Srinivas, T. A. S.
No description available.
Snelling, Diana Kathryn
01 September 2010
Biodegradable, pH-responsive hydrogel networks composed of poly(methacrylic acid) crosslinked with varying mol percentages of polycaprolactone diacrylate were synthesized. These materials were characterized using NMR and FTIR. The equilibrium and dynamic swelling properties of these pH-responsive materials were studied. Also, the materials’ degradation was characterized using swelling studies and gel permeation chromatography. Methods were developed to incorporate these novel hydrogels as sensing components in silicon-based microsensors. Extremely thin layers of hydrogels were prepared by photopolymerizion atop silicon microcantilever arrays that served to transduce the pH-responsive volume change of the material into an optical signal. Organosilane chemistry allowed covalent adhesion of the hydrogel to the silicon beam. As the hydrogel swelled, the stress generated at the surface between the hydrogel and the silicon caused a beam deflection downward. The resulting sensor demonstrated a maximum sensitivity of 1nm/4.5E-5 pH unit. Sensors were tested in protein-rich solutions to mimic biological conditions and found to retain their high sensitivity. The existing theory was evaluated and developed to predict deflection of these composite cantilever beams. Another type of hydrogel-based microsensor was fabricated utilizing porous silicon rugate filters as transducers. Porous silicon rugate filters are garnering increased attention as components of in vivo biosensors due to their ability for remote readout through tissue. Here, the biodegradable, pH-responsive hydrogel was polymerized within the pores of a porous silicon rugate filter to generate a novel, completely degradable sensor. Silicon was electrochemically etched in hydrofluoric acid to generate the porous silicon rugate filter with its reflectance peak in the near infrared region. Poly(methacrylic acid) crosslinked with polycaprolactone diacrylate was polymerized within the pores using UV free radical photopolymerization. The reflectance peak of this sensor varied linearly with pH in the region pH 2.2 to 8.8. This work shows promise towards utilizing porous silicon rugate filters as transducers for environmentally responsive hydrogels for biosensing applications. / text
09 January 2006
Hydrogen peroxide and chlorine detection is critical for many biological and environmental applications. Hydrogen peroxide plays important roles in a variety of fields including plant physiology, medical, environmental and biochemical applications. Its role in plant defense and signal transduction, diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzhemier's, industrial processes such as disinfection and wastewater treatment and biochemical enzymatic reactions is critical. Given the gamut of areas that hydrogen peroxide is a key component of; its detection assumes great importance. Similarly chlorine has long been used as a disinfectant for making drinking water safe, but excessive chlorination is an environmental and health hazard in itself. In this work, micromachining techniques have been used to design, fabricate and test electrochemical sensors and microneedle structure that can be integrated for detection of hydrogen peroxide and free chlorine. A novel nanomaterial has been integrated with the hydrogen peroxide microsensor, which greatly increases the sensor lifetime and robustness. Miniaturization, low detection limits, high sensitivity and selectivity, as well as ease of fabrication are some of the other advantages of this work. / M.S.M.E. / Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering; / Engineering and Computer Science / Mechanical Engineering
Scalera, Jonathan E.
16 August 2001
Recent interest has emerged in microsensor platforms that are capable of supporting reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition operations. These devices typically consist of one or more sensors, signal conditioning and processing subsystems, a radio link and a power source. Sensors employed can range from acoustic, to seismic, to magnetic, to visible/infrared imagers. <P> A notable shortcoming of these systems is the fact that they are battery powered. The use of a finite power source places an upper limit on the lifespan of such a system. Thus, a major thrust in the development and usage of these microsensor platforms lies in the conservation of their limited energy resources. In attempt to reduce power consumption and hence extend the system's lifespan, communication bandwidths are often limited. In order to reduce the required bandwidth, much of the signal processing necessary to achieve a desired functionality must be performed within the microsensor platform itself. <p> This thesis effort provides this crucial bandwidth reduction by implementing in hardware an algorithm developed by the University of Maryland, which limits transmissions to the best view Regions-of-Interest (ROI) data, on the CAuS platform by BAE Systems. The hardware implementation was verified with a Matlab script that compared its results with those of the original algorithm. It was shown that these implementations were consistent for all of the data sets tested. Moreover, a subjective analysis, in which the detected ROIs were visually inspected, was performed to corroborate the former quantitative results. / Master of Science
No description available.
