SUNG, Hung Mui
01 January 2005
"South Asians" is usually an inclusive term to refer to ethnic minorities originating from countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Despite the apparent concern with “South Asians” in Hong Kong society in recent years, such as pushing for legislation against racial discrimination and initiating social and educational programmes to help these minorities to better integrate into Hong Kong society, attention to irreducible cultural differences constituting their heterogeneity is still largely lacking. The thesis intends to take up the question of the South Asian minorities in the context of post-1997 Hong Kong. By looking at their everyday struggles in political, linguistic and cultural realms, the thesis tries to understand three key questions - first, how “South Asians” as a minority assert their political and democratic rights and practice their citizenship in the socio-political realm; second, how the cultural identities of ethnic minority children in their formative years are shaped by the tensions between the formal institutional schooling and language policies on the one hand, and traditions, religions, customs and bonding of neighborhood living in their communities on the other hand; third, how “South Asians” are portrayed as the other in the mainstream representation such as cinema and newspapers, despite the rising awareness against discrimination. The thesis seeks to challenge the ways mainstream Hong Kong Chinese represent these minorities and critique the deep cultural bias of racism and discrimination that prevent the fundamental opening up to the heterogeneity of the Other.
01 January 2006
Hitler had an ideology that contributed significantly to creating a foundation for the Holocaust. Hitler created and preached a specific ideology regarding race and the purification of the Aryan race within his political program. This study examines Hitler's speeches and writings to articulate his racial ideology and asserts that the Nazis had a specific belief system that they used to deal with the "Jewish Question." The Nazi party based their policies on the ideas expressed in Hitler's writings. Throughout his career, Hitler's writings consistently expressed his feelings about the Jews. Early in his career, while still in the army he wrote a letter concerning the "Jewish Question." He continued writing about his ideas concerning race in Mein Kampf. Hitler expressed his ideology, before he became chancellor of Germany and continued throughout his political career in his speeches. Thus, this research examining his writings and speeches shows that Hitler held strong beliefs, which he professed to his followers and laid the foundations for the actions of the German people and others in the Holocaust.
Estes, Davis A
01 January 2015
Utilizing data from the United States Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities (SISCF) 2004, this research investigates the possibility that African American drug offenders receive lengthier prison sentences and are imposed more range of time or indeterminate sentences as opposed to flat sentences based on race and/or non-racial characteristics; specifically parole status prior to sentencing, plea agreement status, prior criminal history, education status prior to arrest, employment status prior to arrest, and parental incarceration. While regression analysis revealed racial sentencing disparity for length of sentence and type of sentence (p< .05 and p< .001 respectively), among non-racial characteristics, only education status prior to arrest proved a significant predictor for length of sentence (p≤ .001). African American drug offenders were more likely sentenced to indeterminate sentences as opposed to flat sentences and were less likely to receive short sentences of 0 to 4 years or medium sentences of 4 to 10 years as compared to long sentences of 10 or more years. Potential research implications include the necessity for additional research regarding racial sentencing disparity as length or type of sentences as opposed to disparity as a numerical or a percentage difference between racial groups as well as the utilizing of inmate data that encompasses recent changes in drug sentencing laws, e.g. crack cocaine versus powder cocaine. Future research might also consider the evolution of marijuana laws in the United States and the potential impact on racial sentencing disparity.
