Du Toit, Johanna Helena
The definition of genocide encompasses not only the killing of a protected group as is so often erroneously believed, but also inter alia the causing of serious bodily and mental harm to a group and deliberately inflicting conditions of life on a group calculated to bring about its destruction in whole or in part. Eight stages have been identified through which conventional genocide goes. There is a closed list of four groups named in the Genocide Convention in respect of which genocide can be perpetrated. Problems have been experienced with the classification and the determination whether a group should qualify or not. In answer to this problem, the definition of the groups should be seen cohesively and attempts should preferably not be made to compartmentalise any group suspected of being targeted for genocide. The special intent required for genocide sets it apart from other crimes against humanity. The intention that needs to be proven is the desire to exterminate a group as such in whole or in part. The mention of “in part” opens the door for genocide to be perpetrated against a small sub-group which conforms to the definition of a group. The white Afrikaner farmer forms part of the larger white Afrikaner group residing in South Africa. Incitement to genocide is an inchoate crime and is regarded as a lesser crime reflected in lower sentences being passed for incitement than for genocide itself. The requirements are that the incitement must be direct and public. The required intention to incite must also be proven for a conviction to follow. The farmer who laid the complaint with the International Criminal Court, did so in the hope that the Prosecutor would utilise his or her proprio motu powers to instigate an investigation in South Africa regarding white Afrikaner farmers. The complaint and petition as well as the statistics used by the farmer paint the picture of incitement to genocide and possible genocide. The allegations are not specific and will have to be proven in a court of law for any such finding to follow. Abstract
Xenophobia and media: an exploratory study on the public perception of the Nelson Mandela Bay CommunityMohamed, Osman Abdi 2011 (has links)
Development in South Africa at present is at a crossroads; it could become injected with new energy or it could collapse. The presence of foreigners, especially those from Africa is in contention. Some argue that they help the economy whilst others argue they are a hindrance to locals and their employment worth. The “truth” regarding these may not be immediately recognisable and thus open to questioning depending on perception. The press plays a large role in these perceptions and has been criticised for the way it covers issues of public interest. it is envisaged that this study will be a useful contribution to the limited body of literature on xenophobia and media. The purpose of the study is to give foundation to the assumption that the media's constantly negative coverage of foreigner poses a very real threat to human rights as purported in South Africa‟s constitution, in addition to the economic significance, whether positive or not. This study highlights the perception that Nelson Mandela Bay residents have of foreign nationals, and whether negative reporting in the media has influenced residents' views of foreign nationals.
Van der Walt, Tjaart Andries
12 September 2012
M.Phil. In order for developers to provide reasonable engineering services as well as a liveable dwelling unit within the existing housing subsidy, a substantial increase in residential density is required. Increased urban densities will decrease engineering services costs due to a greater sharing ability. This study was undertaken in order to quantify the benefits of urban densification on engineering services. The financial problems of Local Authorities in South Africa due to the entrenched culture of non-payment for services, is causing a rapid decline in the sustainability of engineering services due also to low, or non-existent maintenance. The "housing" currently delivered, its nature and continued sustainability are being severely criticized. Few differences exist between the housing currently being delivered and those provided under the previous government. Houses are provided in areas on affordable land normally far from the work place. The type of housing being constructed consists mostly of the single storey, free standing units on separate erven. These types of developments encourage urban sprawl, require very expensive engineering services and discourage the establishment of an economic public transport system. Possible solutions to the workforce/job opportunity problem include mixed land use and residential densification.
14 August 2012
M.Comm. Marketers have historically found it convenient to bundle the Asian consumer market together with the black consumer market or the white consumer market depending on the product or event under consideration. As we move toward an era of customised products and individualised service, minority markets become more difficult to overlook. Their unique characteristics demand that they be targeted as separate and unique market segments distinct from the mass markets that dominate the marketing environment.
1 September 2015
M.A. Marxist historiography started during the late sixties and early seventies in response to the so-called "crisis" in the social sciences. The inability of these sciences to explain prolonged poverty and backwardness in areas of capitalist development and dependency in areas in close connection with the capitalist core, directed social scientists towards Marxist explanations. The conventional explanation of the implacability of capitalist development with racial stratification no longer rendered any explanation of Third World circumstances, since, especially in the South African case, the economy maintained high growth rates in spite of and under circumstances of sustained and intensified racial differentiation...
