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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
61

Analysis of high voltage current transformer under deteriorating and failed insulation. / Analysis of high voltage current transformer under deteriorating and failed insulation.

Mahlasela, Vusumuzi Samuel. January 2006 (has links)
Data pertaining to the number of failed high voltage current transformers installed in / Thesis (M.Sc.Eng.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2006. / Thesis (M.Sc.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2006.
62

Torque Performance of Optimally Designed Multi-Phase Reluctance DC Machines

Rakgati, Edward Tshitshiri 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD (Electric and Electronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2006. / The focus of this thesis is on the critical evaluation of the torque performance of the optimum designed reluctance DC machine (RDCM). The thesis focuses on multi-phase RDCM drives with normal laminated salient pole rotors allowing for high power and high-speed applications. An RDCM is a normal reluctance synchronous machine (RSM) but with direct control of flux and torque just as in brush DC machines. Flux and torque of the RDCM are controlled directly by the use of special phase current waveforms. Specific attention is given in the thesis for the selection of the best current waveform for the RDCM allowing for smooth rotating airgap MMF and less ripple torque. The absolute optimum designed RDCM can best be obtained by the use of the finite element (FE) method in the design optimisation process. In this thesis a multi-dimensional FE based design optimisation method for the optimum design of the current controlled RDCM is implemented. To compare the torque performance of the RDCM with other RSMs the torque performances of optimum designed 3-phase, 5-phase and 5-phase with the injection of third harmonic current RSMs are performed under the same copper losses and stack volume. The torque performances of RSMs are done with both salient pole rotor and the round rotor with internal flux barriers. The armature reaction effect of 6-phase RDCMs is also investigated in detail by considering three different rotor structures. These rotor structures are the standard salient pole rotor, the salient pole rotor with slitted poles and the salient pole rotor with chamfered poles. It was shown that the RDCM with the salient pole rotor has a severe armature reaction effect, which can be reduced by slitted or chamfered salient pole rotors. A per-phase equivalent circuit model of the 6-phase RDCM is also proposed in this thesis. The torque of the machine is calculated based on the per-phase equivalent model and compared with the torque calculated by the FE Maxwell stress tensor method. There is a good agreement between these calculated torques. This thesis shows that the implemented FE based optimisation method can be applied with success to optimally design current controlled RDCMs. It was found, amongst other things, that the torque performance of the optimum designed 6-phase RDCM is slightly higher than that of the optimum designed 5-phase RSM with the injection of 3rd harmonic currents and with the same copper losses and stack volume. The analytical and FE calculated results are confirmed by measured results on a 35 kW 6-phase RDCM drive.
63

Analysis of interior permanent magnet motors with non-overlapping windings

Germishuizen, Johannes Jacobus 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD (Electrical and Electronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.
64

Natural balancing of three-phase 2-cell and 3-cell multicell converters

Salagae, Isaac Mahijoko 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD (Electrical and Electronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The multicell inverter, being a widely used multilevel converter, has received much attention in recent years due to problems associated with cell capacitor voltage. In this dissertation we study the balancing problem with a focus on steady-state unbalance. This is achieved by systematic and mathematically rigorous study of the natural balancing mechanisms of the three-phase 2-cell and 3-cell multicell converter, undertaken by using dynamic modelling of the multicell converter, Bennet’s geometric model, steady-state and time constant analysis. Space vector analysis is also performed for the three-phase 2-cell multicell converter. The theory is verified by comparing theoretical results with simulation results / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die multisel omkeerder as algemeen-gebruikte meervlakkige omsetter het die afgelope jare groot belangstelling gewek op grond van die probleme wat met selkapasitor stroomspanning geassosieer word. In hierdie proefskrif word die balanseringsprobleem met die klem op die ewewigswanbalans bestudeer. Dit is verrig deur ’n sistematiese en streng wiskundige studie van die natuurlike balanseringsmeganismes van die drie-fase 2-sel en 3- sel multisel omsetter te maak. Dit is gedoen deur die gebruik van dinamiese modellering van die multisel omsetter, Bennet se geometriese model, ewewigtoestand tydkonstante analises, en ruimtevektoranalise is vir die drie-fase 2-sel multisel omsetter gedoen. Die teorie word bevestig deur die teoretiese resultate met die simuleringsresultate te vergelyk
65

