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1 
Modified Generalized Sidelobe Canceller with Inverse QRDRLS AlgorithmChang, ChunLin 11 July 2003 (has links)
The conventional temporal filtering approach cannot be used to separate signal from interference which occupies the same temporal frequency band as signal. Using a spatial filtering at the receiver can separate signals from interference that originates from different spatial location. Many adaptive array beamforming algorithms, based on linear constraints, have been proposed for suppressing undesired interference and being applied to wireless communication systems for multiuser detection. The adaptive array system can be employed to automatically adjust its directional to achieve the purpose that nulls the interferences or jammers and thus, enhances the reception of the desired signal. Inverse QR Decomposition Recursive Leastsquare (IQRDRLS) algorithm has many advantages such as where the LS weight vector be computed without back substitution, a well known numerical stable algorithm and offering better convergence rate, steadystate meanssquare error, and parameter tracking capability over the adaptive least mean square (LMS) based algorithms. In this thesis, a new application, GSCIQRDRLS combining Generalized Sidelobe Canceller (GSC) and IQRDRLS algorithm, is developed. It preserves the advantages of GSC such as simple structure, less computations, and converts a linearly constrained optimization problem into a standard optimum filtering problem. But the performance is equivalent between GSCIQRDRLS and LCIQRDRLS algorithms.

2 
FPGA Software Design of Constrained Adaptive Inverse QRDRLS AlgorithmPan, AiRong 23 June 2004 (has links)
In this thesis, the multicarrier (MC) code division multiple access (CDMA) system in Rayleigh fading channel is considered. The system performance will be degraded due to multiple access interference (MAI) or background noise. It is know that linearly constrained inverse QRdecomposition (LCIQRD) recursive leastsquare algorithm can overcome the problems. The main concern of this thesis is to implement the circuit of LCIQRD algorithm. FPGA components and sets up a high efficient programmable hardware module. In this thesis, we implemented the circuit of LCIQRD algorithm via a chip of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with Verilog HDL.
The conventional IQRD circuit design employs systolic array architecture. The advantages of systolic array architecture include modularity and hardware simplicity. These properties are extremely desirable for VLSI implementation. In fact, we expect to reduce the execution time of the conventional IQRD algorithm circuit design. Therefore, in this thesis a modified IQRD circuit design is proposed to improve the effect of circuit implementation. It also has advantage of modularity and reduces the execution time. In order to degrade complexity of LCIQRD algorithm circuit design, the area and speed of circuit are the consideration in this thesis. The data source is produced by Matlab software. We verify the performance of the system in terms of BER (bit error rate) and SINR (signal to interference and noise ratio).Finally, LCIQRD algorithm circuit is realized in the Altera EP20k1500EFC33 chip and on the Quartus II of Altera. The algorithm circuit uses 51536 logic elements (LE) for 30 bits fixed point design.

3 
New Blind Constant Modulus Sliding Windows GSCRLS Algorithm for DSCDMA Receiver with Min/Max CriterionLuo, Yinchen 30 August 2007 (has links)
The code division multiple access (CDMA) system implemented by the directsequence (DS) spread spectrum (SS) technique is one of the most promising multiplexing technologies for the wireless communications services. The SS communication adopts a technique of using much wider bandwidth necessary to transmit the information over the channel, and has been proposed for third generation broadband wireless access. The capacity and performance of the DSCDMA system are mainly limited by the multiple access interference (MAI) and the intersymbolinterference (ISI) caused by the multipathfading channel. To circumvent the abovementioned problems many adaptive multiuser detectors, for instance the minimum mean square error (MMSE) and the minimum output energy (MOE) criteria, subject to certain constraints, have been proposed. Since the LCMV criterion is the linearly constrained (LC) version of MOE, it is high sensitivity to the channel mismatch caused by the unreliable estimation. In order to deal with this problem, the LC constant modulus (LCCM) criterion was considered to avoid capturing the interfering user instead of the desired user when the power of interfering user is much higher than the desired user.
In this thesis, based on the Min/Max criterion we propose a novel blind LCCM recursive leastsquare (RLS) algorithm, with the generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) structure, named as the CM GSCRLS algorithm, to effectively alleviate the effect of MAI and ISI for DSCDMA receiver, for timevarying channel. Due to the variation of channel at the receiver, the desired user amplitude or power is not available and has to be estimated. To solve this problem, we propose a simple scheme to estimate the parameter of constant modulus, adaptively, associated with the CM GSCRLS algorithm. With the new proposed algorithm, the amplitude variation of desired user, due to changing characteristics of channel, can be tracked, effectively. Thus, better performance achievement, in terms of output signaltointerferenceplusnoise ratio (SINR) and bit error rate (BER), over the conventional GSCRLS algorithms can be expected.

