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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Divisions within white colonial opinion Natal, 1878-1893 /

Gillen, Helen Mary. January 1976 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (B.A.Hons.)) -- Dept. of History, University of Adelaide, 1976.

Zulu perceptions and reactions to the British occupation of land in Natal Colony and Zululand, 1850-1887 : a recapitulation based on surving oral and written sources

Masina, Edward Muntu January 2006 (has links)
A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Arts, University of Zululand in fulfilment for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 2006. / This thesis seeks to close some lacunae that exists in the historiography of Natal and Zululand. Whereas the activities of the colonials are well documented and widely read, the actions and responses of the Zulu people to colonial expansion in Natal and Zululand have been neglected or only given a cursory glance. The impact of colonialism that resulted in the loss of land and a livelihood among the Zulu, could only be articulated with the necessary sensitivity by the Zulu people themselves. This, therefore, is an attempt to give audience to the Zulu voice. The study focuses on the period 1850 - 1887 which was characterized by a steady immigration, infiltration and penetration of the British into the traditional, social and political life of the Zulu people in Natal and Zululand. The elephant trails charted the way of the traders and hunters into the heart of Zululand and missionaries followed in their footsteps. The initial attempts at evangelization met with fervent resistance from the Zulu, simply because it contrasted with Zulu custom and was too alien to be readily comprehended and accepted by the Zulu, who still owed sole allegiance to their king. Nevertheless, colonial land policies and the establishment of Christian mission reserves led to the rise of an African peasantry which adapted to the white man's ways and flourished. The colonials introduced the "Shepstone system" which crammed the Zulu Into barren reserves and restricted their ownership of land in Natal Colony. This resulted in the steady decline of the peasantry as a recognizable social class. The dominant forces of capitalism and the promulgation of laws prohibiting Zulu freedom of movement eventually destroyed the African peasantry. The destruction of the homestead economy and the loss of land and cattle gave rise to a new class of poor people among the Zulu of Natal Colony. Meanwhile, in Zululand, signs of underdevelopment were already evident during the 1870*s. Federation schemes pursued by the British, with the desire to dominate the southern African region, coupled the suspicions that King Cetshwayo was planning to attack Natal, culminated in the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879. Despite Cetshwayo's plea for peace, the British invaded Zululand with the sole purpose of destroying the Zulu dynasty, which they viewed as an obstacle to British overlordship. British victory in the war led to Wolseley's clumsy settlement which unleashed a terribly bloody civil war that left Zululand devastated and the Zulu dynasty permanently weakened. Then came, rather too late, the annexation of Zululand by Britain in 1887.

A report on juvenile delinquency in the Northdale area of Pietermaritzburg.

Ramdhani, M. January 1975 (has links)
Abstract not available. / Thesis (M.Ed.) - University of Durban-Westville, 1975.

Age and growth of the Queen Mackerel (Scomberomorus plurilineatus) and Seventy-four (Polysteganus undulosus) of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.

Chale-Matsau, Jacobeth R. January 1996 (has links)
This study provides information on the age and growth of two important Iinefish species, Scomberomorus pluriline~tus and Polysteganus undulosus. Age determination for both species was carried out using otoliths and growth was modelled using age- and length-based methods. For the age-based method various growth models were evaluated to determine which growth function best described the age-length data, whilst Shepherd's Length Composition Analysis was used to estimate growth parameters from length-frequency data. Preliminary stock assessments, based on limited catch data, were also attempted for both species. Age estimates for the pelagic migrant S. plurilineatus, derived from reading whole otoliths, ranged from 0 + to 6 + years. As validation by marginal increment analysis was inconclusive because of the seasonal occurrence of this species in KwaZulu-Natal waters, it was assumed that a single opaque band was laid down in the otolith annually. Reproducibility of age estimates evaluated using the average percentage error (APE) technique was good (9.4%). Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were poorly estimated from length-frequency data because multiple maxima were encountered on the fitting surface. However, from the age-length data, growth was adequately modelled by the von Bertalanffy growth equation: L t =9 3 5mmFL (l-e -0. 583yr-1 (t+o. 991yr) ) S. p!urilineatus are fully recruited to the fishery at the age of 1 + year and the ageiv at-50% maturity is 2 + years. Preliminary per-recruit analyses indicated that the spawner biomass of S. plurilineatus is at 50% of its unfished level. Polysteganus undulosus is an endemic, reef-dwelling sparid and large catches weremade earlier in the century. Age determination was carried out using sectioned otoliths collected in 1962 and 1963 before the collapse of the fishery. Age estimates ranged from 3 + to 20 + years. Marginal increment analysis indicated that active deposition of opaque bands occurred during winter but, because of the seasonal occurrence of P. undulosus in KwaZulu-Natal, validation was inconclusive. Reproducibility of the age estimates was low (APE = 18.2%) because of difficulties with band interpretation as a result of stacking on otolith margins in old fish. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters could not be adequately estimated from length frequency data because of the slow growth and longevity of this species. However, from the age-length data, no difference in growth rate between the sexes was observed, and growth for the combined sexes is described by the following logistic equation: L = 942mmTL t 1+e-O.277yr-l(t-S.178yrs) The age at full recruitment was found to be 12 + years and the age-at-50% maturity was 8.8 years. A preliminary stock assessment revealed that the spawner biomass of P. undulosus was already at 25% of its unfished level in the early 1960s. / Thesis (M.Sc.)-University of Natal, 1996.