Methods to quantify and reduce rotor losses in a solid rotor yoke permanent magnet machine

Wills, Dominic 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD (Electrical and Electronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Certain types of electric machines are particularly susceptible to the proliferation of eddy currents flowing within the solid conducting regions in the rotor. Single-layer, non-overlapping windings within uneven open slots are some stator properties that can produce damaging, asynchronous magnetic field harmonics which manifest in the rotor as eddy currents. The ohmic losses caused by these eddy currents are a source of inefficiency and can cause a marked increase in the temperature of the rotor. This temperature rise can be dangerous for the magnets, which have to be kept within temperature limits to avoid partial or full demagnetization. The research work presented here is concerned with reducing the effect of eddy currents in the rotor magnets and solid rotor yoke of an electric machine. The work presents analytical methods to calculate the magnetic fields, eddy currents and solid loss in an electric machine due to current in the winding and due to the interaction of the permeance variation in the stator with the magnets in the rotor. A method is also suggested where the analytical theory can be used with a magnetostatic finite element solution to produce a transient solid loss result. The research work also investigates a method for optimal segmentation in both level and penetration, and provides some design suggestions. The work presents the method of partial magnet segmentation, which is a technique whereby thin incisions are made into the magnet material from one or both sides. Another method of partial rotor segmentation is also presented where the incisions are made into a portion of the magnet-facing solid yoke. These methods attempt to interrupt the flow of eddy currents and increase the resistance ‘seen’ by the eddy currents, while also keeping construction difficulty and cost to a minimum. The methods are verified using finite element calculations which are compared to measured results. The result is that partial magnet segmentation is a very useful, effective and practical method of segmenting magnets. The loss reduction profile can be similar to that of traditional full segmentation. The method of partial rotor segmentation also shows a large reduction in rotor power loss. With implementation of these methods on a test machine, one can expect an efficiency increase of more than 4 % / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Sekere tipes van elektriese masjiene is veral sensitief vir die vloei van werwelstrome in solied geleidende gebiede in die rotor. Enkellaag, nie-oorvleuelende wikkelings in oneweredige oop gleuwe is enkele stator eienskappe wat skadelike, asinchrone magneetveld harmonieke tot gevolg kan hê, wat as werwelstrome in die rotor manifesteer. Die ohmiese verliese wat deur hierdie werwelstrome teweeg gebring word is 'n bron van ondoeltreffendheid en kan lei tot 'n merkbare toename in die temperatuur van die rotor. Hierdie temperatuur styging hou gevaar in vir die magnete en moet binne temperatuur limiete gehou word om gedeeltlike of self volle demagnetisering te vermy. Die navorsing vervat in hierdie document is gemoeid met die vermindering van die effek van werwelstrome in die rotor magnete en in die soliede rotor juk van 'n elektriese masjien. Die werk bied analitiese metodes aan vir die berekening van die magneetvelde, werwelstrome en soliede verliese in ’n elektriese masjien as gevolg van strome in die wikkelings en die interaksie van die permeansie variasie van die stator met die magnete in die rotor. ’n Metode word ook voorgestel waar die analitiese teorie saam met ’n magnetostatiese eindige element oplossing gebruik word om ’n resultaat vir die oorgang soliede verliese te verkry. Die navorsingswerk ondersoek ook ’n metode vir die optimale segmentering in beide vlak sowel as penetrasie, en verskaf sekere ontwerp voorstelle. Die werk bied die metode aan van gedeeltelike magneet segmentering, wat 'n tegniek is waarvolgens dun insnydings gemaak word aan een of beide kante van die magneet materiaal. Nog ’n metode van gedeeltelike rotor segmentering word beskou waar die insnydings in in ’n gedeelte aan die magneetkant van die soliede rotor juk gemaak word. Hierdie metodes poog om die vloei van werwelstrome te onderbreek en die weerstand soos "gesien" deur die werwelstrome te verhoog, terwyl konstruksie kompleksiteit en koste tot ’n minimum beperk word. Die metodes word bevestig deur eindige element berekeninge wat met gemete resultate vergelyk word. Die gevolg is dat gedeeltelike magneet segmentering 'n baie nuttige, doeltreffende en praktiese metode van die segmentering van magnete is. Die verliesverminderingsprofiel van gedeeltelike segmentering kan soortgelyk wees aan dit van tradisionele volle segmentering. Die metode van gedeeltelike rotor segmentering toon ook 'n groot afname in rotor drywingsverlies. Met die implementering van hierdie metodes op ’n toetsmasjien, kan ’n mens ’n verhoging in benuttingsgraad verwag van meer as 4 %
66

