Goliath, Jasmine Estonia
Entrepreneurship as a source of economic growth and competitiveness as well as job creation and the advancement of social interests is well documented. Despite these important contributions to the economies of countries, a shortage of entrepreneurial activity exists across borders and specifically in developing countries such as South Africa. The purpose of this study was to determine the perception and image of an entrepreneur in the eyes of various stakeholders. The reasoning behind this was that if the image of an entrepreneur could be determined, one could establish whether the image positively or negatively influences entrepreneurial intentions as well as potential future entrepreneurial activity. More specifically, the primary objective was to identify the perception and image that potential entrepreneurs (students) and existing entrepreneurs (small business owners) have of an entrepreneur. In the body of knowledge or general literature on entrepreneurship, the most commonly discussed topics are the nature and importance of entrepreneurship, the attributes (personality traits, characteristics and skills) associated with an entrepreneur, various push and pull factors, various rewards and drawbacks of such a career and the challenges entrepreneurs face. It is these aspects of entrepreneurship that stakeholders will most likely have been exposed to, and that most possibly have influenced their perception and image of an entrepreneur. The aforementioned aspects provided an overview of the theoretical body of knowledge on which the perception and image of an entrepreneur is based. The present study adopted a qualitative research paradigm with a phenomenological approach to achieve the research objectives of the study. Within this context, the study made use of a qualitative method for data collection and a quantitative method for data analysis. As such, a mixed methods approach was adopted. More specifically, a qualitative dominant mixed research method was implemented. A continuous word association test, which is a projective technique, was adopted as the qualitative means of data collection. This test involved asking participants to recall the words that come to mind when presented with the word “entrepreneur”. This method was selected because of its ability to reveal both affective and cognitive associations with the concept “entrepreneur”. A quantitative summative (manifest) content analysis was used as the quantitative research method for analysing the data. The continuous word association test was conducted among three sample groups, namely students prior to commencing, and students after completing a module in entrepreneurship, and small business owners. Student and small business owner participants were asked to write down as many words or phrases as possible that came to mind when they thought of the word “entrepreneur”, which was the stimulus word, within a ten-minute period. These responses were then collated and coded by developing a coding framework based on brand image and entrepreneurship literature. In studies on brand image, the components of image are considered to be tristructured in nature, consisting of cognitive (what the individual knows), affective (how the individual feels) and holistic (overall symbolism, combination of affective and cognitive) evaluations. The words generated by the participants in this study were broadly coded according to these categories and further subcategorised by searching for themes within the broad categories, which was facilitated and guided by an in-depth investigation of the entrepreneurship literature. The findings of this study show that the words generated by all three groups of participants were mostly of a cognitive nature, followed by words of a general or affective nature. As such, the vast majority of words generated by all three groups related to what the participants knew about an entrepreneur (cognitive) versus how they felt about one (affective), and were grounded in the management or entrepreneurship literature. When comparing the top ten words most frequently associated with the term “entrepreneur” by the three groups of participants, the attribute risk-taker was the most frequently recalled word among all three groups. Students prior to undertaking the entrepreneurship module associated an entrepreneur with being creative and a risk-taker, having a business enterprise and being involved in the selling of goods and services. Students after completing the module in entrepreneurship associated an entrepreneur with being profit-orientated, a risk-taker, innovative and original, and being opportunistic. Small business owners, on the other hand, associated an entrepreneur with being a risk-taker, innovative and original, goal- and achievement-orientated and profit-orientated. The findings show that all groups of participants associated an entrepreneur principally with certain attributes rather than with learned skills and competencies, and that all groups had a more positive than negative image of an entrepreneur. It was also found that exposure to entrepreneurship literature has an influence on the perception and image that students have of an entrepreneur. Because the words recalled by students after completing the entrepreneurship module were more in line with those recalled by small business owners, than with those recalled by students before starting the module, it can be suggested that entrepreneurship literature contributes to a more realistic image of an entrepreneur among students. This study has contributed to the field of entrepreneurship research by adopting a qualitative dominant research paradigm in conjunction with quantitative research methods to explore the complexity of the term “entrepreneur”. Furthermore, this study has been able to establish how individuals feel about entrepreneurship, in terms of being either positive or negative, by adding an affective aspect to the cognitive aspect of entrepreneurial decision-making. By conducting a continuous word association test among students prior to beginning and after completing a module in entrepreneurship, the entrepreneurial knowledge of students before being exposed to entrepreneurship literature was established, and subsequently the effectiveness of the entrepreneurship module determined. It is hoped that the findings of this study have added value to the entrepreneurship body of knowledge and can be used in future studies as a tool to address the problem of low entrepreneurial intention and activity among South Africans. Furthermore, it is hoped that by creating a positive image of an entrepreneur, entrepreneurship as a desirable career choice can be promoted and an entrepreneurial culture developed within communities and broader society.
