fonction d'applications spécifiques. Elles sont hautement hydrophiles et biocompatibles chez le rat. Et finalement, comme l'étude par voie pulmonaire chez le rat diabétique l'a démontré, ces microparticules représentent des vecteurs intéressants pour l'administration de protéines ou peptides thérapeutiques par cette voie d'administration encore peu exploitée.
42

CONTROLLED SYNTHESIS OF STIMULI-RESPONSIVE NETWORK ALGINATE

Chan, ARIEL WAN-JU 20 July 2009 (has links)
Stimuli-responsive hydrogels swell or contract in response to external pH, ionic strength or temperature, and are of considerable interest as pharmaceutical controlled release devices. Alginate, a linear polysaccharide consisting of mannuronic and guluronic acids, was used as starting material in semisynthesis of pH-responsive hydrogel. Linear alginate was chemically modified with di-aldehyde via acid-catalyzed acetalization, forming a tetrafunctional acetal-linked semisynthetic network alginate polymer (SNAP) with carboxylate moieties preserved as stimuli-responsive sensors. The kinetics of acetalization were found to undergo zero and second-order reaction with respect to di-aldehyde and alginate respectively. With the determined rate constant of 19.06 L•mole-1•s-1 at 40oC and activation energy of 78.58 kJ•mol-1, a proposed predictive reaction model may be used a priori to select reaction conditions providing specific polymer properties. Gel swelling and average pore size were then able to be kinetically or thermodynamically controlled between 80-1000 fold and 30 nm-1 m respectively. As a proof of concept, SNAP hydrogel was fine-tuned with specific swelling and pore sizes for absorptive encapsulation and controlled release of a wide spectrum of molecular sizes of proteins ranging between 1.3 to 546 kDa. SNAP hydrogels/granules demonstrated limited swelling in the simulated gastric environment, protecting proteins from enzymatic and acid degradation, while swelling in alkaline media, releasing active therapeutics in a simulated intestinal lumen (pH ~ 7.8), so is under the consideration as an oral delivery vehicle for protein therapeutics. A constitutive polyelectrolyte gel model based on non-Gaussian polymer elasticity, Flory-Huggins liquid lattice theory, and non-ideal Donnan-membrane equilibria was derived, to describe SNAP gel swelling in dilute and ionic solutions. The derived model accurately describes the SNAP hydrogel swelling in acid and alkaline solutions of wide range of ionic strength. The pore sizes of SNAP hydrogel were estimated by the derived model and were comparable to those determined experimentally by thermoporometry and protein diffusion. The derived model can characterize hydrogel structure such as molecular weight between crosslinks, or can be used as predictive model for swelling and pore size if gel structural information is known, and can potentially be applied to other point-link network polyelectrolytes such as hyaluronic acid gel. / Thesis (Ph.D, Chemical Engineering) -- Queen's University, 2009-07-20 11:48:17.508
43

The development of depsipeptides as tissue engineering scaffolds : synthesis, characterization, and self-assembly into hydrogels

Nguyen, Mary Minh Chau 11 July 2014 (has links)
The development of novel, peptide based structures for tissue engineering materials has been widely researched, and its popularity can be attributed to advancements in technological analysis methods. Using principles based on protein structure and organization, this work describes the novel self-assembly of depsipeptides, which incorporate alternating esters within a native peptide backbone. Chapter 1 introduces and reviews peptide mimics for their utility for tissue engineering applications. Chapter 2 describes the methodology in synthesizing and characterization a depsipeptide library using both solution and solid phase methods. Chapter 3 discusses the effects of depsipeptide length, concentration, and sequence within a range of ionic concentrations and pH ranges on the self-assembly of depsipeptides into spherical nanostructures, fibers, or hydrogels. Chapter 4 describes proposed methods to increase the rate of gelation, followed by discussions of biocompatibility studies from other self-assembling peptide and modified-peptide systems in vitro and in vivo. The work described in this dissertation demonstrates that the synthesis and self-assembly of a depsipeptide family which alternates esters into a native peptide backbone does not disrupt the formation of higher order structures. This study illustrates the potential to synthesize a wide range of depsipeptides with variable side chains and hydrophobic character, as understanding these effects on self-assembly is imperative to the development of biomimetic materials for tissue engineering applications. / text
44

Improvement of 3D printing quality for fabricating soft scaffolds

Weibin, Lin 20 August 2014 (has links)
Tissue engineering (TE) integrates methods of cells, engineering and materials to improve or replace biological functions of native tissues or organs. 3D printing technologies have been used in TE to produce different kinds of tissues. Based on review of the exiting 3D printing technologies used in TE, special requirements of fabricating soft scaffolds are identified. Soft scaffolds provide a microenvironment with biocompatibility for living cells proliferation. This research focuses on 3D printer design and printing parameters investigation for fabrication of soft scaffolds. A 3D printer is proposed for producing artificial soft scaffolds, with components of a pneumatic dispenser, a temperature controller and a multi-nozzle changing system. Relations of 3D printing parameters are investigated to improve the printing quality of soft scaffolds. It provides guidance for printing customized bio-materials with improved efficiency and quality. In the research, printing parameters are identified and classified based on existing research solutions. A deposition model is established to analyze the parameters relations. Quantitative criteria of parameters are proposed to evaluate the printing quality. A series of experiments including factors experiments and comparison tests are conducted to find effects of parameters and their interactions. A case study is conducted to verify the analytic solution of proposed models. This research confirms that the hydrogel concentration and nozzle diameters have significant effects on the filament diameter. Factor interactions are mainly embodied in between the concentration of hydrogel solutions and dispensing pressures. Besides filament diameters, the nozzle height and space also affect the printing accuracy significantly. An appropriate nozzle height is considered to be 1.4 times than the nozzle diameter, and a reasonable nozzle space is suggested from 2.0 to 2.5 times of the nozzle diameter.
45

