The impact of immigrants on the labour market in the South African context has always been a long standing issue with both government and natives’ fearing for the latter’s displacement effect, pressure on wages and resources. Migrants are blamed for poor labour market conditions of a host country. Literature reviewed from Africa and elsewhere shows that migrants have negative outcomes on the host country’s labour market. For this study an Error Correction Model on time series data from 1980-2006 has been estimated. The study estimated two models that is the unemployment and the wages models. The variables used for estimation are immigration, inflation and the Gross Domestic Product. The study surprisingly found a positive impact of immigrants on wages but the effect on employment was negative and significant. It is important to note here that the calculated impact is only for the documented immigrants the impact the illegal ones is not known.
The dissertation details the experimental work on the attempt to develop rhenium(V)phthalocyanine complexes directly from its +7 oxidation state (perrhenate). Different reducing agents (PPh3, Na2S2O5 and NaBH4) were employed and consequently, different results were acquired, such as rhenium(V)-mediated oxidative hydrolysis of the phthalocyanines (Pcs), the formation of a rhenium-phthalocyanine complex and phthalocyanine-capped nanoparticles. The rhenium nanoparticles that were formed were optimized from a synthesis point of view and, cancer localizing ability of the rhenium nanoparticles was investigated. The complexes were synthesized through direct metalation of pre-formed metal-free phthalocyanines using the “cold isotopes” of the rhenium metal. Rhenium nanoparticles (Re NPs) were synthesized in aqueous saline medium so as to imitate the environment on which Re is produced from its reactor. The nanoparticles (NPs) were capped with phthalocyanines which were covalently biofunctionalized with a folic acid moiety to enhance the targeting ability of the Re NPs. These NP systems were characterised with techniques such as ultraviolet-visible UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy TEM. Cytotoxicity of the NPs was tested against four different cell lines and subsequently their cytotoxicity profiles were elucidated, and the profiles shown a dose-dependent responsealthough the results in some cell lines were unclear. Their fluorescence properties were also studied to provide photophysical information for investigation of their tumor localization using human cancer cells lines via confocal fluorescence microscopy studies. Particle size effect on localization of NPs was also investigated using confocal fluorescence and TEM. Two sizes were chosen (10 and 50 nm), and the smaller NPs (10 nm) were found to exhibit stronger fluorescence properties than the 50 nm NPs, and they were also found to have a better localization ability than the 50 nm NPs. Finally, their tumor and organ biodistribution studies will be carried out using micro-SPECT kits and model mice (using the “hot” isotopes in a radiopharmacy laboratory).
Tembani, Nomazwi Maudline
The formal recognition of traditional healing has been controversial for some time with traditional healers being labelled by those of conventional medical orientation as a medical hazard and purveyors of superstition. The support for the development of traditional medicine and establishment of co-operation between traditional healers and allopathic heath practitioners was first promoted in the international health arena by the World Health Organisation. Estimating that 80% of the population living in rural areas of many developing countries was using traditional medicine for the primary healthcare needs, this organisation advocated for the establishment of mechanisms that would facilitate strong cooperation between traditional healers, scientists and clinicians. The study was undertaken in the Amathole District Municipality, Province of the Eastern Cape based on Chapter 2, Section 6(2) (a) of the Traditional Health Practitioners Bill 2003, which required regulation and promotion of liaison between traditional health practitioners and other health professionals registered under any law. The purpose of the study was to develop and propose strategies to facilitate collaboration between traditional and allopathic health practitioners to optimise and complement healthcare delivery. The conceptual framework guiding the study was derived from Leininger’s theory of Cultural Care Diversity and Universality chosen because of its appropriateness. The terms used throughout the study were defined to facilitate the reader’s understanding. Ethical principles were adhered to throughout the research process. To ensure trustworthiness of the study, Guba’s model (in Krefting,1991:214-215) was used where the four aspects of trustworthiness namely, truth value, applicability, consistency and neutrality were considered. