Lash, Leo Duane
Digitized by Kansas Correctional Industries
DBCP in the United States and Central America: Body, nation, and transnationalism in the history of a toxic product.Bohme, Susanna Rankin. January 2008 (has links)
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Brown University, 2008. / Vita. Advisor : Karl Jacoby. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 322-343).
Simmons, Lee Julian, Rodríguez-Kábana, R.,
(has links) (PDF)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Auburn University, 2008. / Abstract. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (p. 204-218).
Yunton, Bakti Bin
01 January 1982
No description available.
Kim, Sun Kwan
Typescript. / Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1989. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 201-215) / Microfiche. / xxi, 215 leaves, bound ill. 29 cm
Wells, Sheryl McGaha. Walker, Robert Harold,
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Auburn University, Agronomy and Soils. / Abstract. Vita. Includes bibliographical references.
Cucurbitacin chemical residues, non-phytotoxic concentration and essential mineral elements of nemarioc-al and nemafric-bl phytonematicides on growth of tomato plantsBango, Happy January 2019 (has links)
Thesis(M.Sc.( Agriculture, Horticulture)) -- University of Limpopo, 2019 / Worldwide, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important crops grown for nutritional value and health benefits, and are highly susceptible to root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematodes. Following the withdrawal of synthetic chemical nematicides, Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides have been researched and developed as alternatives to synthetic chemical nematicides. However, Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides contains allelochemicals namely, cucurbitacin A (C32H46O9) and cucurbitacin B (C32H46O8) as their active ingredients. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether increasing concentration of Nemarioc AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides would result in cucurbitacin residues in tomato plant, to generate mean concentration stimulation point (MCSP) values, overall sensitivity (∑k) and selected foliar mineral elements of tomato plant. Two parallel trials of Nemarioc AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides were conducted under field conditions, with each validated the next season. Each trial had seven treatments, namely, 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64% of Nemarioc-AL or Nemafric-BL phytonematicide concentrations, arranged in a randomised complete block design (RCBD), with five replications. In each trial, the seasonal interaction on variables was not significant and therefore data were pooled across the two seasons (n = 70). In both phytonematicides, the cucurbitacin residues were not detected in soil and tomato fruit. Plant variables and selected foliar nutrient elements were subjected to the Curve-fitting Allelochemical Response Data (CARD) model to generate biological indices which allowed for the calculation of MCSP of phytonematicides on tomato and their ∑k values of tomato to Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric BL phytonematicides. In Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide experiment, MCSP for tomato plant variables was at 1.13%, with the ∑k of 60 units, while the MCSP for selected tomato nutrient elements in leaf tissues was at 2.49%, with the ∑k of 21 units. Plant height, chlorophyll content, stem diameter, number of fruit, dry fruit mass, dry shoot mass and dry root mass each with increasing concentration of Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide exhibited positive quadratic relations with a model explained by 95, 82, 96, 89, 83, 83 and 92%, respectively. Similarly, K, Na and Zn each with increasing Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide concentration exhibited positive quadratic relations with a model explaining a strong relationship by 91, 96 and 89%. In Nemafric-BL phytonematicide experiment, MSCP for tomato plant variables was at 1.75%, with the ∑k of 45 units, whereas MCSP for selected tomato nutrient elements in leaf tissues was at 3.72% with the ∑k of 33 units. Plant height, chlorophyll content, stem diameter, number of fruit, dry fruit mass, dry shoot mass and dry root mass and increasing Nemafric-BL phytonematicide concentration exhibited positive quadratic relations with the model explaining a strong relationship by 92, 83, 97, 96, 87, 94 and 96%. Likewise, Na and Zn each with increasing Nemafric-BL phytonematicide concentration exhibited positive quadratic relations with a model explaining their relationship by 93 and 83%, respectively. In contrast, K with increasing Nemafric-BL phytonematicide concentration exhibited negative quadratic relations with a model explaining the relationship by 96%. In conclusion, tomato plant variables and selected foliar nutrient elements over increasing concentration of phytonematicides exhibited DDG patterns, characterised by three phases, namely, stimulation, neutral and inhibition. The developed non-phytotoxic concentration would be suitable for successful tomato production under field conditions.
