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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Effects of spinosad and lambda-cyhalothrin on their targets, cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and on their non-targets, spiders, on cabbage in south Texas

Irungu, Rose Wambui 15 May 2009 (has links)
A randomized block experiment was conducted in cabbage fields at Texas Agriculture Experiment Station at Weslaco in the spring and fall 2005 and spring 2006. There were four blocks and two pesticide treatments, spinosad (SpinTor®), lambda- cyhalothrin (Warrior®), and an untreated control. The pesticide treatments were for the management of Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and Trichoplusia ni (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pitfall traps captured eight families of spiders in fall 2005, and thirteen families in spring 2006. The most abundant family was Lycosidae with Pardosa delicatula (Gertsch and Wallace) followed by Pardosa pauxilla (Montgomery) and Hogna helluo (Walckenaer) in fall 2005, while in spring 2006 Hogna helluo was most abundant followed by Pardosa delicatula and Pardosa pauxilla. The diversity of spiders in fall 2006 in the lambda-cyhalothrin plots was lower than that of spiders found in the untreated control or the spinosad treated plots, which were up to 2.6 and 2.4 times, respectively, more diverse. In spring 2006, the spiders in untreated control and spinosad treated plots were 1.5 and 1.3 times respectively more diverse than spiders in the lambda-cyhalothrin treated plots. In fall 2005, mean diversity of spiders in spinosad treated plots was 1.1 times more diverse than in the untreated control, although this difference was not statistically significant. In spring 2006, spinosad treated plots had 1.2 times greater diversity than untreated control and this difference was significant. The effects of two insecticide treatments on height, width, and weight of cabbages were highly significant in all three seasons. Cabbage harvest in spinosad and lambda- cyhalothrin plots showed greater height, width, and weight than in untreated control but were not different from each other. However, in the larval damage rating, spinosad treatment showed better management of diamondback moth and cabbage looper than lambda- cyhalothrin.
2

Kemiskt försvar mot havstulpanskolonisering i marina svampdjur

Bohlin, Nina January 2013 (has links)
The purpose of this project is to analyze and study the absorption of the substances ivermectin, spinosad and barettin to hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, and to analyze and study if the barnacle larva are effected when they try to settle on the treated surface. Incubation tests with barnacle larva in Petri dishes were performed as well as absorption tests on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces which were tested with ellipsometry. To determine the surface thickness. The barnacles were placed in hydrophobic as well as hydrophilic Petri dishes that had been incubated with ivermectin, spinosad or barettin. After four to six days the larva was counted to analyze the settling. From the results conclusions could be drawn about the adsorption abilities of the substances to the different surfaces. The barnacles were placed in hydrophobic as well as hydrophilic Petri dishes that had been incubated with ivermectin, spinosad or barettin. After four to six days the larva was counted to analyze the settling. From the results conclusions could be drawn about the adsorption abilities of the substances to the different surfaces. To analyze the adsorption abilities, pieces of silicon oxide were prepared with hydrophobic and hydrophilic poly dimethyl siloxan groups, and albumine. The pieces were then analyzed with ellipsometry. The larva's mortality was very high in the first tests. It can be explained with them being stored too cold the first days, which might have caused their death. It might also be because of contamination from the net used to move the larva, since it was in contact with all the substances concentrations. The standard deviations from the ellipsometry tests are very high, most likely due to uneven adsorption of the substances to the surface. With more tests and measurements, more accurate results could have been sustained The purpose of this project is to analyze and study the absorption of the substances ivermectin, spinosad and barettin to hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, and to analyze and study if the barnacle larva are effected when they try to settle on the treated surface. Incubation tests with barnacle larva in Petri dishes were performed as well as absorption tests on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces which were tested with ellipsometry. To determine the surface thickness. The barnacles were placed in hydrophobic as well as hydrophilic Petri dishes that had been incubated with ivermectin, spinosad or barettin. After four to six days the larva was counted to analyze the settling. From the results conclusions could be drawn about the adsorption abilities of the substances to the different surfaces. The barnacles were placed in hydrophobic as well as hydrophilic Petri dishes that had been incubated with ivermectin, spinosad or barettin. After four to six days the larva was counted to analyze the settling. From the results conclusions could be drawn about the adsorption abilities of the substances to the different surfaces. To analyze the adsorption abilities, pieces of silicon oxide were prepared with hydrophobic and hydrophilic poly dimethyl siloxan groups, and albumine. The pieces were then analyzed with ellipsometry. The larva's mortality was very high in the first tests. It can be explained with them being stored too cold the first days, which might have caused their death. It might also be because of contamination from the net used to move the larva, since it was in contact with all the substances concentrations. The standard deviations from the ellipsometry tests are very high, most likely due to uneven adsorption of the substances to the surface. With more tests and measurements, more accurate results could have been sustained
3

