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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Comparison of DNA sequence assembly algorithms using mixed data sources

Bamidele-Abegunde, Tejumoluwa 15 April 2010
DNA sequence assembly is one of the fundamental areas of bioinformatics. It involves the correct formation of a genome sequence from its DNA fragments ("reads") by aligning and merging the fragments. There are different sequencing technologies -- some support long DNA reads and the others, shorter DNA reads. There are sequence assembly programs specifically designed for these different types of raw sequencing data.<p> This work explores and experiments with these different types of assembly software in order to compare their performance on the type of data for which they were designed, as well as their performance on data for which they were not designed, and on mixed data. Such results are useful for establishing good procedures and tools for sequence assembly in the current genomic environment where read data of different lengths are available. This work also investigates the effect of the presence or absence of quality information on the results produced by sequence assemblers.<p> Five strategies were used in this research for assembling mixed data sets and the testing was done using a collection of real and artificial data sets for six bacterial organisms. The results show that there is a broad range in the ability of some DNA sequence assemblers to handle data from various sequencing technologies, especially data other than the kind they were designed for. For example, the long-read assemblers PHRAP and MIRA produced good results from assembling 454 data. The results also show the importance of having an effective methodology for assembling mixed data sets. It was found that combining contiguous sequences obtained from short-read assemblers with long DNA reads, and then assembling this combination using long-read assemblers was the most appropriate approach for assembling mixed short and long reads. It was found that the results from assembling the mixed data sets were better than the results obtained from separately assembling individual data from the different sequencing technologies. DNA sequence assemblers which do not depend on the availability of quality information were used to test the effect of the presence of quality values when assembling data. The results show that regardless of the availability of quality information, good results were produced in most of the assemblies.<p> In more general terms, this work shows that the approach or methodology used to assemble DNA sequences from mixed data sources makes a lot of difference in the type of results obtained, and that a good choice of methodology can help reduce the amount of effort spent on a DNA sequence assembly project.
2

Comparison of DNA sequence assembly algorithms using mixed data sources

Bamidele-Abegunde, Tejumoluwa 15 April 2010 (has links)
DNA sequence assembly is one of the fundamental areas of bioinformatics. It involves the correct formation of a genome sequence from its DNA fragments ("reads") by aligning and merging the fragments. There are different sequencing technologies -- some support long DNA reads and the others, shorter DNA reads. There are sequence assembly programs specifically designed for these different types of raw sequencing data.<p> This work explores and experiments with these different types of assembly software in order to compare their performance on the type of data for which they were designed, as well as their performance on data for which they were not designed, and on mixed data. Such results are useful for establishing good procedures and tools for sequence assembly in the current genomic environment where read data of different lengths are available. This work also investigates the effect of the presence or absence of quality information on the results produced by sequence assemblers.<p> Five strategies were used in this research for assembling mixed data sets and the testing was done using a collection of real and artificial data sets for six bacterial organisms. The results show that there is a broad range in the ability of some DNA sequence assemblers to handle data from various sequencing technologies, especially data other than the kind they were designed for. For example, the long-read assemblers PHRAP and MIRA produced good results from assembling 454 data. The results also show the importance of having an effective methodology for assembling mixed data sets. It was found that combining contiguous sequences obtained from short-read assemblers with long DNA reads, and then assembling this combination using long-read assemblers was the most appropriate approach for assembling mixed short and long reads. It was found that the results from assembling the mixed data sets were better than the results obtained from separately assembling individual data from the different sequencing technologies. DNA sequence assemblers which do not depend on the availability of quality information were used to test the effect of the presence of quality values when assembling data. The results show that regardless of the availability of quality information, good results were produced in most of the assemblies.<p> In more general terms, this work shows that the approach or methodology used to assemble DNA sequences from mixed data sources makes a lot of difference in the type of results obtained, and that a good choice of methodology can help reduce the amount of effort spent on a DNA sequence assembly project.
3

Padronização da genotipagem da variante G202A da G6PD A- análise comparativa da relação custo-benefício entre TETRA-ARMS e sequenciamento Sanger /