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used which assisted in articulating the appropriate strategies to develop to facilitate v collaboration between allopathic and traditional health practitioners. The study was done in two phases. Phase one entailed data collection using unstructured interviews, a focus group interview, literature control and modified participant observation. In Phase two strategies to facilitate collaboration between allopathic and traditional health practitioners were developed. The population in this study comprised three groups of participants. Group 1 consisted of allopathic health practitioners, Group 2 comprised traditional healers and Group 3 was composed of participants who were trained as both traditional healers and allopathic health practitioners. All participants had to respond to three research questions which aimed at: exploring and describing the nature of the relationship between allopathic and traditional health practitioners before legalisation of traditional healing and their experience as role-players in the healthcare delivery landscape in the Amathole District Municipality. eliciting the viewpoints of allopathic and traditional health practitioners regarding the impact on their practices of legalisation of traditional healing and developing strategies to facilitate collaboration between allopathic and traditional health practitioners. Data obtained from each group was analysed using Tesch’s method as described by Creswell (2003:192). Themes emerging from data and the corresponding strategies to address the themes were identified for each group. The participants’ responses to the three research questions revealed areas of convergence and divergence. Of significance was the reflection by the participants on their negative attitude towards each other. They also highlighted that there was no formal interaction between traditional and allopathic health practitioners in the Amathole District Municipality. Their working relationship was characterised by a one-sided referral system with traditional healers referring patients to allopathic health practitioners but this seemed not to be reciprocated vi by the latter group. The exception was the case of traditional surgeons whose working relationship with allopathic health practitioners was formally outlined in the Application of Health Standards in the Traditional Circumcision Act, Act No.6 of 2001. Allopathic health practitioners attributed their negative attitude as emanating from the unscientific methods used by traditional healers in treating patients, interference of traditional healers with the efficacy of hospital treatments and delays by traditional healers in referring patients to the hospitals and clinics. Traditional healers stated that they were concerned about failure of allopathic health practitioners to refer patients who talked about “thikoloshe” and “mafufunyana” to the traditional healers. Consequently, these patients presented themselves to the traditional healers when the illness was at an advanced stage. A reciprocal referral system was perceived by the traditional healers as the core element or crux of collaboration. There were ambivalent views regarding the impact of legalisation of traditional healing on the practices of both traditional and allopathic health practitioners. Elimination of unscrupulous healers, economic benefits, and occupational protection were benefits anticipated by traditional healers from the implementation of the Act. The possibility of having to divulge information regarding their traditional medicines, monitoring of their practice resulting in arrests should errors occur were however, cited by traditional healers as threatening elements of the Act. A lack of understanding the activities of each group with an inherent element of mistrust became evident from the participants’ responses. Ways of fostering mutual understanding between them were suggested which included holding meetings together to discuss issues relating to healing of patients, exposing both groups of health practitioners to research, as well as training and development activities. The participants also highlighted areas of collaboration as sharing resources namely, budget, physical facilities, equipment and information and role clarification especially pertaining to disease management. The participants vii strongly suggested that there should be clarity on the type of diseases to be handled by each group. The need for capacity building of traditional and allopathic health practitioners in preparation for facilitating collaboration was advocated by all and the relevant activities to engage into were suggested. Analysis, synthesis and cross referencing of the themes that emerged from the data culminated in the identification of three strategies that were applicable to all groups of participants and which would assist in facilitating collaboration between allopathic and traditional health practitioners. The researcher coined the three strategies “Triple C” strategies abbreviated as the TRIC strategies. The first “C” of the three “Cs” stands for “change attitude”, the second “C” for “communication” and the third “C” for “capacity building.” Each of the proposed three strategies is discussed under the following headings:- Summary of findings informing the strategy Theory articulating the strategy Aim of the strategy Suggested implementation mechanism As the strategies had to be grounded in a theory which would serve as a reference point, the researcher used the Survey List by Dickoff, James and Wiedenbach (1968:423) as a conceptual framework on which to base the proposed three strategies. The results of this study and recommendations that have been made will be disseminated in professional journals, research conferences and seminars.