Atividade terapêutica do spinosad contra larvas de Cochliomyia hominivorax (L1, L2 e L3) em bovinos infestados natural e artificialmente

Amos, Carlos André de Almeida [UNESP] 11 December 2009 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:27:58Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2009-12-11Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T18:56:54Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 amos_caa_me_jabo.pdf: 563456 bytes, checksum: 521b25625aa1bc8ab88bc8830fdcd90b (MD5) / Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) / Três experimentos foram conduzidos, um com infestação artificial (I) e outros dois com infestação natural (II, III). No artificial (Exp. I), os animais foram distribuídos em 9 grupos, com três repetições/tratamento. Cada animal foi infestado com 50 larvas em quatro incisões cutâneas, totalizando 200/animal. As larvas L1 foram infestadas com um intervalo de três a seis horas, de 24 e de 48 horas. Os grupos receberam os seguintes tratamentos: spinosad (50 e 150 ppm) e um controle sem tratamento. Os animais foram examinados com: 15, 30, 60 minutos e 6, 24 e 48 horas. Larvas que abandonavam as lesões foram colhidas e colocadas para pupar em BOD a 25°C e 90% de UR. Os resultados demonstraram que spinosad (50 e 125 ppm) atingiu 100% de eficácia no tratamento contra os três estádios larvários de C. hominivorax. A concentração de 125 ppm alcançou este valor mais rapidamente. Nos estudos com infestações naturais (Exp. II e III), os animais após receberem incisões cutâneas foram liberados a pasto para que ocorressem infestações. Detectada a presença de larvas, o animal era alocado, por sorteio, para um dos grupos experimentais. No experimento II utilizou-se spinosad 50 e 150 ppm e no experimento III 250 e 400 ppm. Como tratamentos positivos, foram utilizados: chlorpyriphos e uma associação de chlorphenvinphos + dichlorvos. Os animais foram examinados diariamente do dia zero (D0) até dia 12 (D12). Ficou demonstrado nos experimentos com infestação natural que spinosad 50 e 150 ppm apresentaram eficácia inferior a 100%, enquanto que a 250 e 400 ppm proporcionaram 100% de eficácia decorridas 24 horas do tratamento, a concentração com 400 ppm alcançou este valor decorridos 12 horas pós tratamento. / Three experiments were conducted, the first one with an artificial infestation and the other two with natural infestation. In the first experiment (artificially infested) the animals were divided into 9 experimental groups, three repetition per treatment. Each animal was inoculated with 200 larvae in four skin incisions, two on the palette and two in the rump, each one containing 50 larvae. The placement of L1 larvae followed a range of 3 to 6 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours. The experimental groups had the following repetitions: spinosad 50 and 125 ppm, and a control group (untreated). After the treatment the animals were examined on the following period: 15, 30, 60 minutes, 6, 24 and 48 hours. Larvae which left the incision were taken for pupation on 25°C and 90% relativity humidity. The results demonstrated spinosad 50 and 125 ppm reached 100% effectiveness on the treatment of artificially caused myiasis by the three larval stages (L1, L2 and L3) of Cochliomyia hominivorax, in which the spinosad 125 ppm achieved it quicker. In the other experiments with natural infestation, after the skin incisions the animals were release on the field for the concurrency of the natural infestation. Once detected the presence of the larvae, the animals were randomly allocated in one of the experimental groups. On the experiment I were used the following concentration: spinosad 50 and 150 ppm on the experiment II spinosad 250 and 400 ppm. On both experiments were used two positives treatments: chlorpyriphos and a association of chlorphenvinphos plus dichlorvos. The animals were daily examined, from day zero (D0) to day 12 (D12).The results of the two experiments with natural infestation indicate that spinosad 50 and 150 ppm were not effective, showing effectiveness lower than 100%. However, spinosad 250 and 400 ppm reached 100% of efficacy were after 24 hours... (Complete abstract click electronic access below)
4

