18 February 2014
M.Com. (Economics) The objective of this study was to obtain information that will enable the identification of the role, nature and magnitude of private road freight transport in the South African economy. The underlying rationale was the lack of information in this regard in South Africa. Information about private road freight transport was obtained on a sectoral basis by means of a literature analysis and an empirical investigation.
Arulappan, Lucinda Brown
Submitted in full requirement for the Degree of Master of Management Sciences Specialising in Hospitality and Tourism, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa, 2017. Over the years the rapid growth of the tourism industry has revealed itself to be a major source of income and social improvement for many. However, with this growth comes the undoubtable carbon footprint it carries. As a result, the growth and expansion of many tourism ecolabels have surfaced in the hopes of alleviating the negative environmental impacts the tourism industry imposes. This study aimed to ascertain the impacts of tourism ecolabels on businesses. It assessed the level of success of the ecolabel within the organisation as well as ascertained the benefits and challenges associated with ecolabel certification. A quantitative research approach was used and the data was collected by means of online questionnaires that were targeted at managers of tourism businesses in South Africa. The study reveals that tourism businesses in South Africa do experience the benefits of being certified with an ecolabel in terms of the natural, socio-cultural and economic environments. However, the high costs associated with being certified, the lack of general public awareness regarding ecolabels and the absence of government support are still prevalent. Consequently, cost reduction, promotion of public awareness as well as government support are the main areas of improvement required by tourism establishments with regard to ecolabels. M
Screening of the white margined sole, Synaptura marginata (Soleidae), as a candidate for aquaculture in South AfricaThompson, Ernst Frederick 2004 (has links)
The white margined sole Synaptura marginata (Soleidae) was isolated as the most likely candidate for flatfish aquaculture in South Africa. The aim of the study was to screen the sole as a candidate aquaculture species by way of a comprehensive study of its biology and life history strategy and to identify possible "bottlenecks". The study was undertaken on the assumption that the biological data would provide valuable information for developing specific technologies that might be required for the farming of this species. Specimens were collected monthly by spearing along the Eastern Cape coast of South Africa between December 2000 and March 2002. Length-at-age data required for modeling the growth of S. marginata was obtained from sectioned otoliths. A Von Bertalanffy growth model with an absolute error structure best describes the growth for this species. The model parameters were: L∞ = 429.5 mm TL, K = 0.24 and t₀ = -1 .79 years. Analysis of gut contents showed that S. marginata feed exclusively on polychaete worms, mainly of the genus Morphysa. S. marginata shows a protracted summer spawning season of six months, from October to April. This was determined by the calculation of a monthly gonadosomatic index and a macroscopic maturity scale. Histological examination of the ovaries revealed five ovarian developmental stages. Size at 50% and 100% sexual maturity for females was calculated to be 235 mm TL and 300 mm TL (ca. 1.5 - 2.5 years of age) and all males> 154 mm TL were mature. S. marginata is a batch spawner, releasing a minimum of 3 batches of eggs per year. Relative fecundity is high (34000 eggs per year I kg) and this coupled with the protracted spawning season would make it possible to obtain adequate numbers of juveniles (for farming) for approximately five to six months of the year. Comparative analysis of the biological characteristics in relation to other soles farmed elsewhere in the world suggests that S. marginata is a suitable candidate for marine fish culture in South Africa.
Muller, Johannes Ekkert
14 August 2012
LL.M. Tydens die ontwikkeling van die verskeie besigheidsondernemingsvorme in Suid-Afrika is groot aandag geskenk aan statutere regulering van hierdie ondernemingsvorme, asook interaksie tussen hierdie statutere reguleringsmaatreels en harmonisering daarvan met bestaande wetgewing wat daarop van toepassing mag wees. Dit wil egter voorkom dat statutere regulering in Suid-Afrika ten aansien van sekere ondernemingsvorme ver tekort skiet, aangesien daar geen onafhanklike wetgewing in Suid-Afrika bestaan ten aansien van byvoorbeeld vennootskappe nie, anders as in ander werelddele. Daar kan derhaiwe tereg gese word dat die vennootskapsreg beskou kan word as die "stiefkind" van die Suid-Afrikaanse reg. Alhoewel daar steeds verskeie Ieemtes en anomaliee bestaan ten aansien van statutere gereguleerde ondernemingsvorme en harmonisering van sekere statutere bepalings daarop van toepassing, met bestaande wetgewing, wil dit voorkom asof die bestaande verwysingsbronne ten aansien van die vennootskapsreg en ander wetgewing ernstige anomaliee teweegbring, wat vervolgens selektief bespreek gaan word, met spesifieke verwysing na anomaliee wat bestaan in die toepassing van sekere bepalings van die Insolvensiewet ten aansien van vennootskappe.