The regulation of phytoplankton productivity in a shallow, turbid, oligotrophic lake.

Akhurst, Edward Gordon John. January 1988 (has links)
Aspects of the physical and chemical environment likely to influence phytoplankton productivity were investigated in Lake Midmar, a shallow (mean depth 11.4m), oligotrophic impoundment, over a three year period to evaluate the hypothesis that "the fundamental process regulating the functioning of a shallow lake is vertical mixing." Energy exchange at the lake surface was similar to that reported for other lakes. The principal components of the energy balance (net incoming radiation and latent heat loss) and heat content of the lake varied seasonally. However, day-to-day variation in local weather, particularly the incidence of cloud cover, masked these seasonal trends and contributed to the unusual pattern of almost constant sensible heat loss throughout the year. Consequently, heat storage was highly variable, particularly in early summer (September-December). The combination of day-to-day variation in heat storage, the pattern of heat loss, wind stress and the synergistic interaction between these components together contributed to the observed pattern of weak summer stratification (absence of vertical partitioning into an epi-, meta- and hypolimnion) and efficient heat transfer within the water column. The occurence of low Wedderburn numbers ( W < 1) on several occasions during summer (September - February) resulted in Midmar being classified as a regime 2 lake (sensu Spigel and Imberger,1980) and the thermal structure as discontinuous polymictic (sensu Lewis,1983 a). Under conditions of 'normal' river flow (1980-81) phosphorus associated with river suspended solid loads, even at times of peak loading in late summer, had little immediate influence on the total phosphorus content of the water column or phytoplankton productivity. Internal phosphorus loading, resulting from sediment resuspension and transfer of phosphorus from sediment pore water to the overlying water, was identified as the principal source of bioavailable phosphorus. The wind-induced circulation - sediment interaction also exerted a strong influence on the underwater light climate. Inorganic suspended particulate material was the principal factor regulating the attenuation of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Red light being the most penetrating component of the PAR spectral range throughout the study period . The hypothesis that 'internal", autochthonous processes and not external, allochthonous processes were responsible for regulating phosphorus dynamics and PAR attenuation" was confirmed during the drought (1982-83). As lake levels decreased the increased interaction between wind- induced circulation and the deeper sediments led to increased PAR attenuation and total phosphorus concentrations in the water column. The range of turbulent conditions arising from variation in the magnitude and frequency of wind- induced circulation created a temporally variable environment characterised by low values of the ratio Z[eu]:Z[m] rapidly changing light levels to which algal cells would be exposed in any day (a result of the turbid, turbulent nature of the environment) and nutrient patchiness (resulting from variation in internal phosphorus loading). The subsequent variation in the physiological state of the phytoplankton at the time of sampling resulted in estimates of ΣA, P[max] and the physiological indices, I[K], P[e] and assimilation number, being very variable from one sampling occasion to the next. This variation in phytoplankton productivity and physiological state at the time of sampling was considered to be responsible for the general absence of any correlation between ΣA, the physiological indices and temperature as well as the observed variation between the real values of ΣA and those predicted using Talling's model. Although the increased wind-induced circulation - deeper sediment interaction during the 1982-83 drought caused changes in the underwater light climate (as increased PAR attenuation and shallower euphotic zones) these changes had little effect on values of I[K], and P[e]. However, from the increase in values of ΣA, phytoplankton standing crops and assimilation numbers recorded in 1982-83 it was concluded that phytoplankton productivity in Lake Midmar was nutrient and not light-limited. The role of vertical mixing as a factor influencing temporal changes in phytoplankton species composition is examined in the general discussion. Two properties of the mixing regime are considered to be important, i.e. the energy associated with a particular mixing event and the frequency of high energy mixing events. The concept of disturbance sensu White and Pickett (1985) was found to be useful in distinguishing 'normal' low energy advective and vertical mixing involving only the surface waters from disturbance, high energy vertical mixing involving most or all of the water column which is capable of modifying existing environmental gradients. Based on the frequency of wind-induced disturbance a continuum can be shown ranging from deep stratified lakes, where disturbance as changes in mixing regime associated with the onset and breakdown of stratification is infrequent, seasonal and predictable from one year to the next, to very shallow lakes, where disturbance as extensive vertical mixing is more frequent, aseasonal and unpredictable. Shallow impoundments, e.g. Lake Midmar, occupy an intermediate position between the two extremes of the continuum. The exact location of a particular shallow lake being determined by site-specific properties of the energy exchange-wind stress interaction and resultant mixing regime. It is considered that the failure to recognise the intrinsic variation between shallow impoundments and the importance of site-specific differences in determining the importance of wind-induced vertical mixing in the functioning of shallow impoundments led to the earlier classification of South African shallow impoundments as warm monomictic systems by Walmsley and Butty (1980). Furthermore, this property of shallow lakes (i .e. the sitespecific differences in the energy exchange-wind stress interaction) probably accounts for the limited success with which general lake models have been applied in shallow lakes. Disturbance has not been recognised as a source of temporal and spatial heterogeneity in the physical and chemical environments of lakes because of the failure of existing models to distinguish between disturbance and perturbation and their roles in initiating changes in phytoplankton species composition. Based on the results of this study a revision of Reynolds's model describing temporal changes in phytoplankton species composition which incorporates both disturbance and perturbation is proposed. The results of this study therefore confirmed the original hypothesis that "the fundamental process regulating the functioning of a shallow lake is vertical mixing" with summer thermal structure, the attenuation of downwelling PAR and phosphorus dynamics all being directly influenced by wind-induced vertical mixing. The resultant temporally variable environment also influenced the physiological state of the phytoplankton and estimates of primary productivity, and is considered to exert a strong indirect influence on phytoplankton seasonal periodicity in this shallow, oligotrophic, turbulent impoundment. / Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 1988.