Du Toit, Johanna Helena
The definition of genocide encompasses not only the killing of a protected group as is so often erroneously believed, but also inter alia the causing of serious bodily and mental harm to a group and deliberately inflicting conditions of life on a group calculated to bring about its destruction in whole or in part. Eight stages have been identified through which conventional genocide goes. There is a closed list of four groups named in the Genocide Convention in respect of which genocide can be perpetrated. Problems have been experienced with the classification and the determination whether a group should qualify or not. In answer to this problem, the definition of the groups should be seen cohesively and attempts should preferably not be made to compartmentalise any group suspected of being targeted for genocide. The special intent required for genocide sets it apart from other crimes against humanity. The intention that needs to be proven is the desire to exterminate a group as such in whole or in part. The mention of “in part” opens the door for genocide to be perpetrated against a small sub-group which conforms to the definition of a group. The white Afrikaner farmer forms part of the larger white Afrikaner group residing in South Africa. Incitement to genocide is an inchoate crime and is regarded as a lesser crime reflected in lower sentences being passed for incitement than for genocide itself. The requirements are that the incitement must be direct and public. The required intention to incite must also be proven for a conviction to follow. The farmer who laid the complaint with the International Criminal Court, did so in the hope that the Prosecutor would utilise his or her proprio motu powers to instigate an investigation in South Africa regarding white Afrikaner farmers. The complaint and petition as well as the statistics used by the farmer paint the picture of incitement to genocide and possible genocide. The allegations are not specific and will have to be proven in a court of law for any such finding to follow. Abstract
Xenophobia and media: an exploratory study on the public perception of the Nelson Mandela Bay CommunityMohamed, Osman Abdi 2011 (has links)
Development in South Africa at present is at a crossroads; it could become injected with new energy or it could collapse. The presence of foreigners, especially those from Africa is in contention. Some argue that they help the economy whilst others argue they are a hindrance to locals and their employment worth. The “truth” regarding these may not be immediately recognisable and thus open to questioning depending on perception. The press plays a large role in these perceptions and has been criticised for the way it covers issues of public interest. it is envisaged that this study will be a useful contribution to the limited body of literature on xenophobia and media. The purpose of the study is to give foundation to the assumption that the media's constantly negative coverage of foreigner poses a very real threat to human rights as purported in South Africa‟s constitution, in addition to the economic significance, whether positive or not. This study highlights the perception that Nelson Mandela Bay residents have of foreign nationals, and whether negative reporting in the media has influenced residents' views of foreign nationals.
Van der Walt, Tjaart Andries
12 September 2012
M.Phil. In order for developers to provide reasonable engineering services as well as a liveable dwelling unit within the existing housing subsidy, a substantial increase in residential density is required. Increased urban densities will decrease engineering services costs due to a greater sharing ability. This study was undertaken in order to quantify the benefits of urban densification on engineering services. The financial problems of Local Authorities in South Africa due to the entrenched culture of non-payment for services, is causing a rapid decline in the sustainability of engineering services due also to low, or non-existent maintenance. The "housing" currently delivered, its nature and continued sustainability are being severely criticized. Few differences exist between the housing currently being delivered and those provided under the previous government. Houses are provided in areas on affordable land normally far from the work place. The type of housing being constructed consists mostly of the single storey, free standing units on separate erven. These types of developments encourage urban sprawl, require very expensive engineering services and discourage the establishment of an economic public transport system. Possible solutions to the workforce/job opportunity problem include mixed land use and residential densification.
14 August 2012
M.Comm. Marketers have historically found it convenient to bundle the Asian consumer market together with the black consumer market or the white consumer market depending on the product or event under consideration. As we move toward an era of customised products and individualised service, minority markets become more difficult to overlook. Their unique characteristics demand that they be targeted as separate and unique market segments distinct from the mass markets that dominate the marketing environment.