Management of Indian meal moth and maize weevil in stored popcorn using approved grain protectants

Gao, Nan January 1900 (has links)
Master of Science / Department of Grain Science and Industry / Subramanyam Bhadriraju / Spinosad, methoprene, deltamethrin, and deltamethrin plus methoprene, are approved in the United States for treating popcorn. The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), and maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) are two stored-product insects found in popcorn. The efficacy of spinosad and methoprene against P. interpunctella in popcorn were determined in laboratory and field studies. In the laboratory study, eggs (to represent first instars), third, and fifth instars of the laboratory strain of P. interpunctella were exposed to 0.7, 1.4, 2.8 ppm methoprene and 1 ppm spinosad treated popcorn, respectively, to assess larval or adult emergence. In the field study, untreated and treated popcorn samples were placed in vinyl mesh pouches with two mesh-opening sizes and were buried 5 cm below popcorn surface. Pouches with large mesh-opening were used to monitor natural insect infestation between May to October, 2017. Pouches with small mesh-opening were used to conduct laboratory bioassays to evaluate adult emergence of P. interpunctella from eggs after exposed to treated popcorn. Probe traps, food- and pheromone-baited traps, and sticky traps were used to monitor insects in storage bins and cleaning processing facility. The laboratory study showed that there was no P. interpunctella adults emerged from eggs, third, and fifth instars in methoprene treated popcorn during 6 month storage. However, methoprene did not reduce egg-to-larval survival. Larval and adult emergence in the spinosad treated popcorn was significantly lower than controls. Field study showed that there was no adult emergence in methoprene treated popcorn in most cases, and significantly lower adult emergence in spinosad treated popcorn compare to control. P. interpunctella larva was the major insect found in large pouches. The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and P. interpunctella were primary insect species captured by probe traps, food- and pheromone-baited traps and sticky traps over the six months’ study. These results suggested that methoprene could reduce P. interpunctella adult emergence. Spinosad also effectively suppressed the infestation of P. interpunctella. The field strain of S. zeamais was exposed to spinosad (1 ppm), methoprene (0.7, 1.4, 2.8 ppm), deltamethrin (0.5, 1.0 ppm), and deltamethrin plus methoprene (0.5+1.25, 1.0+2.5 ppm) treated popcorn, respectively, for 1 to 336 h exposure time. Mortality was assessed at 0, 7, 14, and 21 d after transferring to clean popcorn except for methoprene treatments which only counted mortality at 0 d. Progeny and adult emergence were counted after 42 d incubation in clean or original popcorn, respectively. All insecticides showed no delay toxicity against S. zeamais adults. Spinosad caused 100% mortality of S. zeamais after 336-h exposure. Complete progeny reduction and highest adult emergence reduction at 168 h exposure. The highest mortality of S. zeamais was 67.1 and 70.5% in deltamethrin and deltamethrin plus methoprene treated popcorn, respectively. Methoprene showed limited efficacy against S. zeamais including low mortality, progeny reduction and high adult emergence. These results indicated that spinosad was effective against S. zeamais. It is necessary to combine other insecticides with deltamethrin and methoprene to control field strain of S. zeamais in stored popcorn.
5

Aufbau von Bausteinen zur Synthese von Spinosynanaloga / Development of building blocks for the synthesis of Spinosyn analogues

Scheffer, Timo 21 February 2012 (has links)
No description available.
6

Bases genéticas e moleculares da resistência de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) a spinosad / Genetic and molecular basis of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance to spinosad