Automated design of multi-mode fuzzy controllers

Hugo, Etienne Martin 12 1900 (has links)
Dissertation (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2000. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A standard fuzzy logic controller is not robust enough to guarantee consistent closed-loop performance for highly non-linear plants. A finely tuned closed-loop response loses relevance as the system dynamics change with operating conditions. The self-adaptive fuzzy logic controller can track changes in the system parameters and modify the controller parameters accordingly. In most cases, self-adaptive fuzzy logic controllers are complex and rely on some form of mathematical plant model. The multi-mode fuzzy logic controller extends the working range of a standard fuzzy logic controller by incorporating knowledge of the non-linear system dynamics into the control rule-base. The complexity of the controller and difficulty in finding control rules have limited the application of multi-mode fuzzy logic controllers. An automated design algorithm is proposed for the design of a multi-mode control rule-base using qualitative plant knowledge. The design algorithm is cost function-based. The closed-loop response, local to a domain of the non-linear state space, can be tuned by manipulation of the cost function weights. Global closed-loop response tuning can be done by manipulation of the controller input gains. Alternatively, a self-learning or self-adaptive algorithm can be used in a model reference adaptive control architecture to optimise the control rule-base. Control rules responsible for unacceptable closed-loop performance are identified and their consequences modified. The validity of the proposed design method is evaluated in five case studies. The case studies illustrate the advantages of the multi-mode fuzzy logic controller. The results indicate that the proposed self-adaptive algorithm can be used to optimise a rule-base given a required closed-loop specification. If the system does not conform to the model reference adaptive architecture then the intuitive nature of the cost function based design algorithm proves to be an effective method for rule-base tuning. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Standaard wasige logika beheerders is nie noodwendig robuust genoeg om goeie geslote lus werkverrigting vir hoogs nie-liniere aanlegte te waarborg nie. In Perfek ge-optimeerde beheerder se geslote lus werkverrigting mag verswak indien die aanleg-parameters weens bedryfstoestande verander. Self-aanpassende beheerders kan die verandering in die aanleg-parameters volg en die beheerder dienooreenkomstig optimeer. As In reël is In self-aanpassende beheerder kompleks en afhanklik van In wiskundige model van die aanleg. Die multi-modus wasige logika beheerder vergroot die werksbereik van die standaard wasige logika beheerder deur kennis aangaande die stelsel se bedryfstoestand en stelselparameters in die reël-basis in te bou. Die aanwending van die multi-modus beheerder word tans beperk deur die struktuur kompleksiteit en moeilike optimering van die reël-basis. In Ge-outomatiseerde multi-modus reël-basis ontwerps-algoritme wat gebruik maak van kwalitatiewe kennis van die aanleg en In kostefunksie word in hierdie proefskrif voorgestel. Die geslote lus gedrag beperk tot In gebied in die toestands-ruimte kan ge-optimeer word deur die kostefunksie gewigte te manipuleer. Die globale werkverrigting kan ge-optimeer word met die beheerder intree aanwinste. In Self-aanpassende algoritme in In model-verwysings aanpassende argitektuur word as altematieftot reël-basis optimering voorgestel. Reëls verantwoordelik vir swak werkverrigting word ge-identifiseer en verbeter deur modifikasie van die reëls se gevolgtrekkings. Die voorgestelde ontwerps-metode word deur middel van vyf gevallestudies ondersoek. Die studies dui die voordele van die multi-modus struktuur aan. Die self-aanpassende argitektuur is In kragtige hulpbron om In reël-basis te optimeer vir In gegewe geslote lus spesifikasie. Hierdie proefskrif toon aan dat indien die stelsel nie aan die vereistes van In model verwysingstelsel voldoen nie, is die kostefunksie benadering tot reël-basis ontwerp In aantreklike en intuïtief verstaanbare opsie om die reël-basis te optimeer.
67

Development and analysis of a distributed control strategy for power electronic converters