4 
Adaptive MCCDMA Receiver with Diagonal Loading Linearly Constrained RLS Algorithm for MAI Suppression.Yang, ShinCing 03 September 2005 (has links)
There are many novel techniques have been invented to provide highdata rate with high quality communication services for future wireless communications systems. Recently, a novel digital modulation technology for multiple accesses, referred to as the MultiCarrier Code Division Multiple Access (MCCDMA), has been proposed to support high data rate transmission; it is based on the combination of CDMA and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The MCCDMA has been shown to be an effective technique for combating multipath fading. With MCCDMA system, a user¡¦s spreading code can be modulated on separate subcarriers, undergo frequencyflat fading channel and offers frequency diversity advantage. But in a multiuser environment, othogonality among spreading codes is severely distorted due to multipath delay spread, such that the system capacity will be limited by the multiple access interferences (MAI). Similar situations exist due to possible narrowband interference (NBI) from other systems. Effective interference reduction will render system capacity to increase, which means interference suppression techniques are vital in improving overall system performance. In this thesis, we propose a new linearly constrained recursive least square algorithm, with diagonal loading approach, referred to as the DLLC RLS algorithms, to further improve the system performance. The proposed diagonal loading RLS algorithm is different from conventional diagonal loading RLS algorithm, in which the diagonal loading was used to improve the robustness to pointing errors in beamforming problem. However, in this thesis, the diagonal loading approach could be used to alleviate the effect due to multiple access interference (MAI), such that under certain circumstances, better performance could be achieved. Basically, in the proposed algorithm, the power of interference plus noise of received signal will be estimated and subtracted from the diagonal terms of the autocorrelation matrix of received signal. After that instead of using the original autocorrelation matrix, the new correlation matrix, with subtracting power related to the interference plus noise, will be involved during the adaptation processes for updating the weights of the multiuser detector. Finally, computer simulation results, in terms of bit error rate, are used to demonstrate the merits of the proposed scheme compared with the conventional RLS algorithm approach without using the diagonal approaches.

5 
WaveletBased Multiuser MCCDMA Receiver with Linearly Constrained Constant Modulus Inverse QRDRLS AlgorithmLiu, HsiaoChen 07 July 2002 (has links)
In this thesis, the problem of multiple access interference (MAI) suppression for the multicarrier (MC) code division multiple access (CDMA) system, based on the waveletbased (WB) multicarrier modulation, associated with the combining process is investigated for Rayleigh fading channel. The main concern of this thesis is to derive a new scheme, based on the linearly constrained constant modulus (LCCM) criterion with the robust inverse QR decomposition (IQRD) recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm to improve the performance of the conventional MCCDMA system with combining process. To verify the merits of the new algorithm, the effect due to imperfect channel parameters estimation and frequency offset are investigated.
We show that the proposed robust LCCM IQRDRLS algorithm outperforms the conventional LCCMgradient algorithm [6], in terms of output SINR, improvement percentage index (IPI), and bit error rate (BER) for MAI suppression under channel mismatch environment. Also, the performance of the WB MCCDMA system is superior to the one with conventional MCCDMA system. It is more robust to the channel mismatch and frequency offset. Moreover, the WB MCCDMA system with robust LCCM IQRDRLS algorithm does have better performance over other conventional approaches, such as the LCCMgradient algorithm, maximum ratio combining (MRC), blind adaptation algorithm and partitioned linear interference canceller (PLIC) approach with LMS algorithm, in terms of the capability of MAI suppression and bit error rate (BER).