Masters in Public Administration - MPA This research report examined the key policies of globalisation namely, privatisation and deregulation of services and also their implication on the Tri-partite alliance. Because they have impacted negatively on major economic sectors, particularly to those that help the needy. Therefore, the study explores these initiatives, which has been debatable in South Africa under the dominant understanding of ‘progress’ or ‘development’. The Objective of the study is to lay the basis for the examination and evaluation of policy option with regard to privatisation and deregulation of services in South Africa and to engage South Africa effectively in global policy debates and adjust in global trends and negotiations within the region (SADC) and other international countries. It examines global challenges and opportunities / threats for South Africa as a developing country in the emerging global order. This study also attempts to provide answers to several questions concerning privatisation and deregulation of public services in South Africa. To the poor, is deregulation and privatisation of state assets threatening to become the new apartheid, which is an instrument of exclusion, not just from a better life but even from the very basic services? How are workers and including the poorest of the poor affected by the status of deregulation and privatisation? Do the timing and specifics of these processes matter? Who should attempt to regulate the auction, as some of government officials seems to be corrupt? And which prior restructuring policies are worth implementing? South Africa
Petrographic characterization of sandstones in borehole E-BA1, Block 9, Bredasdorp Basin, Off-Shore South AfricaVan Bloemenstein, Chantell Berenice 2006 (has links)
Magister Scientiae - MSc The reservoir quality (RQ) of well E-BA1 was characterized using thin sections and core samples in a petrographic study. Well E-BA1 is situated in the Bredasdorp Basin, which forms part of the Outeniqua Basin situated in the Southern Afircan offshore region. Rifting as a result of the break up of Gondwanaland formed the Outeniqua Basin. The Bredasorp Basin is characterized by half-graben structures comprised of Upper Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous and Cenozoic rift to drift strata. The current research within the thesis has indicated that well E-BA1 is one of moderate to good quality having a gas-condensate component. South Africa
Arulappan, Lucinda Brown
Submitted in full requirement for the Degree of Master of Management Sciences Specialising in Hospitality and Tourism, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa, 2017. Over the years the rapid growth of the tourism industry has revealed itself to be a major source of income and social improvement for many. However, with this growth comes the undoubtable carbon footprint it carries. As a result, the growth and expansion of many tourism ecolabels have surfaced in the hopes of alleviating the negative environmental impacts the tourism industry imposes. This study aimed to ascertain the impacts of tourism ecolabels on businesses. It assessed the level of success of the ecolabel within the organisation as well as ascertained the benefits and challenges associated with ecolabel certification. A quantitative research approach was used and the data was collected by means of online questionnaires that were targeted at managers of tourism businesses in South Africa. The study reveals that tourism businesses in South Africa do experience the benefits of being certified with an ecolabel in terms of the natural, socio-cultural and economic environments. However, the high costs associated with being certified, the lack of general public awareness regarding ecolabels and the absence of government support are still prevalent. Consequently, cost reduction, promotion of public awareness as well as government support are the main areas of improvement required by tourism establishments with regard to ecolabels. M
Interactions between ants, herbivorous insects and bracken (Pteridium aquilinum), a fern with extrafloral nectariesRashbrook, Vanessa Karin 1989 (has links)
Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) is a cosmopolitan species of fern which possesses extrafloral nectaries. A survey of the arthropod fauna associated with the plant throughout its range in South Africa identified the most widespread and damaging bracken herbivores and those species most likely to be influenced by ants visiting the extrafloral nectaries. Seventeen herbivorous arthropods were found to be definitely feeding on bracken and a further thirteen species with a less certain status were recorded. In addition, several species of ants were observed on the fronds and feeding at the extrafloral nectarie. On the basis of their widespread distribution and abundance, four bracken herbivores emerged as being particularly detrimental to the plant in South Africa. They were an eriophyid gall mite, a leafhopper and two moths. The biology of the two lepidopterans, Appana cinisigna and Panotima sp., suggested that they were potentially vulnerable to ants at various stages of their life histories. Laboratory experiments were undertaken to observe ant-lepidopteran interactions under controlled conditions. The ant Crematogaster peringueyi rapidly removed exposed A. cini igna eggs, but did not appear to regard Panotima eggs as food items. Small instar larvae of both species proved vulnerable, but the larger larvae appeared capable of escaping ant predation. Ant exclusion experiments in the field, using natural and artificially augmented ant densities, were carried out at two sites near Grahamstown. The dominant ant species was C. peringueyi. Neither the numbers of lepidopterans nor levels of herbivory were significantly reduced by the presence of ants . Despite the implications of the laboratory tests, the results of these field experiments did not support the hypothesis that ants which visit bracken extrafloral nectaries benefit the plant. Ant-bracken field studies on other continents also reported no significant ant-related effects, though marginal reductions in the abundance of certain herbivores have been noted at one site in the U.K. Since ant protection does not appear to be an inevitable consequence of having extrafloral nectaries, their value to bracken is in some doubt. The most likely situation where effective protection will occur is when high densities of vulnerable herbivores are preyed upon by large numbers of aggressive ants. However, even under these conditions, enhancement of plant fitness is not inevitable. This raises the question of why extrafloral nectaries have been retained in a plant that is as successful and widespread as bracken.