Development of a CTD system for environmental measurements using novel PCB MEMS fabrication techniquesBroadbent, Heather Allison 01 June 2005 (has links)
The development of environmental continuous monitoring of physicochemical parameters via portable small and inexpensive instrumentation is an active field of research as it presents distinct challenges. The development of a PCB MEMS-based inexpensive CTD system intended for the measurement of environmental parameters in natural waters, is presented in this work. Novel PCB MEMS fabrication techniques have also been developed to construct the conductivity and temperature transducers. The design and fabrication processes are based on PCB MEMS technology that combines Cu-clad liquid crystal polymer (LCP) thin-film material with a direct write photolithography tool, chemical etching and metallization of layers of electroless nickel, gold, and platinum. The basic principles of a planar four-electrode conductivity cell and the resistive temperature device are described here as well as the integration and the packaging of the microfabricated sensors for the underwater environment. Measurement results and successful field evaluation data show that the performance of the LCP thin-film microsensors can compete with that of conventional in-situ instruments.
Élaboration et réalisation de transistors à effet de champ à canal microfluidique intégré dédiés à la détection en milieu liquide / Fabrication of field effect transistor with integrated microfluidic channel dedicated to the detection in liquidBouhadda, Ismaïl 10 July 2014 (has links)
Ce travail de recherche porte sur la réalisation de dispositifs électroniques spécifiques et originaux (Transistors à effet de champ à microcanaux) dédiés à la détection des espèces chimiques et biochimiques en milieu liquide. Ce dispositif s'appuie sur la technologie des transistors à grille suspendue (SGFET) déjà réalisés à l'IETR, en y apportant une amélioration majeure qui consiste en l'intégration au sein de la structure d'un canal microfluidique. Cette structure, nommée transistor à canal microfluidique intégré, doit permettre de conserver la forte sensibilité de détection du SGFET mais aussi de garantir le passage du liquide testé sous la grille. Cette architecture permet aussi d'augmenter sa robustesse et sa fiabilité tout en ne nécessitant que de très petits volumes de solutions. Des microcanaux avec un bon maintien mécanique ont été réalisés par micro-usinage de surface en utilisant différents matériaux comme couche sacrificielle. Ces canaux ont été intégré dans un FET et leurs accès microfluidiques ont été assurés en réalisant des ouvertures (inlet/outlet) par la face avant. Les tests électriques ont montré un bon fonctionnement de ces capteurs avec une grande sensibilité de mesure du pH mais le passage du liquide est alors majoritairement dû aux phénomènes de capillarité. Une amélioration sur l'architecture de la structure a été faite, en réalisant des ouvertures par la face arrière. Un bon fonctionnement avec une grande sensibilité de mesure de pH ont été présentés. Finalement, une structure hybride contenant une ouverture sur la face avant et une autre sur la face arrière, a été élaborée et les tests d'injection de la solution ont été un succès. / This work presents the achievement of specific and original electronic devices (Field effect transistor with microfluidic channel), dedicated to the detection of chemical and biochemical species in liquid. This device relies on the technologies of suspended gate transistor, developed in IETR, with a major improvement in the structure by adjunction of a microfluidic channel integrated in the structure. This structure named transistor with integrated microfluidic channel must enable to guarantee the flow of liquid under the gate, while keeping the high sensitivity of the SGFET. This architecture also allows increasing its robustness and reliability while requiring only a very small amount of chemicals solutions. Microchannels with good mechanical properties were fabricated by surface micromachining using different materials as a sacrificial layer. These channels have been integrated into a FET and microfluidic accesses (inlet / outlet) were provided by making openings via the front face. Electrical tests showed good functioning of these sensors with high sensitivity of pH measurement. However in this case, liquid flow is mainly achieved by capillarity. An improvement on the architecture of the structure was made with opening on the rear face. A good behaviour with high sensitivity of pH measurement was presented. Finally, a hybrid structure containing one opening access in the front face and one on the rear face was elaborated and the injection of the solution was successful.