Takara, Alexandre Hideaki January 2018 (has links)
Orientador: Paulo Eduardo Martins Ribolla / Resumo: A deficiência da enzima Glicose-6-Fosfato Desidrogenase (G6PD) é uma anormalidade genética de alta prevalência populacional que resulta em uma menor reatividade do sistema de óxido-redução eritrocitário, geralmente sem repercussões clínicas; estima-se que mais de 300 milhões de pessoas são portadoras dessa alteração. A enzima é expressa em todos os tecidos e catalisa a primeira etapa da Via das Pentoses. Nas hemácias, essa via é de fundamental importância na manutenção do equilíbrio de seu estado redox e a deficiência dessa enzima pode favorecer eventos hemolíticos agudos e crônicos; e em recém nascidos, pode contribuir para o agravamento da icterícia neonatal. O diagnóstico da deficiência baseia-se na atividade enzimática, identificada através de testes quantitativos e qualitativos. Os testes qualitativos limitam-se a agrupar indivíduos em “deficientes” e “não deficientes”, já os métodos quantitativos são mais precisos na inferência dessa atividade. Estas técnicas podem necessitar de repetições dos testes para confirmação de resultados incongruentes. Por outro lado, a variante genética responsável pela deficiência pode ser precisamente reconhecida através de testes de diagnóstico molecular. O presente projeto tem como objetivo desenvolver uma metodologia de identificação molecular da variante G202A, frequentemente encontrada na população brasileira, e realizar uma comparação do custo-benefício com a metodologia de sequenciamento de Sanger. Ao todo, foram analisadas 107 amost... (Resumo completo, clicar acesso eletrônico abaixo) / Abstract: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is a metabolic enzymatic defect affecting 300 million people worldwide. The enzyme is present in all tissues and catalyses the first reaction in the Pentose Phosphate pathway responsible for maintaining the redox equilibrium in red blood cell. Deficient enzyme may lead to acute and chronic haemolytic anaemia and neonatal jaundice. Diagnosis for G6PD deficiency is based on biochemical quantitative or qualitative tests. Qualitative tests only classifies subjects as “deficient” or “non-deficient”, while quantitative tests are more precise, however both biochemical approches need a confirmative assay to confirm ambiguous results. On the other hand molecular identification for the molecular variants are more accurate and precise. We developed a new molecular assay to identify the G202A molecular variant present at high frequency on Brazilian population and comparer it to Sanger sequencing. One hundred and seven peripheral blood sample were collected on filter paper. DNA extraction were performed followed by G6PD exon 4 amplification and sequencing. On-line tool “Primer1” generated allele-specific primers for TETRA-ARMS genotyping. Twenty two subjects were deficient homozygote, eighty four wild homozygote and one heterozygote. All subjects genotype were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. TETRA-ARMS costs per reaction is three times lower than Sanger sequencing. We conclude that TETRA-ARMS is a suitable protocol to detect G202A mutation on h... (Complete abstract click electronic access below) / Mestre
4

Characterisation of EGFR and KRAS mutations in non-small cell lung cancer

Martinsson, Caroline January 2010 (has links)
Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death and one of the most common cancer types worldwide. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to be an important therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer. Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue (KRAS) is a downstream signalling molecule in the EGFR pathway. Lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations respond to tyrosine EGFR inhibitor therapy, in contrast, patients with KRAS mutations do not benefit of such treatment. Methods: This study investigates the frequency of EGFR and KRAS mutations in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Fifty-one lung cancer patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer diagnosed between 1995 and 2005 in the Uppsala-Örebro region were analysed by Sanger sequencing and Pyrosequencing to determine the mutation status of these genes. Results: Five EGFR mutations were found in four patients (8%), two deletions in exon 19, one point mutation in exon 20 and two point mutations in exon 21. KRAS mutations were found in 12 patients (24%), ten codon 12 mutations and two codon 61 mutations. Conclusions: This study confirms previous observations regarding the frequency of EGFR and KRAS mutations in non-small cell lung cancer. Mutations in EGFR and KRAS were mutually exclusive, indicating that both mutations present relevant tumorigenic genomic aberrations.
5