Du Toit, J. A. (Jacques Andre) 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2002. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The dissertation presents an alternative approach to the control of power electronic converters. The conventional approach is to use a centralized controller with one or more measurement systems providing feedback. As converters become larger, in both power rating and complexity, a number of drawbacks to this approach emerge. The number of physical data paths increases and voltage isolation becomes a problem. This has an adverse effect on the manufacturability as well as the reliable operation of the system as a whole. An alternative is to use a distributed control approach, where a number of smaller integrated control and measurement units are used. These units communicate with the central controller via a serial daisy-chain communications link. The dissertation investigates the design of such a controller as well as the application of distributed control in a number of emerging converter topologies. It was shown that centralized control has its limitations in modem power electronics in terms of reliability, maintainability and manufacturability. A feasible distributed control strategy was proposed and implemented and the operation was verified in an experimental converter system. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die proefskrif ondersoek 'n alternatiewe manier om drywings omsetters te beheer. Huidiglik word die meerderheid van omsetters beheer vanaf 'n sentrale beheereenheid, wat dan stelsel data versamel vanaf een of meer meetstelsels. Soos die drywingsvermoë van die omsetters toeneem, raak spannings isolasie en die aantal beheerseine 'n probleem, wat nadelig is vir die betroubaarheid en vervaardigbaarheid van die stelsel. As 'n alternatief, kan 'n aantal kleiner beheereenhede en meetstelsels gebruik word. Die beheerders kommunikeer met mekaar, sowel as die hoof stelselbeheerder deur middel van 'n optiese vesel netwerk, verbind in 'n ring struktuur. Die proefskrif ondersoek die ontwerp van die beheerder en die toepassing van gedesentraliseerde beheer in 'n aantal nuwe omsetter topologië. Die studie toon dat sentrale beheer problematies kan raak soos die omsetters meer kompleks raak. Die studie bewys dat 'n stelsel suksesvol bedryf kan word deur gebruik te maak van gedesentraliseerde beheer deur dit in 'n praktiese opstelling toe te pas.
68

Design aspects and optimisation of an axial field permanent magnet machine with an ironless stator