Strike comparison of the compositional variations of the lower group and middle group chromitite seams of the critical zone, Western Bushveld complexDoig, Heather Leslie 2000 (has links)
The variations in the composition, specifically the Cr20 S content and the Cr:Fe ratio, and the morphology of the Lower Group (LG) and Middle Group (MG) chromitite seams of the Critical Zone (CZ) across the western Bushveld Complex, including the Ruighoek and Brits sections, is investigated by means of whole-rock chemical data, both major and trace elements analysis, XRD and electron microprobe data. As a result ofthe paucity of exposed or developed LG1 - LG5 chromitite seams in the western Bushveld Complex, this study is confined to the investigation of the compositional variations of the LG6 to MG4 chromitite seams. In only one section, the Ruighoek section, was the entire succession of chromitite seams, from the LG1 - MG4, exposed. The silicate host rocks from the LG6 pyroxenite footwall to the collar of the CC2 drillcore (lower uCZ) in the Rustenburg section were sampled. This study reviews the compositional trends of the silicate host rocks, as the compositional variations of the chromitite seams reflect the chemical evolution of the host cumulate environment and, to a lesser degree, the composition onhe interstitial mineral phases in the chromitite seams. The compositional variations of the LG and MG chromitite seams are attributed to the compositional contrast between the replenishing magma and the resident magma. The chemical trends of the LG and MG chromitite layers and the host cumUlate rOCKS do not support the existence of two compositionalfy dissimilar magmas in the CZ, rather the cyclic layering of the CZ and the chemical variations of the chromitite seams are attributed to the mixing of primitive magma with the resident magma, both of which have essentially similar compositions. The compositional variations of the LG and MG chromitite seams along strike away from the supposed feeder site (Union section) to the distal facies (Brits section) are attributed to the advanced compositional contrast between the resident magma and the replenishing primitive magma pulses. The CZ is characterized by reversals in fractionation trends and this is attributed to the compositional evolution of the parental magma and not to the replenishment of the resident magma by influxes of grossly dissimilar magma compositions. The Cr20 S content and the Cr:Fe ratio of the MG chromitite layers increase from the Ruighoek (near proximal) section to the Brits section (distal facies). This is attributed to the advanced compositional contrasts between the resident magma and the replenishing primitive magma. In contrast, the Cr20 3 content and Cr:Fe ratios ofthe LG6 and LG8a chromitite seams decreases eastwards from the Ruighoek section. The average Cr:Fe ratio for the western Bushveld Complex is between 1.5 and\2.0, nonetheless, a progressively lower Cr:Fe ratio is noted from the LG1 chromitite up through to the MG4 chromitite seam in the Ruighoek section. tn the LG2 - LG4 chromitite interval a deviation to higher.lratios is encountered. A progressive substitution of Cr by AT and Fe in the Cr-spinel crystal lattice characterizes the chromitite succession from the LG1 seam up through the chromitite succession to MG4. The petrogeneSiS of the chromitite seams of the CZ is attributed to magma mixing and fractional crystallization of a single magma type.
Screening of the white margined sole, Synaptura marginata (Soleidae), as a candidate for aquaculture in South AfricaThompson, Ernst Frederick 2004 (has links)
The white margined sole Synaptura marginata (Soleidae) was isolated as the most likely candidate for flatfish aquaculture in South Africa. The aim of the study was to screen the sole as a candidate aquaculture species by way of a comprehensive study of its biology and life history strategy and to identify possible "bottlenecks". The study was undertaken on the assumption that the biological data would provide valuable information for developing specific technologies that might be required for the farming of this species. Specimens were collected monthly by spearing along the Eastern Cape coast of South Africa between December 2000 and March 2002. Length-at-age data required for modeling the growth of S. marginata was obtained from sectioned otoliths. A Von Bertalanffy growth model with an absolute error structure best describes the growth for this species. The model parameters were: L∞ = 429.5 mm TL, K = 0.24 and t₀ = -1 .79 years. Analysis of gut contents showed that S. marginata feed exclusively on polychaete worms, mainly of the genus Morphysa. S. marginata shows a protracted summer spawning season of six months, from October to April. This was determined by the calculation of a monthly gonadosomatic index and a macroscopic maturity scale. Histological examination of the ovaries revealed five ovarian developmental stages. Size at 50% and 100% sexual maturity for females was calculated to be 235 mm TL and 300 mm TL (ca. 1.5 - 2.5 years of age) and all males> 154 mm TL were mature. S. marginata is a batch spawner, releasing a minimum of 3 batches of eggs per year. Relative fecundity is high (34000 eggs per year I kg) and this coupled with the protracted spawning season would make it possible to obtain adequate numbers of juveniles (for farming) for approximately five to six months of the year. Comparative analysis of the biological characteristics in relation to other soles farmed elsewhere in the world suggests that S. marginata is a suitable candidate for marine fish culture in South Africa.