Characterisation of <em>EGFR and <em>KRAS mutations in non-small cell lung cancer</em></em>

Martinsson, Caroline January 2010 (has links)
<p><strong>Background: </strong>Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death and one of the most common cancer types worldwide. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to be an important therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer. Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue (KRAS) is a downstream signalling molecule in the EGFR pathway. Lung cancer patients with <em>EGFR </em>mutations respond to tyrosine EGFR inhibitor therapy, in contrast, patients with <em>KRAS </em>mutations do not benefit of such treatment.</p><p><strong>Methods: </strong>This study investigates the frequency of <em>EGFR </em>and <em>KRAS </em>mutations in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Fifty-one lung cancer patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer diagnosed between 1995 and 2005 in the Uppsala-Örebro region were analysed by Sanger sequencing and Pyrosequencing to determine the mutation status of these genes.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>Five <em>EGFR </em>mutations were found in four patients (8%), two deletions in exon 19, one point mutation in exon 20 and two point mutations in exon 21. <em>KRAS </em>mutations were found in 12 patients (24%), ten codon 12 mutations and two codon 61 mutations.</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>This study confirms previous observations regarding the frequency of <em>EGFR </em>and <em>KRAS </em>mutations in non-small cell lung cancer. Mutations in <em>EGFR </em>and <em>KRAS </em>were mutually exclusive, indicating that both mutations present relevant tumorigenic genomic aberrations.</p>
6

Zavedení nových metod pro studium molekulárně genetické podstaty onemocnění CADASIL / Implementation of New Methods for Studying the Molecular Genetic Basis of the CADASIL Disease

Hrubá, Monika January 2017 (has links)
CADASIL is a neurodegenerative autosomal dominant hereditary disease with late onset. Main symptoms are migraines with aura, cerebral ischemic events, cognitive impairment and dementia. The disease is caused by a mutation in the NOTCH3 gene. The major mutation type changes the number of cysteine residues in the EGF-like repeats of the Notch3 protein. In Czech Republic, currently used methods for molecular genetic analysis of the CADASIL disease are Sanger sequencing and MLPA. But there are patients with CADASIL-like symptoms who were not confirmed by these methods. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to implement transcript analysis by Sanger sequencing of cDNA PCR products and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to analyze gross deletions and duplications to clarify the molecular genetic basis of the disease. By transcript analysis, the existence of the transcript variant X1 was experimentally confirmed in control samples. Moreover, the results from transcript analysis showed that non-typical missense mutation c.1725G>A (p.T575=) which does not directly change the number of cysteine residues, can cause the CADASIL disease via missplicing and subsequent causing deletion including cysteine residues. The other tested variants did not show any changes in the transcript level. The qPCR method did not...
7

Prognostic stratification for IDH-wild-type lower-grade astrocytoma by Sanger sequencing and copy-number alteration analysis with MLPA / サンガーシークエンスとMLPAを用いたコピー数変異解析でIDH野生型低悪性度星細胞腫の予後を層別化できる

Makino, Yasuhide 23 March 2022 (has links)
京都大学 / 新制・課程博士 / 博士(医学) / 甲第23780号 / 医博第4826号 / 新制||医||1057(附属図書館) / 京都大学大学院医学研究科医学専攻 / (主査)教授 村川 泰裕, 教授 武藤 学, 教授 滝田 順子 / 学位規則第4条第1項該当 / Doctor of Medical Science / Kyoto University / DFAM
8

Pollen identification using sequencing techniques

Kaur, Bimaljeet January 2022 (has links)
Palynology or the study of pollen, is essential understand the relationship between plants and their pollinators. Traditionally, pollen grains are identified by microscopy. The method has several shortcomings, such as being time-consuming and having low taxonomic resolution. DNA-barcoding-based sequencing can identify pollen at the genus and species levels without specialized paleontological expertise. Aim of this study is to assess which molecular approach can be the most effective tool and is the most cost-effective for the identification of pollen from mixed pollen samples. A DNA metabarcoding study was conducted using the rbcL barcode gene for pollen identification using two sequencing techniques: Sanger and MinION. DNA metabarcoding produced taxonomic data easily. For the analysis of Sanger and MinION sequencing data, BLAST and KRAKEN2 were used respectively. Pavian and KRONA were later used to visualize the MinION sequencing data. Various plant species native to Sweden were identified with this metabarcoding approach. However, the reference database failed to identify a few of them, thus indicating the need to expand the reference database.
9