Wang, Rong-Jie 04 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhDEng)--University of Stellenbosch, 2003. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The advent of new high energy product permanent magnet materials has opened great opportunities for novel electrical machine topologies with advantageous features such as high efficiency and high power/weight ratio. Amongst others, axial field permanent magnet (AFPM) machines with ironless stators are increasingly being used in power generation applications. Because of the absence of the core losses, a generator with this type of design can operate at a substantially high efficiency. Besides, the high compactness and disc-shaped profile make this type of machine particularly suitable for compact integrated power generation systems. Due to construction problems, the generator application of this type of machine has been limited to quite a low power range. There is a need to investigate the performance capability of this type of AFPM machine in the upper medium power level. The focus of this thesis is on the design optimisation of the air-cooled AFPM generator with an ironless stator. A design approach that directly incorporates the finite element field solution in a multi-dimensional optimisation procedure is developed and applied to the design optimisation of a 300 kW (at unity power factor) AFPM generator. To enable an overall design optimisation of the machine, different design aspects, such as the cooling capacity, the mechanical strength and eddy loss, are also studied in this research. To enable the free movement of the rotor mesh with respect to the stator mesh, the air-gap element originally proposed by Razek et. al. is derived for Cartesian coordinate systems. For minimising the large computation overhead associated with this macro element, a number of existing time-saving schemes have been utilised together with the derived Cartesian air-gap element. The developed finite element time-step model is applied to calculating the steadystate performance of the AFPM machine. Since the flux distribution in an AFPM machine is three dimensional by nature, calculating the eddy current loss by merely using a simple analytical method may be subject to a significant error. To overcome this problem, the two dimensional finite element field modelling is introduced to perform accurate field analysis. To exploit the full advantages of the twodimensional finite element modelling, a multi-layer approach is proposed, which takes into account the variation of the air-gap flux density in the conductors with regard to their relative positions in the air-gap. To account for the radial variation of the field, a multi-slice finite element modelling scheme is devised. The thermal analysis is an important aspect of the design optimisation of AFPM machines. From a design point of view, it is preferable to have a simple but effective method for cooling analysis and design, which can easily be adapted to a wide range of AFPM machines. In this thesis a thermofluid model of the AFPM machine is developed. The fluid flow model is needed for calculating the air flow rate, which is then used to find the convective heat transfer coefficients. These are important parameters in the subsequent thermal calculations. Experimental investigations have been carried out to verify each of the above-mentioned models/methods. With these models implemented, the design optimisation of an air-cooled ironless stator 300 kW (at unity power factor) AFPM generator is carried out. The performance measurements done on the fabricated prototype are compared in this thesis with predicted results. The study shows that the proposed design approach can be applied with success to optimise the design of the AFPM machine. The advantages of high power density, high efficiency, no cogging torque and good voltage regulation make this type of AFPM machine very suitable for power generator applications. The optimum steady-state performance of the AFPM machine shows that this machine with an ironless stator is an excellent candidate for high speed power generator applications, even in the upper medium power level. The good cooling capacity of this type of machine holds the promise of its being a self-cooled generator at high power ratings. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die uitvinding van nuwe hoë energiedigtheid permanent magneet materiale het groot geleenthede vir nuwe elektriese masjien topologië laat ontstaan met voordelige eienskappe soos hoë benuttingsgraad en hoë drywing/gewig verhouding. Onder andere word die aksiaalveld permanente magneet (AVPM) masjiene met kernlose stators toenemend gebruik vir elektriese generator toepassings. As gevolg van die afwesigheid van kernverliese kan 'n generator met hierdie tipe ontwerp teen 'n aansienlik hoë benuttingsgraad werk. Daarbenewens maak die hoë kompaktheid en skyfvorm-profiel die masjien in besonder geskik vir die ontwikkeling van kompak geïntegreerde drywing generator stelsels. As gevolg van konstruksie probleme is die toepassing van hierdie tipe masjien as generator beperk tot redelik lae drywingsgebiede. Dit is nodig om die werkverrigtingsvermoë van hierdie tipe AVPM masjien in die boonste medium drywingsgebied te ondersoek. Die fokus van hierdie tesis is op die ontwerp-optimering van 'n lugverkoelde AVPM generator met 'n kernlose stator. 'n Ontwerpsbenadering wat die eindige element veldoplossing in 'n multi-dimensionele optimeringsprosedure insluit, is ontwikkel en toegepas op die ontwerpsoptimering van 'n 300 kW (by eenheidsarbeidsfaktor) AVPM generator. Om 'n globale ontwerpsoptimering van die masjien te kan doen is verskillende ontwerpsaspekte soos die verkoelingskapasiteit, meganiese sterkte en werwelverliese ook in hierdie navorsing bestudeer. Om die vrye beweging van die rotormaas ten opsigte van die statormaas te verseker is die lugspleet-element, soos oorspronklik deur Razek et al voorgestel, afgelei vir Cartesiaanse koórdinaat stelsels. Om die lang berekeningstyd geassosieer met hierdie makro-element te minimaliseer is 'n aantal bestaande tydbesparende metodes saam met die ontwikkelde Cartesiaanse lugspleet-element gebruik. Die ontwikkelde eindige element tydstapmodel is toegepas om die bestendige werkverrigting van die AVPM masjien te bereken. Aangesien die vloedverspreiding in 'n AVPM masjien van nature drie-dimensioneel is, kan die berekening van die werwelstroomverliese tot aansienlike foute lei as eenvoudige analitiese metodes gebruik word. Om hierdie probleem te oorkom is twee-dimensionele eindige element modellering gebruik om akkurate veld-analise te doen. Om die volle voordele van die twee- dimensionele eindige element modellering te eksploiteer is 'n multi-laag benadering voorgestel wat die variasie van die lugspleetvloeddigtheid in die geleiers met betrekking tot hulle relatiewe lugspleetposisies in ag neem. Om voorsiening te maak vir die radiale variasie van die veld, is 'n multi-skyf eindige element modelleringstegniek ontwikkel. Die termiese analise is 'n belangrike aspek van die ontwerpsoptimering van AVPM masjiene. Vanuit 'n ontwerpsoogpunt is dit verkieslik om 'n eenvoudige maar tog effektiewe metode van verkoelingsanalise en -ontwerp te hê wat maklik toegepas kan word op 'n wye reeks van AVPM masjiene. In hierdie tesis word 'n termovloeimodel van die AVPM masjien ontwikkel. Hierdie vloeimodel is nodig vir die berekening van die lugvloeitempo, wat op sy beurt weer nodig is om die konveksie hitte-oordrag koëffisiënte te bepaal. Hierdie is belangrike parameters in die opvolgende termiese berekeninge. Eksperimentele ondersoek is uitgevoer om elkeen van die bogenoemde modelle en metodes te verifieer. Nadat hierdie modelle geïmplimenteer is, is die ontwerpsoptimering van 'n 300 kW (by eenheidsarbeidsfaktor) lugverkoelde kernlose stator AVPM generator uitgevoer. Die werkverrigtingmetings gedoen op 'n vervaardigde prototipe masjien, word in hierdie tesis vergelyk met voorspelde resultate. Daar word getoon dat die voorgestelde ontwerpsbenadering met sukses toegepas kan word om die ontwerp van die AVPM masjien te optimeer. Die voordele van hoë drywingsdigtheid, hoë benuttingsgraad, geen vertandingsdraaimomente en goeie spanningsregulasie maak hierdie masjien baie aantreklik vir generator toepassings. Die optimum bestendige werkverrigting van die AVPM masjien toon dat hierdie masjien met 'n kernlose stator 'n goeie kandidaat is vir hoë spoed generator toepassings, selfs in die boonste medium drywingsgebied. Die goeie verkoelingskapasiteit van hierdie tipe masjien hou die belofte in van'n selfverkoelde generator by hoë drywing aanslae.
69