1 September 2015
M.A. Marxist historiography started during the late sixties and early seventies in response to the so-called "crisis" in the social sciences. The inability of these sciences to explain prolonged poverty and backwardness in areas of capitalist development and dependency in areas in close connection with the capitalist core, directed social scientists towards Marxist explanations. The conventional explanation of the implacability of capitalist development with racial stratification no longer rendered any explanation of Third World circumstances, since, especially in the South African case, the economy maintained high growth rates in spite of and under circumstances of sustained and intensified racial differentiation...
An investigation into the potential immunogenicity of various extracts of the South African bont tick Amblyomma hebraeumAdamson, Deborah Jane 1993 (has links)
Rabbits and goats were inoculated with crude, membrane-associated and soluble components extracted from unengorged adult females and nymphs of the bont tick Amblyomma hebraeum. Inoculation provided some protection against nymphal infestation, however it had little effect on adult feeding. Histological examination of adults fed on inoculated hosts showed evidence of gut damage. Skin provocation testing with tick extracts elicited a Type I immediate hypersensitivity which was influenced by antihistamine. A delayed skin reaction was also evident. Whether this was attributable to Type III Arthus reaction or Type IV cell-mediated hypersensitivity was not determined. A comparative histological study of sites of tick extract injection, on inoculated and naive hosts, demonstrated the role of eosinophils in the hosts response to tick feeding. Serological examination revealed elevated anti-A hebraeum lgG titres following inoculation. These titres were found to decrease in the ten weeks after inoculation, despite the hosts being repeatedly infested with A hebraeum. Although the IgG titres of naive control hosts increased after each tick infestation, they failed to reach the titres achieved through inoculation. Western blot analysis of serum from inoculated hosts recognized most of the A. hebraeum proteins against which it was screened.
Dietary intake in an urban African population in South Africa, with special reference to the nutrition transitionBourne, Lesley Thelma 1996 (has links)
An assessment of the nutritional status of a representative sample of an urban African population has not previously been conducted, nor the extent to which the traditional diet has been abandoned for a western diet. To meet this end, a cross-sectional analytic study was carried out on a representative sample (N=1146) of the urban African population, aged 3 - 64 years in 1990. Particular attention was paid to specific at-risk groups viz. preschoolers (aged 3 - 6 years; N=163), adolescents (aged 15 - 18 years; N=119) and adults (19 - 44 years; N=649). The interrelationships of dietary intake with socio-economic status, demographic indicators as well as measures of urban exposure were also examined. A further aim was to determine the extent to which this rapidly urbanising population ' s macronutrient profile had shifted from a traditional towards a western atherogenic dietary pattern. This analytic study was nested in a community-based descriptive survey on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. A multi-staged, proportional sampling strategy was used. Quotas were used in the final stage of sampling, based on the age/sex distribution of a 1988 census conducted by the local authorities. Dietary data were collected by means of the 24-hour recall method, by Xhosa -speaking registered nurses who had received intensive training. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and blood samples were drawn according to standard procedures. Socio-demographic questions elicited information on the physical environment and facilities, educational level and employment status. Information was also elicited regarding urban exposure relating to lifetime migration history, thus incorporating retrospective temporality into the study des ign. From these data, an index of urban exposure was established by calculating the percentage of life spent in an urban environment. Univariate analyses of dietary, anthropometric and biochemical vitamin status were used for the descriptive components of the study of the three specific at-risk age categories. Bivariate analyses examined the effects of selected proxies of socio-economic status, and urban exposure on dietary intake. Finally, multiple linear regressions were performed on the preschoolers (N=163) and adult sample, aged 15 - 64 years (N=983) incorporating additional indicators of socio-economic status as predictors, and dietary intake data as outcome measures. Correspondence analysis further explored the relationships between dietary atherogenicity (using the Keys score) and other risk factors for degenerative disease.
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