Conception et développement de nouveaux microcapteurs chimiques pour la détection des métaux dans les eaux / Pas de titre anglaisSbartai, Amel 09 November 2014 (has links)
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Construção de microssensores e sua aplicação para estudo de biofilme empregado no tratamento de água residuária / Construction of microsensors and its application in biofilms used in wastewater treatmentBeatriz Cruz Gonzalez 22 May 2009 (has links)
A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo a construção de microssensores amperométricos e potenciométricos para mensuração de oxigênio dissolvido (OD), gás sulfídrico (\'H IND.2\'S\'), íons amônio (\'NH IND.4\'POT.+\'), nitrato (\'NO IND.3\'POT.-\'), nitrito (\'NO IND.2\'POT.-\') e hidrogeniônicos (\'H POT.+\') em biofilmes aplicados a nitrificação de água residuária. Os biofilmes analisados por meio do uso dos microssensores construídos foram desenvolvidos sobre superfícies suportes de reatores de bancada do tipo célula de fluxo, as quais foram operadas sob diferentes condições operacionais em cinco experimentos distintos. Substrato sintético com concentrações de nitrogênio total Kjeldahl (NTK) de 40 ± 10 mg/L e demanda química de oxigênio (DQO) de 95 ± 5 mg/L foi utilizado para alimentação das células de fluxo no decorrer de todos os experimentos. Lodo aeróbio proveniente de reator de lodos ativados da Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto das Flores localizada em Rio Claro-SP foi usado como inóculo das células de fluxo. Análises físico-químicas de pH, alcalinidade, DQO, NTK, \'NO IND.3\'POT.-\', \'NO IND.2\'POT.-\' do afluente e do efluente das células de fluxo operadas foram realizadas para o monitoramento das condições de operação das mesmas. Concomitantemente às últimas, a obtenção de perfis de concentrações de oxigênio dissolvido, pH, íons nitrato e amônio foi realizada nos biofilmes formados sobre as superfícies inertes nas células. Os microssensores de OD se mostraram eficientes na mensuração de oxigênio dissolvido no interior de filmes biológicos que continham zonas aeróbias, anóxicas e anaeróbias. Os microeletrodos de pH e de íons amônio permitiram a verificação das variações de pH e das concentrações de \'NH IND.4\'POT.+\' (sentido meio líquido-biofilme) que se deram nas células de fluxo operadas. Os microssensores de íons nitrato construídos não apresentaram seletividade aos seus analitos (\'NO IND.3\'POT.-\') e foi constatado que os mesmos detectavam concentrações de íons nitrato e nitrito no meio, portanto esses passaram a ser denominados de microssensores para detecção de íons \'NO IND.X\'POT.-\'. A construção dos microeletrodos destinados a mensuração de íons nitrito não foi passível de realização visto que a membrana íon seletiva que seria aplicada nos mesmos não se encontrou disponível no mercado. Os microeletrodos de \'H IND.2\'S\' foram calibrados e, mediante as suas curvas de calibração verificou-se que os mesmos foram eficientes na medição da concentração do gás dissolvido em água, entretanto esses microssensores não foram empregados em biofilmes. / The goal of the current research was the construction of amperometric and potentiometric microsensors to measure dissolved oxygen (DO), hydrogen sulfide (\'H IND.2\'S\'), nitrite, nitrate, ammonium and pH in biofilms applied at wastewater treatment. The biofilms that were analyzed with the constructed microsensors were grown at the surface of flat-plate reactors, which were operated in five distinct experiments under different operational conditions. The growth media that had total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TNK) of 40 ± 10 mg/L and carbon oxygen demand (COD) of 90 ± 5 mg/L was used as feed of the flatplate reactors during the experiments. The reactors were inoculated with sludge originating from activated sludge reactor located in Rio Claro (SP). Alkalinity, pH, COD, \'NO IND.3\'POT.-\', \'NO IND.2\'POT.-\' analyses of the affluent and effluent of the reactors were carried out for the accompaniment of the operational conditions of the flat-plate reactors. Concomitantly to the last ones, microprofiles of DO, pH, nitrate and ammonium were obtained in the biofilms. The DO microsensors constructed showed a good performance when they were applied to measure oxygen concentrations in the microenvironments in biofilms. Ammonium and pH microelectrodes allowed the verification of the variations of pH and ammonium concentrations in the direction from the bulk liquid to the biofilm that occurred at the flatplate reactors. The nitrate microsensor has not presented selectivity for its primary ions (\'NO IND.3\'POT.-\') and it was evidenced that the same one detected the concentration of nitrate and nitrite (\'NO IND.X\'POT.-\'). The nitrite microsensor could not be constructed since the membrane that would be used was not available in the market. The \'H IND.2\'S\' microelectrodes had shown efficiency in measuring aqueous solutions with different concentrations of dissolved \'H IND.2\'S\'; however these devices were not applied in biofilms.