6 
Compensation For Gain/Phase Imbalance And DC Offset At Quadrature Modulator And Demodulator With Adaptive Inverse QRDRLS AlgorithmHuang, ChunYing 08 July 2002 (has links)
There has been much effort in new design for transceiver used in mobile communications. The general approach is to combine RF functions with DSP to allow linear modulation techniques and permit flexibility of modulation format and receiver processing. In practice, with the quadrature modulation technique there is always some imbalance between the I and Q channels of modulator and demodulator. This is mainly due to finite tolerances of capacitor and resistor values used to implement the analog components. The unavoidable imbalance between the I and Q channels is known to degrade the performance of quadrature communication system.
The main concern of this thesis is to propose a new blind scheme and with fast convergence algorithm, such as the inverse QRDRLS algorithm, to deal with the problem described above for compensation in the transmitter and receiver. First, for the transmitter, the socalled adaptive estimation and compensation with power measurement implemented by the inverse QRDRLS algorithm is employed. While in the receiver, a new blind adaptive filtering approach of the nonlinear parameters estimation and compensation, along with the power measurement in the receiver, is devised to adaptively compensate for the gain/phase imbalance and DC offsets in a quadrature demodulator. Where the conventional inverse QRDRLS algorithm is employed for estimating the parameters of compensator, without using any reference signal transmitted from the transmitter. To document the merits of the proposed scheme, computer simulation for the coherent 16PSKcommunication system is carried out. With our proposed method a great improvement for eliminating the effects of the imbalance and offset over the existing techniques has verified. It has rapidly convergence rate and the smaller mean square error in steady state.

7 
Performance of the MCCDMA Receiver with the GSCIQRDRLS AlgorithmTu, JhenJi 04 July 2003 (has links)
Capacity of CDMA system is limited to interference due to other users. System performance is degraded by nearfar problem when undesired users are closer to base station. Beside, the channel parameters could not be estimated perfectly at receiver, refer to as mismatch problem, which would also degrade the system performance.
We would like to consider the MAI and nearfar interference cancellation by adaptive linear constraint algorithms to implement linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV) approach. To exploit the linearly constrained filtering, the structure of the generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) has been employed, where the constrained problem is converted into an unconstrained form with fewer parameters. GSC structure is an indirect but simpler implementation of LCMV algorithm. Moreover, it is also known that the constant modulus (CM) criteria has advantage to combat the channel mismatch, and the performance of the adaptive constraint algorithm based on CM criteria will be investigate.
In this thesis, we will derive a new GSCIQRDRLS algorithm to combat MAI and nearfar problems by combining LCIQRDRLS algorithm [1][5] and GSC structure [17]; and prove that the GSC and LC structures based IQRDRLS algorithms are equivalent, which means that the good performance of LCIQRDRLS algorithm can be achieved by a simpler GSC structure algorithm. We will also derive a new GSCCMIQRDRLS algorithm to improve the system performance under mismatch problem by combining CM criteria [20] and GSCIQRDRLS algorithm.