Daniela Miyuki Okuma 23 October 2015 (has links)
O inseticida spinosad tem sido um dos mais utilizados para o controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) no Brasil, devido à sua eficácia e ao seu mecanismo de ação único (modulador alostérico de receptores nicotínicos da acetilcolina). Para fornecer subsídios a um programa de manejo da resistência, foram realizados estudos para compreender as bases genéticas e moleculares da resistência de S. frugiperda a este inseticida. Inicialmente, foi selecionada uma linhagem de S. frugiperda resistente a spinosad (Spin-res) em laboratório por meio da técnica \"F2 screen\". A razão de resistência, baseada na CL50, foi de aproximadamente 890 vezes. A partir de cruzamentos recíprocos entre a linhagem suscetível (Sus) e Spin-res, constatou-se que o padrão de herança da resistência de S. frugiperda a spinosad é autossômica e incompletamente recessiva. Retrocruzamentos da progênie F1 de cruzamentos recíprocos com a linhagem Spin-res confirmaram a hipótese de herança poligênica da resistência, com número mínimo de segregações independentes variando de 1,86 a 2,45. Além disso, observou-se um elevado custo adaptativo associado à resistência de S. frugiperda a spinosad, baseado nos parâmetros da tabela de vida e fertilidade. A partir dos dados de seqüenciamento de quatro bibliotecas de cDNA de lagartas de quarto ínstar das linhagens Sus e Spin-res (expostas ou não a spinosad), utilizando a plataforma HiScan1000&reg; (Illumina&copy;), foi realizada a comparação do perfil de transcrição e expressão diferencial de genes entre as linhagens Sus e Spin-R. O transcritoma foi montado utilizando a estratégia de novo contendo cerca de 19 milhões de leituras single-end com qualidades de score acima de 30, gerando 42406 transcritos com o N50 de 598 pb. A busca por similaridade no banco de dados não-redundante (nr) do NCBI, possibilitou a anotação funcional de 24980 (59%) transcritos, alinhando-se a Bombyx mori L., Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) e Spodoptera spp. com 22,5; 3,81 e 3,6% das sequências respectivamente. Foram identificados 2903 transcritos apresentando expressão diferencial (P <= 0,05, t-test; fold-change > 2) entre as linhagens Spin-res e Sus. Dentre os transcritos relacionados a enzimas do complexo metabólico, 23 P450 monooxigenases, 13 glutathiona S-transferases, uma carboxilesterase e uma esterase foram superexpressas na linhagem Spin-res. Além disso, foi observada a superexpressão de 15 genes relacionados à produção energética na linhagem Spin-res, o que pode estar relacionada ao elevado custo adaptativo associado à resistência. Análises de PCR quantitativo em tempo real confirmaram que os padrões de expressão foram consistentes com os resultados de RNA-seq. Bioensaios com os sinergistas PBO e DEM mostraram pouco envolvimento de enzimas P450 e nenhum envolvimento de glutationa S-transferases na resistência de S. frugiperda a spinosad. O sequenciamento da subunidade &alpha;6 do receptor nicotínico de acetilcolina de ambas linhagens demonstrou a existência de uma mutação sinônima entre as duas linhagens (G567A), indicando que a subunidade &alpha;6 não é a única relacionada à resistência de S. frugiperda a spinosad. / Spinosad has been one of the most used insecticides to manage Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) in Brazil, due to its efficacy and unique mode of action (nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric modulator). To support an insect resistance management program (IRM), we selected and characterized in laboratory a spinosad-resistant strain (Spin-res) of S. frugiperda using the F2 screen method. The resistance ratio, based on LC50, was &asymp; 890-fold. Based on reciprocal crosses between susceptible (Sus) and Spin-res, the inheritance of spinosad resistance in S. frugiperda was autosomal incompletely recessive. Backcrosses between the F1 from reciprocal crosses and the parental Spin-res revealed a polygenic resistance, with an estimation of at least 1.86 to 2.45 genes related to spinosad resistance. Furthermore, it was observed a strong fitness cost associated to spinosad-resistance in Spin-res strain, based on the life table and fertility parameters. The characterization of the transcriptional profile and the differential gene expression comparison between susceptible and spinosad-resistant strains of Spodoptera frugiperda were obtained from the sequencing of cDNA libraries from fourth instar larvae of Sus and Spin-res strains (exposed or not to spinosad) using a HiScan1000&reg; platform (Illumina&copy;). The transcriptome was de novo assembled using nearly 19 million single-end reads with quality score over 30, yielding 42,406 transcripts with a N50 of 598 bp. Based on similarity search in the non-redundant (nr) nucleotide database, 24,980 (59%) transcripts were annotated. Most of the transcripts aligned to Bombyx mori L., Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and Spodoptera spp., with 22.5%, 3.81, and 3.6, respectively. We identified 2,032 differentially expressed transcripts (P <= 0.05, t-test; fold-change > 2) between the susceptible and spinosad-resistant strains. Among metabolic enzyme transcripts, 23 P450 monooxigenases, 13 glutathione S-transferases, one carboxylesterase and one esterase were up-regulated in the spinosad-resistant strain. In addition, it was observed 15 genes superexpressed in spinosad-resistant strain related to energy production, which can be related to the high fitness cost associated with resistance. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that patterns of gene expression were consistent with RNA-seq results. Synergistic bioassays using PBO and DEM showed little involvement of P450s in spinosad-resistance and lack of involvement regarding the glutathione Stransferases. Furthermore, we sequenced and compared the subunit &alpha;6 from the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of S. frugiperda Spin-res and Sus strains. Only one synonymous mutation within the two strains (G567A) was found, showing that the &alpha;6 is not the only subunit involved in S. frugiperda resistance to spinosad.
7