Geração de energia elétrica a partir de eletrodos imersos em sistema do tipo célula a biocombustível composta por reator anaeróbio e reator aeróbio operados em série alimentado com esgoto sanitário / Generation of electric energy from electrodes immersed in system named of biofuel cell consisted of an anaerobic and an aerobic reactor operated in series fed with wastewaterBeatriz Cruz Gonzalez 02 August 2013 (has links)
A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo primordial a verificação da viabilidade técnica de empregar sistema do tipo célula a biocombustível para tratamento de esgoto sanitário com geração de energia elétrica. A célula a biocombustível, em escala de bancada, adotada foi constituída por reator anaeróbio seguido de reator aeróbio, visando à remoção de matéria orgânica carbonácea e à nitrificação Cada reator apresentou área de 0,6275 m2 e volume útil de 24,0 L. A célula a biocombustível foi alimentada com esgoto sanitário com tempo de detenção hidráulica médio de 8 horas (nos dois módulos). Em cada reator instalou-se um eletrodo imerso, de modo que os dois eletrodos foram unidos por fio condutor externo. Foi verificada a potencialidade do sistema em gerar energia elétrica a partir das reações químicas e bioquímicas que se deram junto aos eletrodos e nos biofilmes aderidos aos mesmos. A operação da célula a biocombustível foi dividida em cinco Fases, denominadas de I, II, III, IV e V, sendo que o fator principal que distinguiu essas Fases consistiu no material eletródico. Manta de fibra de carbono e placa de grafite foram adotadas como ânodo da célula (reator anaeróbio). Chapa de aço inoxidável (AISI 316) e malhas de aço inoxidável (AISI 316) foram usadas como cátodo do sistema (reator aeróbio). Para monitoramento do sistema foram realizadas análises físico-químicas do afluente, do efluente do reator anaeróbio e do efluente do reator aeróbio e para o acompanhamento da produção de energia elétrica utilizou-se potenciômetro acoplado a software específico. Microssensores de OD, pH e potencial redox foram empregados como ferramentas auxiliares para o acompanhamento do crescimento e desenvolvimento dos biofilmes aderidos aos eletrodos da célula a biocombustível. Como resultados concernentes ao tratamento do esgoto sanitário foram obtidas eficiências médias de remoção de DQO de (74,4±17,1)% e de nitrificação de (65,8±21,0)%, no decorrer das cinco Fases. O valor da maior densidade de potência média verificada foi de 107,0 mW.m-2, ocorrida quando o ânodo da célula a biocombustível consistiu em placa de grafite e o cátodo em malha de aço inoxidável (AISI 316) do tipo 20, na Fase V. A dosagem de cloreto férrico e a colocação de meio suporte de material plástico no sistema para limpeza automática do cátodo, realizadas na Fase em que se observou a maior densidade de potência média foram consideradas como positivas no aprimoramento da obtenção de energia elétrica. Por meio da combinação dos resultados relacionados à geração de energia elétrica e da aplicação dos microssensores constatou-se que o desenvolvimento de biofilmes espessos sobre os eletrodos da célula a biocombustível consiste em fator negativo da sua eficiência energética. Concluiu-se que a célula a biocombustível é tecnicamente viável para o tratamento de esgoto com geração de energia elétrica, contudo diante do conhecimento que se tem sobre essa tecnologia, a sua adoção em escala real ainda é economicamente inviável. / This research aimed mainly to verify the technical feasibility of employing a system called biofuel cell for treating wastewater and generating electricity at the same time. The biofuel cell, in lab scale, adopted consisted of an anaerobic followed by an aerobic reactor, aiming the removal of carbonaceous organic matter and nitrification. Each reactor had an area of 0.6275 m2 and useful volume of 24.0 L. The biofuel cell was fed with sanitary wastewater with hydraulic retention time of eight hours (in both modules). In each reactor was installed an electrode immersed, and the two electrodes were connected by a wire conductor. The capability of the system to generate electricity from the chemical and biochemical reactions that occurred along the electrodes and in biofilms attached to them was verified. The biofuel cell operation was divided into five Phases, named I, II, III, IV and V, and the main factor that distinguished these Phases consisted of the electrode material. Carbon fiber felt and graphite plate were adopted as the anode of the cell (on anaerobic reactor). Stainless steel plates (AISI 316) and stainless steel meshes (AISI 316) were used as the cathode (on aerobic reactor). Monitoring system were carried out with physicochemical analyzes of the influent, anaerobic effluent and aerobic effluent and for monitoring the electricity production it was used a potentiometer coupled with a specific software. DO, pH and redox potential microsensors were employed as auxiliary tools for monitoring the growth and development of biofilms attached to the electrodes of the biofuel cell. The results concerning the treatment of wastewater were COD efficiencies removal of (74.4 ± 17.1)% and nitrification of (65.8 ± 21.0)%, throughout the five Phases. The amount of the higher power density observed was 107.0 mW.m-2 occurred when the anode of the biofuel cell consisted of graphite plate and cathode of stainless steel mesh (AISI 316) type 20, on Phase V . The dosage of ferric chloride and the placement of plastic midia on the aerobic module of the system for automatic cleaning of the cathode, conducted on Phase V, were considered positive for the improvement in obtaining electricity. By combining the results related to power generation and application of microsensors it was concluded that the development of thick biofilms on the electrodes of a biofuel cell is a negative factor in their energy efficiency. It was also concluded that the biofuel cell is technically feasible to treat sanitary wastewater and to generate electricity, but actually, based on the knowledge we have about this technology, its adoption in large scale is still not economically feasible.
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