An investigation into the potential immunogenicity of various extracts of the South African bont tick Amblyomma hebraeumAdamson, Deborah Jane 1993 (has links)
Rabbits and goats were inoculated with crude, membrane-associated and soluble components extracted from unengorged adult females and nymphs of the bont tick Amblyomma hebraeum. Inoculation provided some protection against nymphal infestation, however it had little effect on adult feeding. Histological examination of adults fed on inoculated hosts showed evidence of gut damage. Skin provocation testing with tick extracts elicited a Type I immediate hypersensitivity which was influenced by antihistamine. A delayed skin reaction was also evident. Whether this was attributable to Type III Arthus reaction or Type IV cell-mediated hypersensitivity was not determined. A comparative histological study of sites of tick extract injection, on inoculated and naive hosts, demonstrated the role of eosinophils in the hosts response to tick feeding. Serological examination revealed elevated anti-A hebraeum lgG titres following inoculation. These titres were found to decrease in the ten weeks after inoculation, despite the hosts being repeatedly infested with A hebraeum. Although the IgG titres of naive control hosts increased after each tick infestation, they failed to reach the titres achieved through inoculation. Western blot analysis of serum from inoculated hosts recognized most of the A. hebraeum proteins against which it was screened.
Goliath, Jasmine Estonia
Entrepreneurship as a source of economic growth and competitiveness as well as job creation and the advancement of social interests is well documented. Despite these important contributions to the economies of countries, a shortage of entrepreneurial activity exists across borders and specifically in developing countries such as South Africa. The purpose of this study was to determine the perception and image of an entrepreneur in the eyes of various stakeholders. The reasoning behind this was that if the image of an entrepreneur could be determined, one could establish whether the image positively or negatively influences entrepreneurial intentions as well as potential future entrepreneurial activity. More specifically, the primary objective was to identify the perception and image that potential entrepreneurs (students) and existing entrepreneurs (small business owners) have of an entrepreneur. In the body of knowledge or general literature on entrepreneurship, the most commonly discussed topics are the nature and importance of entrepreneurship, the attributes (personality traits, characteristics and skills) associated with an entrepreneur, various push and pull factors, various rewards and drawbacks of such a career and the challenges entrepreneurs face. It is these aspects of entrepreneurship that stakeholders will most likely have been exposed to, and that most possibly have influenced their perception and image of an entrepreneur. The aforementioned aspects provided an overview of the theoretical body of knowledge on which the perception and image of an entrepreneur is based. The present study adopted a qualitative research paradigm with a phenomenological approach to achieve the research objectives of the study. Within this context, the study made use of a qualitative method for data collection and a quantitative method for data analysis. As such, a mixed methods approach was adopted. More specifically, a qualitative dominant mixed research method was implemented. A continuous word association test, which is a projective technique, was adopted as the qualitative means of data collection. This test involved asking participants to recall the words that come to mind when presented with the word “entrepreneur”. This method was selected because of its ability to reveal both affective and cognitive associations with the concept “entrepreneur”. A quantitative summative (manifest) content analysis was used as the quantitative research method for analysing the data. The continuous word association test was conducted among three sample groups, namely students prior to commencing, and students after completing a module in entrepreneurship, and small business owners. Student and small business owner participants were asked to write down as many words or phrases as possible that came to mind when they thought of the word “entrepreneur”, which was the stimulus word, within a ten-minute period. These responses were then collated and coded by developing a coding framework based on brand image and entrepreneurship literature. In studies on brand image, the components of image are considered to be tristructured in nature, consisting of cognitive (what the individual knows), affective (how the individual feels) and holistic (overall symbolism, combination of affective and cognitive) evaluations. The words generated by the participants in this study were broadly coded according to these categories and further subcategorised by searching for themes within the broad categories, which was facilitated and guided by an in-depth investigation of the entrepreneurship literature. The findings of this study show that the words generated by all three groups of participants were mostly of a cognitive nature, followed by words of a general or affective nature. As such, the vast majority of words generated by all three groups related to what the participants knew about an entrepreneur (cognitive) versus how they felt about one (affective), and were grounded in the management or entrepreneurship literature. When comparing the top ten words most frequently associated with the term “entrepreneur” by the three groups of participants, the attribute risk-taker was the most frequently recalled word among all three groups. Students prior to undertaking the entrepreneurship module associated an entrepreneur with being creative and a risk-taker, having a business enterprise and being involved in the selling of goods and services. Students after completing the module in entrepreneurship associated an entrepreneur with being profit-orientated, a risk-taker, innovative and original, and being opportunistic. Small business owners, on the other hand, associated an entrepreneur with being a risk-taker, innovative and original, goal- and achievement-orientated and profit-orientated. The findings show that all groups of participants associated an entrepreneur principally with certain attributes rather than with learned skills and competencies, and that all groups had a more positive than negative image of an entrepreneur. It was also found that exposure to entrepreneurship literature has an influence on the perception and image that students have of an entrepreneur. Because the words recalled by students after completing the entrepreneurship module were more in line with those recalled by small business owners, than with those recalled by students before starting the module, it can be suggested that entrepreneurship literature contributes to a more realistic image of an entrepreneur among students. This study has contributed to the field of entrepreneurship research by adopting a qualitative dominant research paradigm in conjunction with quantitative research methods to explore the complexity of the term “entrepreneur”. Furthermore, this study has been able to establish how individuals feel about entrepreneurship, in terms of being either positive or negative, by adding an affective aspect to the cognitive aspect of entrepreneurial decision-making. By conducting a continuous word association test among students prior to beginning and after completing a module in entrepreneurship, the entrepreneurial knowledge of students before being exposed to entrepreneurship literature was established, and subsequently the effectiveness of the entrepreneurship module determined. It is hoped that the findings of this study have added value to the entrepreneurship body of knowledge and can be used in future studies as a tool to address the problem of low entrepreneurial intention and activity among South Africans. Furthermore, it is hoped that by creating a positive image of an entrepreneur, entrepreneurship as a desirable career choice can be promoted and an entrepreneurial culture developed within communities and broader society.