Bases genéticas e moleculares da resistência de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) a spinosad / Genetic and molecular basis of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance to spinosad

Okuma, Daniela Miyuki 23 October 2015 (has links)
O inseticida spinosad tem sido um dos mais utilizados para o controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) no Brasil, devido à sua eficácia e ao seu mecanismo de ação único (modulador alostérico de receptores nicotínicos da acetilcolina). Para fornecer subsídios a um programa de manejo da resistência, foram realizados estudos para compreender as bases genéticas e moleculares da resistência de S. frugiperda a este inseticida. Inicialmente, foi selecionada uma linhagem de S. frugiperda resistente a spinosad (Spin-res) em laboratório por meio da técnica \"F2 screen\". A razão de resistência, baseada na CL50, foi de aproximadamente 890 vezes. A partir de cruzamentos recíprocos entre a linhagem suscetível (Sus) e Spin-res, constatou-se que o padrão de herança da resistência de S. frugiperda a spinosad é autossômica e incompletamente recessiva. Retrocruzamentos da progênie F1 de cruzamentos recíprocos com a linhagem Spin-res confirmaram a hipótese de herança poligênica da resistência, com número mínimo de segregações independentes variando de 1,86 a 2,45. Além disso, observou-se um elevado custo adaptativo associado à resistência de S. frugiperda a spinosad, baseado nos parâmetros da tabela de vida e fertilidade. A partir dos dados de seqüenciamento de quatro bibliotecas de cDNA de lagartas de quarto ínstar das linhagens Sus e Spin-res (expostas ou não a spinosad), utilizando a plataforma HiScan1000&reg; (Illumina&copy;), foi realizada a comparação do perfil de transcrição e expressão diferencial de genes entre as linhagens Sus e Spin-R. O transcritoma foi montado utilizando a estratégia de novo contendo cerca de 19 milhões de leituras single-end com qualidades de score acima de 30, gerando 42406 transcritos com o N50 de 598 pb. A busca por similaridade no banco de dados não-redundante (nr) do NCBI, possibilitou a anotação funcional de 24980 (59%) transcritos, alinhando-se a Bombyx mori L., Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) e Spodoptera spp. com 22,5; 3,81 e 3,6% das sequências respectivamente. Foram identificados 2903 transcritos apresentando expressão diferencial (P <= 0,05, t-test; fold-change > 2) entre as linhagens Spin-res e Sus. Dentre os transcritos relacionados a enzimas do complexo metabólico, 23 P450 monooxigenases, 13 glutathiona S-transferases, uma carboxilesterase e uma esterase foram superexpressas na linhagem Spin-res. Além disso, foi observada a superexpressão de 15 genes relacionados à produção energética na linhagem Spin-res, o que pode estar relacionada ao elevado custo adaptativo associado à resistência. Análises de PCR quantitativo em tempo real confirmaram que os padrões de expressão foram consistentes com os resultados de RNA-seq. Bioensaios com os sinergistas PBO e DEM mostraram pouco envolvimento de enzimas P450 e nenhum envolvimento de glutationa S-transferases na resistência de S. frugiperda a spinosad. O sequenciamento da subunidade &alpha;6 do receptor nicotínico de acetilcolina de ambas linhagens demonstrou a existência de uma mutação sinônima entre as duas linhagens (G567A), indicando que a subunidade &alpha;6 não é a única relacionada à resistência de S. frugiperda a spinosad. / Spinosad has been one of the most used insecticides to manage Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) in Brazil, due to its efficacy and unique mode of action (nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric modulator). To support an insect resistance management program (IRM), we selected and characterized in laboratory a spinosad-resistant strain (Spin-res) of S. frugiperda using the F2 screen method. The resistance ratio, based on LC50, was &asymp; 890-fold. Based on reciprocal crosses between susceptible (Sus) and Spin-res, the inheritance of spinosad resistance in S. frugiperda was autosomal incompletely recessive. Backcrosses between the F1 from reciprocal crosses and the parental Spin-res revealed a polygenic resistance, with an estimation of at least 1.86 to 2.45 genes related to spinosad resistance. Furthermore, it was observed a strong fitness cost associated to spinosad-resistance in Spin-res strain, based on the life table and fertility parameters. The characterization of the transcriptional profile and the differential gene expression comparison between susceptible and spinosad-resistant strains of Spodoptera frugiperda were obtained from the sequencing of cDNA libraries from fourth instar larvae of Sus and Spin-res strains (exposed or not to spinosad) using a HiScan1000&reg; platform (Illumina&copy;). The transcriptome was de novo assembled using nearly 19 million single-end reads with quality score over 30, yielding 42,406 transcripts with a N50 of 598 bp. Based on similarity search in the non-redundant (nr) nucleotide database, 24,980 (59%) transcripts were annotated. Most of the transcripts aligned to Bombyx mori L., Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and Spodoptera spp., with 22.5%, 3.81, and 3.6, respectively. We identified 2,032 differentially expressed transcripts (P <= 0.05, t-test; fold-change > 2) between the susceptible and spinosad-resistant strains. Among metabolic enzyme transcripts, 23 P450 monooxigenases, 13 glutathione S-transferases, one carboxylesterase and one esterase were up-regulated in the spinosad-resistant strain. In addition, it was observed 15 genes superexpressed in spinosad-resistant strain related to energy production, which can be related to the high fitness cost associated with resistance. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that patterns of gene expression were consistent with RNA-seq results. Synergistic bioassays using PBO and DEM showed little involvement of P450s in spinosad-resistance and lack of involvement regarding the glutathione Stransferases. Furthermore, we sequenced and compared the subunit &alpha;6 from the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of S. frugiperda Spin-res and Sus strains. Only one synonymous mutation within the two strains (G567A) was found, showing that the &alpha;6 is not the only subunit involved in S. frugiperda resistance to spinosad.
8