Badenhorst, Casper Hendrik Jacobus
13 August 2015
LL.D. Please refer to full text to view abstract
Calteaux, Karen Vera
18 March 2014
D.Phil. (African Languages) This study attempts to fill a gap in the available research on language use in Black urban speech communities. Previous studies conducted in these communities, concentrated on specific language varieties. However, no attempt at describing the entire language situation in such a community had hitherto been made. A macro-level sociolinguistic description which would serve as an orientation for various detailed studies on the language varieties occurring in these communities, was therefore needed. The aim of the present study was to provide such a description. In order to achieve this, a sound theoretical framework had to be established. Phenomena such as language 'Contact, language variation and language use had to be researched and defined in order to apply to the particular situation under investigation. In .this sense, this study has succeeded in making a contribution to the theoretical debate regarding various sociolinguistic concepts, in that it has shown how these concepts apply to the South African situation. The study also investigated qualitative research methodology. The background to and implications of this methodology were discussed and analysed. A particular type of qualitative research, namely, interactive qualitative research was explored. Within this framework, a unique approach to two basic data collection techniques, namely, individual and focus group interviewing, was proposed. These techniques were used to gather the primary data for this study, and were discussed in detail. The primary data was gathered from residents of the township known as Tembisa. The secondary data was taken from studies done on individual language varieties in other Black urban speech communities. The primary data was analysed and a comprehensive qualitative description of the entire language situation in the speech community of Tembisa was given. The findings of the Tembisa study were compared with the secondary data, resulting in the identification of a number of distinct language varieties which occur in the township situations that were studied. These are: a number of Standard languages, Fanakalo (although seldom used), a Black urban vernacular, Afrikaans-based Tsotsitaal, Zulu-based Tsotsitaal, Soweto Zulu Slang, Soweto Iscamtho, Tembisa Iscamtho, English and Afrikaans. Sociolinguistic profiles of each of these language varieties were drawn up. These profiles provided clarity on the linguistic diversity in the Black urban speech communities studied and enabled the rendering of a graphic representation of the language situation in Tembisa. The above-mentioned varieties were typologised. Based on language type and language function, the study proposed a model which may be used as a framework for describing the language situation in multilingual Black urban speech communities. The study concludes with recommendations with regard to the need for linguistic analyses of the language varieties used in Black urban speech communities. The implications of the widespread use of these varieties, particularly for education, also deserve further investigation as a matter of urgency...
The impact of immigrants on the labour market in the South African context has always been a long standing issue with both government and natives’ fearing for the latter’s displacement effect, pressure on wages and resources. Migrants are blamed for poor labour market conditions of a host country. Literature reviewed from Africa and elsewhere shows that migrants have negative outcomes on the host country’s labour market. For this study an Error Correction Model on time series data from 1980-2006 has been estimated. The study estimated two models that is the unemployment and the wages models. The variables used for estimation are immigration, inflation and the Gross Domestic Product. The study surprisingly found a positive impact of immigrants on wages but the effect on employment was negative and significant. It is important to note here that the calculated impact is only for the documented immigrants the impact the illegal ones is not known.