Development of a novel air-cored permanent magnet linear generator for direct drive ocean wave energy converters

Vermaak, Rieghard 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2013. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In hierdie tesis word ’n nuwe lug kern permanent magnet (PM) lineêre generator (LG) vir toepassing tot direk aangedrewe (DA) oseaan golf energie omsetters (GEO) ontwikkel. Die nuwe LG word ontwikkel vanaf die lineêre dubbel-kant topologie in ’n poging om probleme met die huidige longitudinale vloed (LV) yster kern LGs, wat tot dusvêr oorheersend voorkom in eksperimentele DA-GEOs, te oorkom. Die grootste probleem met hierdie LGs is die masiewe aantrekkings kragte tussen hul yster stators en die PM transleerders. ’n Groot hoeveelheid strukturuele staal word benodig om die luggaping te handhaaf, terwyl die las op die laars ook ’n groot probleem is. Die nuwe LG gebruik ’n lug kern stator wat alle aantrekkings kragte tussen die stator en transleerder elimineer en dus die nodige strukturuele material verminder. Die topologie van die transleerder is ook van so ’n aard dat die netto aantrekkings kragte op enige spesifieke PM ideaal nul is; dit verminder die strukturuele materiaal selfs verder. Die transleerder het ook ’n nuwe transversale vloed pad wat die sogenaamde paarwyse vloed koppeling wat in LV-LGs voorkom, en die negatiewe effekte daarvan, verhoed. ’n Aantal nuwe bydraes tot die veld van LGs vir DA-GEO word in hierdie tesis gemaak. ’n Nuwe topologie lug kern PMLG is ontwikkel soos bespreek. Dit sluit in die ontwikkeling van analitiese en eindige element modelle en ’n optimerings prosedure wat vinnig optimale dimensies vir minimum aktiewe massa van die nuwe LG vind. In die ontwerp word dit ook gevind dat die drywingsdigtheid van LGs verbeter kan word deur zero oorvleuling tussen die die stator en transleerder by die slag endte toe te laat. ’n 1 kW prototipe van die nuwe LG word ontwerp en gebou; die uitvoerbaarheid van die konstruksie vir die nuwe topologie op ’n klein skaal word dus gedemonstreer. ’n Unieke toets opstelling word ook ontwerp en is gebasseer op bestaande toerusting in die vorm van ’n wind turbine generator en rug-aan-rug spannings bron omsetters. Met die toets opstelling word ’n enkel frekwensie golf ge-emuleer om die teorie en simulasies te verifieer en word ook ’n voorspellende beheer strategie geimplementeer, wat vir die eerste keer gedemonstreer word vir LGs vir DA-GEOs. Goeie ooreenstemming tussen die gemete en gesimuleerde data bevestig die voorgestelde modellerings en ontwerps metodes. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In this thesis, a novel air-cored permanent magnet (PM) linear generator (LG) is developed with application to direct drive (DD) wave energy converters (WECs). The novel LG is developed from the linear double-sided topology in an attempt to overcome the problems with current longitudinal flux (LF) iron-cored LGs, which have so far been dominant in experimental DD-WECs. The biggest problem with these LGs is the massive attraction forces between their iron stators and PM translators. A large amount of structural steel is required to maintain the air gap, while the load on the bearings is also a large concern. The novel LG uses an air-cored stator which eliminates any attraction forces between the stator and translator and hence reduces the required structural material. Furthermore, the topology of the translator is such that the net attraction force on any particular PM is ideally zero, which even further reduces the structural material required for the translator. A new transverse circulating flux path is also introduced in the translator which prevents pair-wise flux coupling and its negative effects as observed in LF-LGs. A number of new contributions are made to the field of LGs for DD-WECs in this thesis. A novel topology aircored PMLG is developed as described. This includes the development of analytical and finite element models and an exhaustive optimisation procedure for quickly finding optimal dimensions for minimum active mass of the novel LG. In the design it is also found that the power density of LGs can be improved by allowing zero overlap between the stator and translator at the stroke ends. A 1 kW prototype of the novel LG is designed and built; the feasibility of constructing the novel LG on a small scale is as such demonstrated. A unique test rig is designed based on existing equipment in the form of a wind turbine generator and back-to-back voltage source converters. The test rig allows emulation of a monochromatic wave for verifying the theory and simulations and also allows for implementation of a predictive control strategy, which is for the first time demonstrated for LGs for DD-WECs. Good agreement between measured and simulated data confirms the presented modelling and design methods.
70