Masters in Public Administration - MPA This research report examined the key policies of globalisation namely, privatisation and deregulation of services and also their implication on the Tri-partite alliance. Because they have impacted negatively on major economic sectors, particularly to those that help the needy. Therefore, the study explores these initiatives, which has been debatable in South Africa under the dominant understanding of ‘progress’ or ‘development’. The Objective of the study is to lay the basis for the examination and evaluation of policy option with regard to privatisation and deregulation of services in South Africa and to engage South Africa effectively in global policy debates and adjust in global trends and negotiations within the region (SADC) and other international countries. It examines global challenges and opportunities / threats for South Africa as a developing country in the emerging global order. This study also attempts to provide answers to several questions concerning privatisation and deregulation of public services in South Africa. To the poor, is deregulation and privatisation of state assets threatening to become the new apartheid, which is an instrument of exclusion, not just from a better life but even from the very basic services? How are workers and including the poorest of the poor affected by the status of deregulation and privatisation? Do the timing and specifics of these processes matter? Who should attempt to regulate the auction, as some of government officials seems to be corrupt? And which prior restructuring policies are worth implementing? South Africa
Petrographic characterization of sandstones in borehole E-BA1, Block 9, Bredasdorp Basin, Off-Shore South AfricaVan Bloemenstein, Chantell Berenice 2006 (has links)
Magister Scientiae - MSc The reservoir quality (RQ) of well E-BA1 was characterized using thin sections and core samples in a petrographic study. Well E-BA1 is situated in the Bredasdorp Basin, which forms part of the Outeniqua Basin situated in the Southern Afircan offshore region. Rifting as a result of the break up of Gondwanaland formed the Outeniqua Basin. The Bredasorp Basin is characterized by half-graben structures comprised of Upper Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous and Cenozoic rift to drift strata. The current research within the thesis has indicated that well E-BA1 is one of moderate to good quality having a gas-condensate component. South Africa
Dietary intake in an urban African population in South Africa, with special reference to the nutrition transitionBourne, Lesley Thelma 1996 (has links)
An assessment of the nutritional status of a representative sample of an urban African population has not previously been conducted, nor the extent to which the traditional diet has been abandoned for a western diet. To meet this end, a cross-sectional analytic study was carried out on a representative sample (N=1146) of the urban African population, aged 3 - 64 years in 1990. Particular attention was paid to specific at-risk groups viz. preschoolers (aged 3 - 6 years; N=163), adolescents (aged 15 - 18 years; N=119) and adults (19 - 44 years; N=649). The interrelationships of dietary intake with socio-economic status, demographic indicators as well as measures of urban exposure were also examined. A further aim was to determine the extent to which this rapidly urbanising population ' s macronutrient profile had shifted from a traditional towards a western atherogenic dietary pattern. This analytic study was nested in a community-based descriptive survey on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. A multi-staged, proportional sampling strategy was used. Quotas were used in the final stage of sampling, based on the age/sex distribution of a 1988 census conducted by the local authorities. Dietary data were collected by means of the 24-hour recall method, by Xhosa -speaking registered nurses who had received intensive training. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and blood samples were drawn according to standard procedures. Socio-demographic questions elicited information on the physical environment and facilities, educational level and employment status. Information was also elicited regarding urban exposure relating to lifetime migration history, thus incorporating retrospective temporality into the study des ign. From these data, an index of urban exposure was established by calculating the percentage of life spent in an urban environment. Univariate analyses of dietary, anthropometric and biochemical vitamin status were used for the descriptive components of the study of the three specific at-risk age categories. Bivariate analyses examined the effects of selected proxies of socio-economic status, and urban exposure on dietary intake. Finally, multiple linear regressions were performed on the preschoolers (N=163) and adult sample, aged 15 - 64 years (N=983) incorporating additional indicators of socio-economic status as predictors, and dietary intake data as outcome measures. Correspondence analysis further explored the relationships between dietary atherogenicity (using the Keys score) and other risk factors for degenerative disease.
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