Photocurable Inorganic-Organic Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications

Hou, Yaping 2009 December 1900 (has links)
There are two primary objectives of this dissertation research. The first objective was to prepare a library of inorganic-organic hydrogels from methacrylated star polydimethylsiloxane (PDMSstar-MA) and diacrylated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-DA) with tunable chemical and physical properties for use as tissue engineering scaffolds. These inorganic-organic hydrogels provide a useful platform to study the effect of scaffold properties on cell behavior in tissue culture. Twenty compositionally unique hydrogels were prepared by photo-crosslinking varing molecular weights (Mn) of PEO-DA (Mn = 3.4k and 6k g/mol) and PDMSstar-MA (Mn = 1.8k, 5k and 7k g/mol) at varying weight ratios (up to 20 wt% PDMSstar-MA). Introduction of PDMSstar-MA caused formation of discrete PDMS-enriched "microparticles" dispersed within the PEO hydrogel matrix. The swelling ratio, mechanical properties in tension and compression, non-specific protein adhesion and cytotoxicity of hydrogels were studied. The second objective was to prepare thermoresponsive nanocomposite hydrogels, which are mechanically robust and can remove adhered cells via thermal modulation. Such hydrogels may be useful as "self-cleaning" membranes for implanted biosensors to extend their lifetime and efficiency. These hydrogels are comprised of a poly(Nisopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) hydrogel matrix and polysiloxane colloidal nanoparticles (~220 nm and 50 nm ave. diameter). Due to the low preparation temperature, the nanocomposite hydrogels exhibited a homogeneous morphology by SEM analysis. The volume phase transition temperature (VPTT, ~33 degrees C) of the nanocomposite hydrogels was not altered versus the pure PNIPAAm hydrogel, which is near body temperature. Generally, nanoparticles led to improve mechanical properties versus pure PNIPAAm hydrogels. When these nanocomposite hydrogels are heated above the VPTT, they become more hydrophobic. When they are reversibly switched from a water-swollen to a deswollen state, the change in surface properties, as well as swelling-deswelling, was effective upon the removal of adhered cells.
46

Degradative properites and cytocompatibility of a mixed-mode hydrogel containing oligo[poly(thylene glycol) fumarate] and thiol-poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Thiol

Brink, Kelly Sinclair 31 March 2008 (has links)
Knee injuries are a major cause of orthopedic disabilities in the United States. Current reconstruction techniques for torn anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) require extensive surgery and long physical rehabilitation times since the tissue does not heal upon injury. A common ACL injury occurs where the gap at the rupture site remains open after injury and fails to heal, which can lead to premature osteoarthritis and disability. Hydrogels are a popular material used for tissue engineering applications due to their ability to retain water and good biocompatibility. Previous work has shown that hydrogels can be made through the mixed-mode reaction of radically crosslinked thiol groups and acrylate end groups. This project explores mixed-mode oligo[poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate] (OPF)-based hydrogels as alternate carriers for regeneration of partial tear ligament defects. The main purpose of this project was to determine the degradative properties of and cell response to thiol-PEG-thiol (PEG-diSH), a novel hydrogel material. The swelling and degradative properties of hydrogels containing three components OPF, PEG-diacrylate (PEG-DA), and PEG-diSH were characterized by their fold swelling. In addition, cell viability, morphology changes, proliferation and collagen production were analyzed in tri-ratio hydrogels with and without the presence of RGD over three weeks. Results showed that the hydrogels containing PEG-diSH demonstrated significantly larger fold swelling and promoted cell clustering (as shown by increased area of clusters), probably due to the larger mesh size and possibly due to the presence of free thiol functional groups present in the network from the mixed-mode reaction. However, an increase in cell number was not found in these gels up to eight days, suggesting that cell migration may play a role in the appearance of clusters. Additionally, increased cell spreading in response to RGD was observed inside gels containing PEG-diSH; no spreading was seen in the non PEG-diSH gels (± RGD), possibly because the mesh size was too small to allow for clustering or spreading within the matrix. Results from this work suggest that the presence of PEG-diSH could promote cell-cell contact within the clusters which could be useful in systems where direct contact promotes tissue formation or cell differentiation.
47

Biomimetische Materialabscheidung in funktionalisierten Hydrogelmatrices

Graßmann, Olaf. Unknown Date (has links) (PDF)
Universiẗat, Diss., 2003--Würzburg.
48

Fundamental phenomenological description and experimental optimization of gel-stabilized biocatalysts in a two-phase system

Doumèche, Bastien. Unknown Date (has links) (PDF)
Techn. Hochsch., Diss., 2002--Aachen.
49

Anisotrope Hydrogele

Hickl, Markus Johannes. Unknown Date (has links) (PDF)
Universiẗat, Diss., 2003--Freiburg (Breisgau).
50

Aufbau eines klassenbasierten Programmpaketes zur molekulardynamischen Simulation von Gelen am Beispiel des N-Isopropylacrylamid Hydrogels

Tönsing, Thorsten. Unknown Date (has links) (PDF)
Universiẗat, Diss., 2004--Bielefeld.

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