01 July 2000
The influence of authoritarianism, social dominance, and ingroup identification on ingroup favoritism and outgroup discrimination in a minimal group paradigm were investigated in this study. Possible effects of majority and minority group size interactions with these constructs were also examined. It has been previously shown that right-wing authoritarianism (Altemeyer, 1981) and social dominance orientation (Pratto, Sidanius, Stallworth, & Malle, 1994) influence ingroup favoritism and outgroup discrimination in Tajfel's (1978) minimal group paradigm (McFarland & Ageyev, 1992; Perrault & Bourhis, 1999; Sidanius, Pratto, & Mitchell, 1994). Majority and minority group status also influence behavior in minimal groups (Gerard & Hoyt, 1974; Otten, Mummendey, & Blanz, 1996; Sachdev & Bourhis, 1984; Simon & Brown, 1987). Based on motivational differences between authoritarianism and social dominance, individuals higher in authoritarianism were expected to display greater ingroup favoritism than those lower in authoritarianism, regardless of group size. Social dominance was expected to interact with group size such that individuals higher on this dimension in minority groups would identify less with the ingroup, as opposed to those in majority groups who would identify more, and display less favoritism toward the ingroup than those in majority groups. To create minimal groups, participants completed an estimation task and were told that their scores indicated they were either "overestimators" or "underestimators." Three conditions were established: Neutral (group size was unspecified), majority (one group was identified as being numerically large), and minority (one group was identified as being numerically small). Trait ratings (Thompson & Crocker, 1990) and Tajfel's (1978) resource allocation task were used to measure ingroup favoritism. Participants overall displayed ingroup favoritism on both dependent measures, although parity was used most on the Tajfel (1978) matrices. Neither authoritarianism, social dominance, nor any interaction between these constructs and group size significantly affected trait ratings. On the matrices, authoritarianism led to favoritism on only one of the six pull scores and did not interact with group size. Social dominance led those in the neutral condition to display greater ingroup favoritism. Contrary to predictions, social dominance led those in majority groups to select parity over favoritism, but did not affect those in minority groups. Finally, ingroup identification mediated the relationship between social dominance and ingroup favoritism on the trait ratings for those in neutral and minority groups, though not in the predicted direction. Those in minority groups gave more positive trait ratings to the ingroup rather than to the majority outgroup as their identification with the ingroup increased.
A Survey of Minority Students Who Use Retention Program Services at a Predominantly White InstitutionLuney, Jamalya 01 August 2000 (has links)
This researcher seeks to examine the characteristics of those minority students, at a Predominantly White Institution (PWI), who frequently use retention program services versus those who do not frequently use retention program services. Frequent use of retention program was considered to be every other week or more. Infrequent user of retention program was considered once a month or less often. Data analysis revealed many similarities between the groups relating to grade point average (GPA), marital status, and housing status. Despite the similarities between the groups, there were some differences, although not significant. The mean age of the frequent users was two years older than the infrequent users. The frequent users also scored higher on the American College Test (ACT) and on the "Desire to Succeed" Scale (t (57) = 2.61,^ < .05) than the infrequent users. However, the GPA's between the groups were commensurate despite one group's frequent use of retention programs. Other differences were noted in circle of friends both in high school and college and level of academic preparedness from high school. Further areas of research and limitations were discussed.
A Quest for Common Ground: Communication Factors Among Latino Patients, Medical Practitioners and Interpreters in the Daviess County, Kentucky AreaMerkel-Finley, Sandra 01 December 2000 (has links)
Statistical evaluation of the number of Hispanics in the United States in a given year varies. However, all data suggest that the Hispanic population will become the largest ethnic minority in the United States in the new millennium. This research illuminates for health care providers and interpreters cultural factors to consider in the delivery of patient-centered and efficacious care for the ethnic patient, specifically the Latino. The research project answered the question What culture-related factors impact effective communication between Mexican patients and American medical nurses in the Daviess County, Kentucky area? The project focused on the interpersonal aspects of culture and communication that occurred during the communication process of sharing ideas, information, and feelings. Previous studies focused on health care communication cast in the traditions of medicine, psychology and sociology. This project adds research results to a communication process described by clinically based medical journals that only anecdotally refer to communication patterns and concepts. Cultural background may give insight into why and how patients and their family make decisions related to care. By recognizing personal philosophy, values, biases, attitudes and religious beliefs, which are based on culture, a person can facilitate effective communication. This data provides medical practitioners and interpreters insight into the cultural, medical, and communication concepts and characteristics that exist among the Latino patients, the interpreter and themselves. Through this understanding the health care professionals may gain practical application to provide better care and service to Latino patients, enhanced patient compliance, and possibly awareness about themselves and their own worldview. The research provides additional support to Edward Hall's theory that states that the way people act and react during communication is based on past experiences and cultural beliefs. This study, conducted at a local health department, utilized a questionnaire and participant observation based on a new cultural paradigm. The paradigm combines parts of the frameworks established by Harris and Moran (1996) and Kielich and Miller (1996): orientation (ethnic identity), religion, time orientation, relationships (gender, age, status...), language (verbal and nonverbal), education, values and norms, and beliefs and attitudes (especially toward health). The questions also added another component, acculturation. The design involved a written questionnaire for the nurses who provided care through the Green River District Health Department, a written questionnaire in the native language of the Latino patient, a written questionnaire for the interpreter, and participant observation of the medical examination. The research methodology controlled for variability by including only native-born Mexican patients. The project focused on one particular ethnicity with three interpreters and five Mexican patients. This study indicates that several cultural factors impact communication among Latino patients and American medical practitioners. Overcoming the language barrier should be the first step in diminishing the communication gap. However, cultural aspects of communication outlined in the research need addressing to achieve intercultural communication success. The data reveals new ideas for intercultural communication research in the areas of medicine. By combining the disciplines perhaps a better product will be developed—a synergistic approach to health care communication.