The dissertation details the experimental work on the attempt to develop rhenium(V)phthalocyanine complexes directly from its +7 oxidation state (perrhenate). Different reducing agents (PPh3, Na2S2O5 and NaBH4) were employed and consequently, different results were acquired, such as rhenium(V)-mediated oxidative hydrolysis of the phthalocyanines (Pcs), the formation of a rhenium-phthalocyanine complex and phthalocyanine-capped nanoparticles. The rhenium nanoparticles that were formed were optimized from a synthesis point of view and, cancer localizing ability of the rhenium nanoparticles was investigated. The complexes were synthesized through direct metalation of pre-formed metal-free phthalocyanines using the “cold isotopes” of the rhenium metal. Rhenium nanoparticles (Re NPs) were synthesized in aqueous saline medium so as to imitate the environment on which Re is produced from its reactor. The nanoparticles (NPs) were capped with phthalocyanines which were covalently biofunctionalized with a folic acid moiety to enhance the targeting ability of the Re NPs. These NP systems were characterised with techniques such as ultraviolet-visible UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy TEM. Cytotoxicity of the NPs was tested against four different cell lines and subsequently their cytotoxicity profiles were elucidated, and the profiles shown a dose-dependent responsealthough the results in some cell lines were unclear. Their fluorescence properties were also studied to provide photophysical information for investigation of their tumor localization using human cancer cells lines via confocal fluorescence microscopy studies. Particle size effect on localization of NPs was also investigated using confocal fluorescence and TEM. Two sizes were chosen (10 and 50 nm), and the smaller NPs (10 nm) were found to exhibit stronger fluorescence properties than the 50 nm NPs, and they were also found to have a better localization ability than the 50 nm NPs. Finally, their tumor and organ biodistribution studies will be carried out using micro-SPECT kits and model mice (using the “hot” isotopes in a radiopharmacy laboratory).
Tembani, Nomazwi Maudline
The formal recognition of traditional healing has been controversial for some time with traditional healers being labelled by those of conventional medical orientation as a medical hazard and purveyors of superstition. The support for the development of traditional medicine and establishment of co-operation between traditional healers and allopathic heath practitioners was first promoted in the international health arena by the World Health Organisation. Estimating that 80% of the population living in rural areas of many developing countries was using traditional medicine for the primary healthcare needs, this organisation advocated for the establishment of mechanisms that would facilitate strong cooperation between traditional healers, scientists and clinicians. The study was undertaken in the Amathole District Municipality, Province of the Eastern Cape based on Chapter 2, Section 6(2) (a) of the Traditional Health Practitioners Bill 2003, which required regulation and promotion of liaison between traditional health practitioners and other health professionals registered under any law. The purpose of the study was to develop and propose strategies to facilitate collaboration between traditional and allopathic health practitioners to optimise and complement healthcare delivery. The conceptual framework guiding the study was derived from Leininger’s theory of Cultural Care Diversity and Universality chosen because of its appropriateness. The terms used throughout the study were defined to facilitate the reader’s understanding. Ethical principles were adhered to throughout the research process. To ensure trustworthiness of the study, Guba’s model (in Krefting,1991:214-215) was used where the four aspects of trustworthiness namely, truth value, applicability, consistency and neutrality were considered. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used which assisted in articulating the appropriate strategies to develop to facilitate v collaboration between allopathic and traditional health practitioners. The study was done in two phases. Phase one entailed data collection using unstructured interviews, a focus group interview, literature control and modified participant observation. In Phase two strategies to facilitate collaboration between allopathic and traditional health practitioners were developed. The population in this study comprised three groups of participants. Group 1 consisted of allopathic health practitioners, Group 2 comprised traditional healers and Group 3 was composed of participants who were trained as both traditional healers and allopathic health practitioners. All participants had to respond to three research questions which aimed at: exploring and describing the nature of the relationship between allopathic and traditional health practitioners before legalisation of traditional healing and their experience as role-players in the healthcare delivery landscape in the Amathole District Municipality. eliciting the viewpoints of allopathic and traditional health practitioners regarding the impact on their practices of legalisation of traditional healing and developing strategies to facilitate collaboration between allopathic and traditional health practitioners. Data obtained from each group was analysed using Tesch’s method as described by Creswell (2003:192). Themes emerging from data and the corresponding strategies to address the themes were identified for each group. The participants’ responses to the three research questions revealed areas of convergence and divergence. Of significance was the reflection by the participants on their negative attitude towards each other. They also highlighted that there was no formal interaction between traditional and allopathic health practitioners in the Amathole District Municipality. Their