Developing phytonematicides using indigenous cucumis africanus and cucumis myriocarpus fruits for tomatoproduction systemsPelinganga, Osvaldo Manuel January 2013 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D. Agriculture (Plant Protection)) -- University of Limpopo, 2013 / Global withdrawal of synthetic fumigant and non-fumigant nematicides due to their ecounfriendly impacts and high toxicity to non-target organisms, respectively, increased the research and development of alternatives for managing population densities of plantparasitic nematodes, particularly the root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematodes. Although Meloidogyne species had been managed using genotypes that are resistant to plant-parasitic nematodes in various crops, various challenges negate the available or introgressed nematode resistance. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) production, nematode races and instability of nematode resistant genotypes under certain conditions necessitated the continued research and development of alternatives since most of the existing commercial tomato cultivars are highly susceptible to various biological races of Meloidogyne species. The aim of the study was to research and develop appropriate dosages of two phyto- nematicides which could be applied through drip irrigation system in open field tomato production systems, while the specific objectives were to: (1) determine whether a computer-based model could provide nonphytotoxic concentrations to tomato plants using fresh fruits of wild watermelon (Cucumis africanus) and wild cucumber (C. myriocarpus) under greenhouse conditions, (2) determine whether computer-based concentrations from the two plant species when using dried fruits would be less phytotoxic and more suppressive to nematodes, (3) investigate application time intervals for the two products, (4) determine responses of plant growth in tomato and nematode suppression in respect to the derived dosages, and and (5) validate dosages of fermented crude extracts from the two plant species with respect to plant growth of tomato and suppression of nematode numbers. xxxiii Greenhouse, microplot and field studies were set to test the hypotheses intended to achieve the stated objectives, with reliability of measured variables being ensured by using statistical levels of significance (P ≤ 0.05) and coefficients of determination (R2), while validity was ensured by conducting experiments at the same location over two seasons and/or by setting up factorial treatments. Firstly, fermented plant extracts of fresh fruits from C. africanus and C. myriocarpus consistently reduced population densities of Meloidogyne species by 80-92% and 50-90%, respectively. Tomato plants were highly sensitive to the two products as shown by the total degree of sensitivities (Σk) and biological index of 0 and 3, respectively. Also, the mean concentration stimulation range (MCSR) of 11% and 7% concentrations, respectively, attested to this phytotoxicity. Secondly, fermented crude extracts of dried fruits from C. africanus and C. myriocarpus also reduced population densities of Meloidogyne species by 78-97% and 87-97%, respectively. Tomato plants were highly tolerant to the two products in dried form as shown by the total degree of sensitivities (Σk) and biological index of 4 and 3, respectively. The MCSR values for C. africanus and C. myriocarpus dried fruits on tomato were 2.64% and 2.99%, respectively, which for the purpose of this study were individually adjusted to 3%, which translated to 36 L undiluted material/ha of 4 000 tomato plants. In subsequent studies, 3% concentration was used as the standard, along with double strength concentration, namely, 6% concentration. Thirdly, the MCSR values derived in Objective 4, namely 3% and 6% concentration for both Cucumis species using the CARD model were used in the optimisation of application time interval using the innovative concept of weeks (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) in a 30-day month period. Application time interval for 3% and 6% concentrations of C. africanus fruits was xxxiv optimised at 2.40 and 2.61 weeks in a 30-day month period, respectively, which translated to 18 days [(2.4 weeks/4 weeks) × 30 days] and 20 days [(2.6 weeks/4 weeks) × 30 days], respectively. In contrast, for both concentrations from fermented crude extracts of C. myriocarpus fruits, application time interval was optimised at 16 days for 2.2 and 2.1 weeks, respectively. During optimisation of application frequencies, fermented crude extracts from C. africanus and C. myriocarpus reduced final population densities of M. incognita race 2 by 70-97% and 76-96%, respectively. Fourthly, optimum application intervals (time), allowed computation of dosage, which is a product of concentration and application frequency (dosage = concentration × application frequency). Fifthly, validation of the dosages under open field conditions suggested that 6% × 16-day dosage under crude extracts from C. myriocarpus fruit significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved growth of tomato plants when compared with those of either 0% (untreated control) or 3% at 16 days. In contrast, dosages of C. africanus fruit at two application frequency had no effect on growth of tomato plants – suggesting that either of the dosages was suitable for use in tomato production since both reduced nematode numbers. During validation, the materials reduced nematode numbers by margins similar to those observed previously under other environments. In conclusion, crude extracts of the two Cucumis species have stimulatory concentrations which have potential similar reductive effects on population densities of Meloidogyne species and could serve as botanical nematicides. However, since plant responses to the two products differed in terms of their respective dosages and active ingredients, it implied that for further improvement of the two, the overriding focus should be on their interaction with the protected plants and nematode numbers. Ideally, future research xxxv should include environmental impact studies, especially on the influence of the products fruit quality of tomato, earthworms, fish and bees.