8 
Blind Adaptive MIMOCDMA Receiver with Constant Modulus Criterion in Multipath ChannelsChao, Posun 23 July 2008 (has links)
In recent years, demands on all kinds of wireless communications become heavier due to the developments of new services and devices. At the same time, future wireless networks are expected to provide services with high quality and data rate. A possible solution which can attain these objectives is wireless communication systems that use multipleinput multipleoutput (MIMO) antennas along with Alamouti¡¦s spacetime block code and directsequence code division multiple access (DSCDMA) modulation technique. In such systems, spatial diversity rendered by multiple antennas as well as coding in spatial and time domains are the keys to improve quality of transmission. Many multiuser detection techniques for the spacetime block coded CDMA systems have been investigated. In [8], the blind Capon receiver was proposed, which consists of a twobranch filterbank followed by the blind Capon channel estimator. The design of blind Capon receiver is based on linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) criterion, which is known to be sensitive to inaccuracies in the acquisition or tracking of the desired user's timing, referred to as mismatch effect. In other words, the LCMVbased receiver may perform undesirably under mismatch effect.
In this thesis, we propose a new blind adaptive MIMOCDMA receiver based on the linearly constrained constant modulus (LCCM) criterion. This work is motivated by the robustness of LCCM approach to the mismatch effect. To reduce the complexity of receiver design, framework of the generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) associated with the recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm is adopted for implementing the adaptive LCCM MIMOCDMA filterbank. Based on the GSCRLS structure, we derive the proposed MIMO CMGSCRLS algorithm. For the purpose of comparison, an adaptive implementation of the blind Capon receiver proposed in [8] is also derived, which is referred to as the MIMO MVGSCRLS algorithm. We note that the signal model in [8] was constructed under assumption of frequencyflat channels. To obtain a more practical and realistic signal model, in this thesis we extend the system and channel model by including multipath effects in the beginning of our work. In completing this extension, intersymbol interference (ISI) caused by the special coding scheme of STBC will be specifically analyzed. Finally, a full discussion of the multipath signal model will be provided, including necessity of truncating the received signals as well as modifications in the signal model when considering timevarying channels.
Via computer simulations, advantages of the proposed scheme will be verified. Compared to the conventional blind Capon receiver, we will show that the performance of the proposed CMGSCRLS algorithm is better. This is especially true when mismatch problem is considered in the MIMOCDMA systems of interest. The proposed scheme show more robustness against the mismatch effects than the conventional blind Capon receiver. Moreover, the benefit resulted by truncating the received signals is also demonstrated, especially for binary phaseshiftkeying (BPSK) modulated source symbol. Finally, simulations considering timevarying channels are provided to reveal that our proposed scheme can adapt itself to the timevarying environments appropriately.

9 
Modulated Model Predictive Control and Fault Diagnosis for the Cascaded HBridge (CHB) InvertersPan, Yue January 2023 (has links)
Multilevel inverters (MLI) have been widely applied in medium and high voltage applications for their advantages in high quality of output waveforms. Among various multilevel topologies, cascaded Hbridge (CHB) inverters have attracted more attentions for its modular structure, which simplifies the design and implementation. In addition, the modularity of CHB also expands diverse power ratings without many changes in the hardware setup. In a CHB inverter, the AC output voltage can be produced at different voltage levels depending on the number power cells that are cascaded at the output.
To produce the AC output voltage, different modulation schemes and control algorithms have been studied and applied to the CHB inverter. Model predictive control (MPC) has been widely employed among all control algorithms in multilevel topologies due to their advantages such as good dynamic performance, multiple control targets, inclusion of nonlinearity, and flexibility to add more performance objectives. However, one disadvantage of the MPC is that the switching frequency is variable compared with other modulation schemes. Therefore, a new MPC method called modulated model predictive control (M2PC) has been researched to obtain a fixed switching frequency, which improves the harmonic spectrum of load currents and simplifies the filter design.
In the modulated model predictive control, the mathematical model is obtained by electrical model of the system. It means that the operation of the M2PC algorithm relies on the accuracy of the given parameters and model. If there is an error in parameters and model, the performance of the control will be affected negatively. To solve this problem, modulated modelfree predictive control (M2FPC) algorithm has been introduced. With this method, the mathematical model is established with measured values instead of given values and model.
Reliability is one of the most important issues in the design of power converters. However, the failure of power switches will lead to the distortion of load currents and voltage waveforms. Also, the distortion in load currents and voltage waveforms causes power imbalance between faulty and healthy phases. To reduce the negative effects of IGBT failure in power converters, the faulty power cells should be found and isolated. Therefore, fault detection and localization algorithm (FDL) should be introduced to detect the fault in power converters and localize the faulty power switches.
FDL algorithm based on the given M2PC scheme is proposed in this thesis for the CHB inverter to make the system more reliable. The FDL algorithm utilizes the phase voltages and load currents to detect the open fault in the CHB inverter and localize the single and multiple open switches by measuring the expected and actual phase voltages. With the faulty information, the faulty power cell can be isolated, and the faulttolerant control can be applied to make the system work normally even though there is an open fault.
In this thesis, without losing the generality, a sevenlevel CHB inverter is considered where there are three power cells in each phase. The M2PC algorithm was introduced to obtain the fixed switching frequency with the design of possible voltage vector set and carrier phaseshifting modulation. Based on the proposed M2PC algorithm, the FDL algorithm is designed to detect and localize the open switches to improve the system reliability.
The theoretical analysis and simulation results validate the feasibility of the proposed M2PC algorithms and open fault diagnosis scheme. All possible opencircuit scenarios in power cells are discussed and the M2PCbased FDL algorithm has been verified.
Experimental results verify the feasibility of the proposed M2PC. The experimental result of M2PC algorithm is presented to verify its operation. Also, diverse open scenarios can be diagnosed in the experiments. / Thesis / Master of Applied Science (MASc)