Waterborne sanitation, cost recovery and quality of life : a case study of Ekuvukeni

Plaistowe, Matthew 03 April 2014 (has links)
A bucket sanitation system is being replaced by waterborne sanitation at an apartheid created town called Ekuvukeni near Ladysmith in KwaZulu Natal. This study examines the reasons for upgrading sanitation at Ekuvukeni from a bucket system to a waterborne system, the problems and issues surrounding this project and the likely consequences for Ekuvukeni and the surrounding environment.. The study found that complex political and structural issues and problems have developed around sanitation at Ekuvukeni. These together with other software issues related to sanitation in the South African context have not been adequately considered. The result is that there are many uncertainties which increase the risk of waterborne sanitation system failure and this in turn, would have ' disastrous consequences for the people of Ekuvukeni and the surrounding environment. / Thesis (M.Sc.)-University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 1997.

Edendale 1850-1906 : a case study of rural transformation and class formation in an African mission in Natal

Meintjes, Sheila M. January 1988 (has links)
No description available.

Stress in the puerperium

Martin, C. J. January 1985 (has links)
No description available.

Psychological and social aspects of maternity blues

Kennerley, H. A. January 1985 (has links)
No description available.

Gewalt in Südafrika Dokumentation und Analyse von Gewaltanwendungen in einem sozialen Brennpunkt

Schlingloff, Friederike January 2010 (has links)
Zugl.: Hamburg, Univ., Diss., 2010

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