Transformerless series dip/sag compensation with ultracapacitors

Becker, Martin Gerhard 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MScIng)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis covers the development of a transformerless series dip compensator. Of all known power quality problems, voltage dips are the greatest reason for concern. Series injection dip compensators offer the advantage of only having to compensate for the decrease in supply voltage during a dip. This results in significant reduction in converter ratings and energy storage requirements. The aim of this thesis was to take up previous developments and combine them with new technologies to maximize their functionality. The new design was implemented with ultracapacitors to offer a maintenance-free device lifespan of 20 years. As they are very expensive, a new topology was introduced in this thesis to maximize their use so that they become viable for industry. Furthermore, a new method of daisy chaining switches was introduced to minimize costs involved in controlling them. A single-phase compensator, with this new topology and the new way of controlling switches, was designed and built according to specifications stated by Eskom. This ultracapacitor-based dip compensator was tested with a dip generator, developed by the University of Stellenbosch for different load currents. The experimental results confirmed simulations made with identical parameters. This thesis presents a reliable and cost effective solution for dip compensation. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie tesis dek die ontwikkeling van ’n transformatorlose duik kompenseerder. Van al die bekende toevoerkwaliteit probleme wek duike in die spanning die meeste kommer. Serie-injeksie kompenseerders het die voordeel dat hulle net kompenseer vir die verlies in die toevoerspanning tydens die duik. Dit het ’n beduidende vermindering in die omsetterkenwaardes en energiestoorvereistes tot gevolg. Hierdie tesis mik om vorige soortgelyke ontwikkelings op te volg en te verbeter met nuwe tegnologie om die funktionliteit te maksimeer. Die ontwerp is geimplementeer met ultrakapasitore wat die onderhoudsvrye toestel ‘n leeftyd van 20 jaar toelaat. Omdat ultrakapasitore so duur is moes ‘n nuwe topologie onwikkel word om die gebruik van ultrakapasitore meer ekonomies aantreklik te maak. Daar is ook ‘n nuwe manier van skakelaar beheer ontwikkel wat toelaat dat baie skakelaars oor een optise veesel beheer kan word. ‘n Enkel fase dip kompensaeerder is toe onwikkel en gebou volgens Eskom se spesifikasies. Die ultrakapasitor gebaseerde omsetter is getoets met ‘n dip generator wat deur die Universiteit van Stellenbosch ontwikkel is. Die praktiese resultate bevestig die simulasies wat gedoen is met dieselfe parameters. Hierdie tesis lei tot ‘n betroubaare en ekonomiese oplossing vir duik kompensasie.

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