Muller, Johannes Ekkert
14 August 2012
LL.M. Tydens die ontwikkeling van die verskeie besigheidsondernemingsvorme in Suid-Afrika is groot aandag geskenk aan statutere regulering van hierdie ondernemingsvorme, asook interaksie tussen hierdie statutere reguleringsmaatreels en harmonisering daarvan met bestaande wetgewing wat daarop van toepassing mag wees. Dit wil egter voorkom dat statutere regulering in Suid-Afrika ten aansien van sekere ondernemingsvorme ver tekort skiet, aangesien daar geen onafhanklike wetgewing in Suid-Afrika bestaan ten aansien van byvoorbeeld vennootskappe nie, anders as in ander werelddele. Daar kan derhaiwe tereg gese word dat die vennootskapsreg beskou kan word as die "stiefkind" van die Suid-Afrikaanse reg. Alhoewel daar steeds verskeie Ieemtes en anomaliee bestaan ten aansien van statutere gereguleerde ondernemingsvorme en harmonisering van sekere statutere bepalings daarop van toepassing, met bestaande wetgewing, wil dit voorkom asof die bestaande verwysingsbronne ten aansien van die vennootskapsreg en ander wetgewing ernstige anomaliee teweegbring, wat vervolgens selektief bespreek gaan word, met spesifieke verwysing na anomaliee wat bestaan in die toepassing van sekere bepalings van die Insolvensiewet ten aansien van vennootskappe.
Badenhorst, Casper Hendrik Jacobus
13 August 2015
LL.D. Please refer to full text to view abstract
Calteaux, Karen Vera
18 March 2014
D.Phil. (African Languages) This study attempts to fill a gap in the available research on language use in Black urban speech communities. Previous studies conducted in these communities, concentrated on specific language varieties. However, no attempt at describing the entire language situation in such a community had hitherto been made. A macro-level sociolinguistic description which would serve as an orientation for various detailed studies on the language varieties occurring in these communities, was therefore needed. The aim of the present study was to provide such a description. In order to achieve this, a sound theoretical framework had to be established. Phenomena such as language 'Contact, language variation and language use had to be researched and defined in order to apply to the particular situation under investigation. In .this sense, this study has succeeded in making a contribution to the theoretical debate regarding various sociolinguistic concepts, in that it has shown how these concepts apply to the South African situation. The study also investigated qualitative research methodology. The background to and implications of this methodology were discussed and analysed. A particular type of qualitative research, namely, interactive qualitative research was explored. Within this framework, a unique approach to two basic data collection techniques, namely, individual and focus group interviewing, was proposed. These techniques were used to gather the primary data for this study, and were discussed in detail. The primary data was gathered from residents of the township known as Tembisa. The secondary data was taken from studies done on individual language varieties in other Black urban speech communities. The primary data was analysed and a comprehensive qualitative description of the entire language situation in the speech community of Tembisa was given. The findings of the Tembisa study were compared with the secondary data, resulting in the identification of a number of distinct language varieties which occur in the township situations that were studied. These are: a number of Standard languages, Fanakalo (although seldom used), a Black urban vernacular, Afrikaans-based Tsotsitaal, Zulu-based Tsotsitaal, Soweto Zulu Slang, Soweto Iscamtho, Tembisa Iscamtho, English and Afrikaans. Sociolinguistic profiles of each of these language varieties were drawn up. These profiles provided clarity on the linguistic diversity in the Black urban speech communities studied and enabled the rendering of a graphic representation of the language situation in Tembisa. The above-mentioned varieties were typologised. Based on language type and language function, the study proposed a model which may be used as a framework for describing the language situation in multilingual Black urban speech communities. The study concludes with recommendations with regard to the need for linguistic analyses of the language varieties used in Black urban speech communities. The implications of the widespread use of these varieties, particularly for education, also deserve further investigation as a matter of urgency...
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