Stored-grain insect management with insecticides: evaluation of empty- bin and grain treatments against insects collected from Kansas farms

Sehgal, Blossom January 1900 (has links)
Master of Science / Department of Grain Science and Industry / Bhadriraju Subramanyam / The insecticides, β-cyfluthrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin, are approved in the United States for treating empty bin surfaces. Chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin and spinosad insecticides are approved for direct treatment of wheat. The efficacy of commercial formulations of β-cyfluthrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin at labeled rates was evaluated against adults of 16 field strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); seven strains of sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.); and two strains of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.). Concrete arenas in plastic Petri dishes (9 cm diameter) were used to simulate the concrete floor of empty bins. The time for ~100% knockdown and mortality of adults of laboratory strains of the three species was first established by exposing them to insecticide-treated concrete surfaces for 1 to 24 h. Adults of field strains of each species were exposed to specific established insecticide-time combinations. Mortality of all species was lower than knockdown, suggesting recovery after seven days when placed on food. Chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin did not control all R. dominica and most O. ]surinamensis field strains. β-cyfluthrin was extremely effective against R. dominica but ineffective against T. castaneum and O. surinamensis field strains, even at four times the high labeled rate. Field strains of R. dominica were highly susceptible to spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin at labeled rates on hard red winter wheat. Strains of T. castaneum and O. surinamensis were susceptible only to the latter insecticide. Dose-response tests with spinosad on the two least susceptible field strains of each species showed the lethal dose for 99% mortality (LD[subscript]99) for T. castaneum and R. dominica field strains were similar to that of the corresponding laboratory strains. Corresponding values for the two O. surinamensis field strains were significantly greater (~6 times) than the laboratory strain. The effective dose for progeny reduction (ED[subscript]99) of only one R. dominica field strain was significantly greater (~2 times) than that of the laboratory strain. The baseline susceptibility data of field strains of three insect species to spinosad will be useful for monitoring resistance development once this product is commercially released as a grain protectant.
9