Response to fenamiphos, extraction techniques and population dynamics of Pratylenchus penetrans on western Oregon red raspberryLolas, Mauricio 15 March 1991 (has links)
The effects of fenamiphos on soil and root populations of Pratylenchus penetrans were evaluated in four red raspberry cv. Willamette fields in Northwestern Oregon. Field 1 was a silty clay loam with 53% organic matter (OM). Field 2 and 3 were silty loam soils with 3.25 and 2.55% OM, respectively and field 4 was a silty clay with 7.1% OM. The nematicide, fenamiphos (10 kg a.i./ha) was applied in broadcast or band treatments on November 15, 1989. Additional plots in field 3, received a band-nematicide treatment on December 28, 1989 to evaluate the effect of application date on the control of P. penetrans in red raspberry. Field 4 had plots in sites with and without grass and weed ground cover in the aisles between raspberry rows to examine effects of ground cover on nematicide efficacy. Nematodes from soil and roots were sampled monthly from all plots in each field from October 1989 to October 1990. Soil populations of P. penetrans sampled within rows decreased between the October and December sampling dates in all four fields. Soil populations in 3 fields increased in density during mid-summer and reached their highest peak in the middle of September. A similar pattern occurred in P. penetrans soil populations from plots with or without ground cover in aisles between rows of raspberry in field 4. However, in this field, numbers increased in July and reached their peak density in August. Root populations of P. penetrans from red raspberry reached their highest number during spring and summer at all fields. No significant (P>0.05) differences in effectiveness of fenamiphos were detected between band and broadcast method of application and, also between the 2 application dates. Seasonal mean densities of soil populations from band application was only significantly lower than in nontreated controls in areas with ground cover in field 4, respectively. High variability in the numbers of P. penetrans in soil and roots of raspberry was observed throughout the year. Therefore, conclusions about the effectiveness of fenamiphos were difficult to assess. The efficiency of Baermann funnels was 43.9%, when a known number of P. penetrans was added to soil. Total yields of P. penetrans extracted from raspberry roots by mist chamber root extraction (MCRE) were higher (P = 0.05) than yields extracted by polyethylene plastic bag root incubation (PBRI). Approximately 90% of the total P. penetrans recovered was achieved after three and seven days of extraction for PBRI and MCRE, respectively. However, the extraction efficiency of MCRE was 30% higher than PBRI and the daily recovery lasted 28 and 18 days, respectively. / Graduation date: 1992
Population dynamics, extraction, and response to nematicide of three plant parasitic nematodes on peppermint (mentha piperita L.)Merrifield, Kathryn J. 04 June 1990 (has links)
The efficiencies of wet sieving/sucrose centrifugation (WS/SC) recovery of Pratylenchus penetrans (59 %), Paratylenchus sp., (80 %), and Criconemella xenoplax (66 %) were established. Baermann funnels (BF) recovered significantly more P. penetrans (p = 0.01) and significantly less (p = 0.01) C. xenoplax than did WS/SC. While densities of P. penetrans in stored soil remained constant over the three days following field sample collection, Paratylenchus sp. and C. xenoplax densities increased significantly on the second day and decreased to their original level on the third day. During mist chamber extraction, P. penetrans continued to emerge from peppermint root tissue for 38 days, but 90 % of the total was recovered after 10 days. The standard core, consisting of 500 g dry soil plus the roots and rhizomes in that soil, was developed to express endoparasitic and ectoparasitic nematode densities in peppermint field soil, roots, and rhizomes. Enumerating nematode densities within the different plantsoil components of a particular volume of soil more closely describes the total nematode population pressure on the plant growing in that volume of soil. Therefore, endoparasitic nematode population levels were expressed as numbers in standard core soil, roots, rhizomes, or total core (soil, root, and rhizome populations combined). P. penetrans populations in peppermint fields peaked in early May, decreased through the summer, peaked again in August, and decreased through the fall to a low winter level. Peaks in the P. penetrans population followed peppermint root weight peaks by 3 to 6 wks. Paratylenchus sp. populations remained at relatively low levels throughout the year except for a pronounced peak in August, which followed the root weight peak by 3 to 6 wks. The C. xenoplax population also peaked 3 to 6 wks after the August root weight peak but fluctuated markedly throughout the remainder of the year. From 70 to 90 % of the total P. penetrans population was in roots in early May, decreased to 40 to 50 % by late June and 20 to 40 % in August. Up to 20 % of the population was in rhizomes on some dates, but the rhizome percentage was usually less than 10. Fewer P. penetrans were recovered from rhizomes during the harsh winter of 1988-89 than during the mild winter of 1989-90. Analysis of point samples (pretreatment, posttreatment, and harvest samples) and area under nematode population curves (AUNPC) were used to compare nematode populations in oxamyl-treated (1.1 kg a.i./ha) and nontreated plots in two peppermint fields through the two growing seasons. Point sample analyses detected significant decreases in treated soil, root, and total standard core P. benetrans populations compared to nontreated populations in several pretreatment and harvest sample dates and in two rhizome harvest sample dates. No treatment differences were observed in Paratylenchus sp. or C. xenoplax populations using this analysis. AUNPC analysis detected significant decreases in several treated root and rhizome P. penetrans populations compared to nontreated populations and in total core populations in field 1 during one growing season and in field 2 during two growing seasons. Significant decreases in C. xenoplax populations were observed in one field during one growing season. Peppermint hay weight was significantly greater in treated than in nontreated plots in one of three fields in 1988 and in one of three fields during 1989. Oil in ml/kg fresh hay weight was significantly lower in treated than in nontreated plots in one of three fields during 1989. No treatment differences were detected in milliliters of oil distilled from 2m² field area. Peppermint oil production is the final measure of a treatment from a mint grower's perspective. Because oxamyl had no effect on mint oil production, AUNPC appears to be a better measure of parasitic nematode pressure on peppermint, since this method of analysis detected fewer significant differences between nematode populations between treated and non-treated plots. / Graduation date: 1991
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