Identification of the tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Rickettsia in Swedish ticks : Investigation of transovarial transmission and co-infection

Jönsson, Johanna January 2016 (has links)
Globally, vector borne diseases cause more than a million deaths each year and more than a billion infections in humans. Ticks are of big medicinal importance since they can transmit pathogens that can cause serious infections. Some recently discovered pathogens that can cause infections in humans are Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum) that can cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (N. mikurensis) that can cause Neoehrlichiosis. It is still widely unknown how prevalent these pathogens are, if ticks can be infected with both of these pathogens and if these pathogens can be transovarially transmitted from adult female to egg and larvae. This study aims to screen for these pathogens in collected ticks from southern Sweden and to detect eventual co-infections and transovarial transmission. A real-time qPCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene of N. mikurensis and other Anaplasmataceae was applied on 1356 Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus) ticks collected from 5 sites in southern Sweden. Positive samples were subjected to Sanger sequencing. A. phagocytophilum occurred in 4.64 % of the ticks, N. mikurensis occurred in 1.33 % of the ticks and also Rickettsia was found to occur in 6.27 % of the ticks. No co-infection was detected. Some samples of tick larvae showed positive results after qPCR, indicating transovarial transmission, but none of the sequences were readable.
10

Genetic Aspects of Endocrine Tumorigenesis : A Hunt for the Endocrine Neoplasia Gene

Delgado Verdugo, Alberto January 2014 (has links)
Endocrine tumors arise from endocrine glands. Most endocrine tumors are benign but malignant variants exist. Several endocrine neoplasms display loss of parts of chromosome 11 or 18, produce hormones and responds poorly to conventional chemotherapeutics. The multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes are mainly confined to endocrine tumors. This opens the question if there exists a single or several endocrine tumor genes. The aim of the study was to describe genetic derangements in endocrine tumors. Paper I: Investigation of mutational status of SDHAF2 in parathyroid tumors. SDHAF2 is located in the proximity of 11q13, a region that frequently displays loss in parathyroid tumors. We established that mutations in SDHAF2 are infrequent in parathyroid tumors. Paper II: Study of SDHAF2 gene expression in a cohort of benign pheochromocytomas (PCC) (n=40) and malignant PCC (n=10). We discovered a subset of  benign PCC (28/40) and all malignant PCC (10/10) with significantly lower SDHAF2 expression. Benign PCC with low SDHAF2 expression and malignant tumors consistently expressing low levels of SDHAF2 were methylated in the promoter region. SDHAF2 expression was restored in vitro after treatment with 5- aza-2-deoxycytidine. Paper III: HumanMethylation27 array (Illumina) covering 27578 CpG sites spanning over 14495 genes were analyzed in a discovery cohort of 10 primary small neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) with matched metastases. 2697 genes showed different methylation pattern between the primary tumor and its metastasis. We identified several hypermethylated genes in key regions. Unsupervised clustering of the tumors identified three distinct clusters, one with a highly malignant behavior. Paper IV: Loss of chromosome 18 is the most frequent genetic aberration in SI-NETs. DNA from SI-NETs were subjected to whole exome capture sequencing and high resolution SNP array. Genomic profiling revealed loss of chromosome 18 in 5 out of 7 SI-NETs. No tumor-specific somatic mutation on chromosome 18 was identified which suggests involvement of other mechanisms than point mutations in SI-NET tumorigenesis. Paper V: The cost for diagnostic genetic screening of common susceptibility genes in PCC is expensive and labor intensive. Three PCC from three patients with no known family history were chosen for exome capture sequencing. We identified three variants in known candidate genes. We suggest that exome-capture sequencing is a quick and cost-effective tool.

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