Atividade terapêutica do spinosad contra larvas de Cochliomyia hominivorax (L1, L2 e L3) em bovinos infestados natural e artificialmente /

Amos, Carlos André de Almeida. January 2009 (has links)
Resumo: Três experimentos foram conduzidos, um com infestação artificial (I) e outros dois com infestação natural (II, III). No artificial (Exp. I), os animais foram distribuídos em 9 grupos, com três repetições/tratamento. Cada animal foi infestado com 50 larvas em quatro incisões cutâneas, totalizando 200/animal. As larvas L1 foram infestadas com um intervalo de três a seis horas, de 24 e de 48 horas. Os grupos receberam os seguintes tratamentos: spinosad (50 e 150 ppm) e um controle sem tratamento. Os animais foram examinados com: 15, 30, 60 minutos e 6, 24 e 48 horas. Larvas que abandonavam as lesões foram colhidas e colocadas para pupar em BOD a 25°C e 90% de UR. Os resultados demonstraram que spinosad (50 e 125 ppm) atingiu 100% de eficácia no tratamento contra os três estádios larvários de C. hominivorax. A concentração de 125 ppm alcançou este valor mais rapidamente. Nos estudos com infestações naturais (Exp. II e III), os animais após receberem incisões cutâneas foram liberados a pasto para que ocorressem infestações. Detectada a presença de larvas, o animal era alocado, por sorteio, para um dos grupos experimentais. No experimento II utilizou-se spinosad 50 e 150 ppm e no experimento III 250 e 400 ppm. Como tratamentos positivos, foram utilizados: chlorpyriphos e uma associação de chlorphenvinphos + dichlorvos. Os animais foram examinados diariamente do dia zero (D0) até dia 12 (D12). Ficou demonstrado nos experimentos com infestação natural que spinosad 50 e 150 ppm apresentaram eficácia inferior a 100%, enquanto que a 250 e 400 ppm proporcionaram 100% de eficácia decorridas 24 horas do tratamento, a concentração com 400 ppm alcançou este valor decorridos 12 horas pós tratamento. / Abstract: Three experiments were conducted, the first one with an artificial infestation and the other two with natural infestation. In the first experiment (artificially infested) the animals were divided into 9 experimental groups, three repetition per treatment. Each animal was inoculated with 200 larvae in four skin incisions, two on the palette and two in the rump, each one containing 50 larvae. The placement of L1 larvae followed a range of 3 to 6 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours. The experimental groups had the following repetitions: spinosad 50 and 125 ppm, and a control group (untreated). After the treatment the animals were examined on the following period: 15, 30, 60 minutes, 6, 24 and 48 hours. Larvae which left the incision were taken for pupation on 25°C and 90% relativity humidity. The results demonstrated spinosad 50 and 125 ppm reached 100% effectiveness on the treatment of artificially caused myiasis by the three larval stages (L1, L2 and L3) of Cochliomyia hominivorax, in which the spinosad 125 ppm achieved it quicker. In the other experiments with natural infestation, after the skin incisions the animals were release on the field for the concurrency of the natural infestation. Once detected the presence of the larvae, the animals were randomly allocated in one of the experimental groups. On the experiment I were used the following concentration: spinosad 50 and 150 ppm on the experiment II spinosad 250 and 400 ppm. On both experiments were used two positives treatments: chlorpyriphos and a association of chlorphenvinphos plus dichlorvos. The animals were daily examined, from day zero (D0) to day 12 (D12).The results of the two experiments with natural infestation indicate that spinosad 50 and 150 ppm were not effective, showing effectiveness lower than 100%. However, spinosad 250 and 400 ppm reached 100% of efficacy were after 24 hours... (Complete abstract click electronic access below) / Orientador: Alvimar José da Costa / Coorientador: Gilson Pereira Oliveira / Banca: Luciano Melo de Souza / Banca: Giane Serafim da Silva / Mestre
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Potentiel du spinosad et de Beauveria bassiana comme agents de lutte contre le ver gris (Agrotis ipsilon)

Gosselin, Marie-Eve January 2008 (has links)
Mémoire numérisé par la Division de la gestion de documents et des archives de l'Université de Montréal

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