working relationship was characterised by a one-sided referral system with traditional healers referring patients to allopathic health practitioners but this seemed not to be reciprocated vi by the latter group. The exception was the case of traditional surgeons whose working relationship with allopathic health practitioners was formally outlined in the Application of Health Standards in the Traditional Circumcision Act, Act No.6 of 2001. Allopathic health practitioners attributed their negative attitude as emanating from the unscientific methods used by traditional healers in treating patients, interference of traditional healers with the efficacy of hospital treatments and delays by traditional healers in referring patients to the hospitals and clinics. Traditional healers stated that they were concerned about failure of allopathic health practitioners to refer patients who talked about “thikoloshe” and “mafufunyana” to the traditional healers. Consequently, these patients presented themselves to the traditional healers when the illness was at an advanced stage. A reciprocal referral system was perceived by the traditional healers as the core element or crux of collaboration. There were ambivalent views regarding the impact of legalisation of traditional healing on the practices of both traditional and allopathic health practitioners. Elimination of unscrupulous healers, economic benefits, and occupational protection were benefits anticipated by traditional healers from the implementation of the Act. The possibility of having to divulge information regarding their traditional medicines, monitoring of their practice resulting in arrests should errors occur were however, cited by traditional healers as threatening elements of the Act. A lack of understanding the activities of each group with an inherent element of mistrust became evident from the participants’ responses. Ways of fostering mutual understanding between them were suggested which included holding meetings together to discuss issues relating to healing of patients, exposing both groups of health practitioners to research, as well as training and development activities. The participants also highlighted areas of collaboration as sharing resources namely, budget, physical facilities, equipment and information and role clarification especially pertaining to disease management. The participants vii strongly suggested that there should be clarity on the type of diseases to be handled by each group. The need for capacity building of traditional and allopathic health practitioners in preparation for facilitating collaboration was advocated by all and the relevant activities to engage into were suggested. Analysis, synthesis and cross referencing of the themes that emerged from the data culminated in the identification of three strategies that were applicable to all groups of participants and which would assist in facilitating collaboration between allopathic and traditional health practitioners. The researcher coined the three strategies “Triple C” strategies abbreviated as the TRIC strategies. The first “C” of the three “Cs” stands for “change attitude”, the second “C” for “communication” and the third “C” for “capacity building.” Each of the proposed three strategies is discussed under the following headings:- Summary of findings informing the strategy Theory articulating the strategy Aim of the strategy Suggested implementation mechanism As the strategies had to be grounded in a theory which would serve as a reference point, the researcher used the Survey List by Dickoff, James and Wiedenbach (1968:423) as a conceptual framework on which to base the proposed three strategies. The results of this study and recommendations that have been made will be disseminated in professional journals, research conferences and seminars.
Du Toit, Johanna Helena
The definition of genocide encompasses not only the killing of a protected group as is so often erroneously believed, but also inter alia the causing of serious bodily and mental harm to a group and deliberately inflicting conditions of life on a group calculated to bring about its destruction in whole or in part. Eight stages have been identified through which conventional genocide goes. There is a closed list of four groups named in the Genocide Convention in respect of which genocide can be perpetrated. Problems have been experienced with the classification and the determination whether a group should qualify or not. In answer to this problem, the definition of the groups should be seen cohesively and attempts should preferably not be made to compartmentalise any group suspected of being targeted for genocide. The special intent required for genocide sets it apart from other crimes against humanity. The intention that needs to be proven is the desire to exterminate a group as such in whole or in part. The mention of “in part” opens the door for genocide to be perpetrated against a small sub-group which conforms to the definition of a group. The white Afrikaner farmer forms part of the larger white Afrikaner group residing in South Africa. Incitement to genocide is an inchoate crime and is regarded as a lesser crime reflected in lower sentences being passed for incitement than for genocide itself. The requirements are that the incitement must be direct and public. The required intention to incite must also be proven for a conviction to follow. The farmer who laid the complaint with the International Criminal Court, did so in the hope that the Prosecutor would utilise his or her proprio motu powers to instigate an investigation in South Africa regarding white Afrikaner farmers. The complaint and petition as well as the statistics used by the farmer paint the picture of incitement to genocide and possible genocide. The allegations are not specific and will have to be proven in a court of law for any such finding to follow. Abstract
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