01 August 1999
Using an existential perspective, the researcher investigated the world views of 155 people divided first by ethnic group and then (n = 144) by generation. African Americans and White Americans, Baby Boomers and Generation Xers completed the Scale to Assess World Views (Ibrahim & Owen, 1994) at a grocery store in the Midwest. Results indicate significant differences between African Americans and White Americans on the Pessimistic, Traditional, and Here and Now world views but no difference in rank order. Coefficient alphas for the subscales ranged from (.42) to (.67) with an overall value of (.82) for the scale. A confirmatory factor analysis was also calculated for the scale. The potential applications for therapeutic relationships are discussed.
A Survey of Black Student Perceptions and Attitudes on the Utilization of Academic Retention ProgramsWillams, Beora 01 December 1996 (has links)
In this study I examine the perceptions and attitudes of black students attending a predominantly white institution (PWI) concerning student support services designed to assist them in achieving social and academic success. PWIs have established minority retention programs with an overall mission of recruiting and retaining black students; however, program use is minimal and black students continue to depart college prematurely. This research seeks to assess the perceptions and attitudes of black students to determine if program ambiguity, lack of faculty involvement or available mentoring, campus affiliation, racism, or time taken away from academic pursuits has a role in whether or not students will utilize minority retention programs. The data analysis revealed that students felt there was a need for better marketing of minority retention programs. A large number of students were working 20 or more hours per week limiting the amount of time for academic activities. Perceptions of the racial climate indicate the existence of discrimination, but it was not viewed as adversely affecting black students' educational experience. However, black students perceived the university as not fulfilling its social and cultural needs as the majority of respondents tended to socialize among themselves. Perceptions about faculty involvement indicate that most of the respondents had limited contact and interactions with minority faculty, and the majority indicated the need for more accessibility to minority faculty.
01 August 1995
Although sexual harassment has received a considerable amount of publicity since the Clarence Thomas confirmation hearings, current literature lacks an abundance of studies examining the outcome of sexual harassment cases. The researcher sought to examine the effect of an extralegal (legally irrelevant) factor and the amount of evidence on jury decision making. Specifically, the race of the defendant served as the extralegal factor, while the amount of evidence presented was determined in relation to how many variables (0, 2, or 4 sources of evidence) were included in a particular sexual harassment scenario. (The four variables used were: the presence of an eyewitness, the victim's reaction, the use of coercion, and the type/form of sexual harassment.) Accordingly, a 2 x 3 design was used: race of defendant (black or white) and number of variables (0 variables or 2 variables or 4 variables). The sample consisted of 475 college students, and results showed that the amount of evidence played a crucial role in jury decision-making. Specifically, as the amount of evidence increased, the tendency of the juror to find the defendant guilty increased as well. Contrary to what the author proposed, it was also found that the white defendant received significantly more guilty verdicts than the black defendant when less evidence was presented. Basis for the findings are discussed, and practical implications and future research directions are offered.
Factors Influencing Career Choices of African Americans in Academia: A Study of Members of the Black Caucus of the Speech Communication AssociationThornton, Carrie 01 August 1994 (has links)
The purpose of this thesis is to study the influence of social, economic, occupational, cultural, educational, and demographic factors among African American communication professionals on their career choices. A quantitative research design was chosen for this research. The 300-member Black Caucus of the Speech Communication Association was chosen as the survey population. Each member was mailed a 17-item questionnaire. Of the 141 members who responded, 83 were African American; their responses were used in all data analyses. The major findings of this study are the following: (1) interest in or knowledge of the communication field was a significantly more important influence than job security, prestige, financial benefits, or social interaction with peers; (2) two-parent households increase the likelihood of success in college thereby increasing the likelihood of African American students choosing college teaching as a career; (3) African American role models and mentors have a strong influence on African American students and their career choices.
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