10 
Blind Adaptive DSCDMA Receivers with Sliding Window Constant Modulus GSCRLS Algorithm Based on Min/Max Criterion for TimeVariant ChannelsChang, Shihchi 26 July 2006 (has links)
The code division multiple access (CDMA) system implemented by the directsequence (DS) spread spectrum (SS) technique is one of the most promising multiplexing technologies for wireless communications services. The SS communication adopts a technique of using much wider bandwidth necessary to transmit the information over the channel. In the DSCDMA system, due to the inherent structure interference, referred to as the multiple access interference (MAI), the system performance might degrade. Next, for DSCDMA systems over frequencyselective fading channels, the effect of inter symbol interference (ISI) will exist, such that a multiuser RAKE receiver has to be employed to combat the ISI as well as MAI. Since, in practical wireless communication environment, there may have several communication systems operated in the same area at the same time. In this thesis, we consider the environment of DSCDMA systems, where the asynchronous narrow band interference (NBI) due to other systems is joined suddenly to the CDMA system. In general, when a system works in a stable state with adaptive detectors, a suddenly joined NBI signal will cause the system performance to be crash down. Under such circumstance, the existing conventional adaptive RAKE detectors may not be able to track well for the rapidly sudden changing NBI associated with the problems of ISI and MAI.
It is known that the adaptive filtering algorithms, based on the sliding window linear constrained recursive least squares (SW LCRLS), is very attractive to a violent changing environment. The main concern of this thesis is to propose a novel sliding window constant modulus RLS (SW CMRLS) algorithm, based on the Min/max criterion, to deal with the NBI for DSCDMA system over multipath channels. For simplicity and having less system complexity the generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) structure is employed, and is referred to as the SW CMGSCRLS algorithm. The aim of the SW CMGSCRLS algorithm is used to alleviate the effect of NBI. It has the advantages of having faster convergence property and tracking ability, and can be applied to the environment in which the NBI is suddenly joined to the system under the effect of channel mismatch to achieve desired performance. At the end of this thesis, we extend the idea of the proposed algorithm to the spacetime DSCDMA RAKE receiver, in which the adaptive beamformer with temporal domain DSCDMA receiver is employed. Via computer simulation results, we show that our new proposed schemes outperform the conventional CM GSCRLS algorithm as well as the GSCRLS algorithm (the socalled LCMV approach), in terms of mean square error of estimating channel impulse response, output signal to interference plus noise ratio and biterrorrate.

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