Fryksell Dhanjal, Dinah, Persson, Jessica
Human trafficking is one of the biggest social problems in Nepal with over 12.000 Nepali women and children being trafficked over the border to India every year. Despite the scale and the severe consequences of trafficking in the Nepalese society, very little is known about efforts to rehabilitate survivors of human trafficking. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the rehabilitation methods and interventions in Nepal. It is based on the results from five interviews with three different nongovernmental organizations in Nepal. The result from this study shows that counseling is the main intervention for rehabilitation of the mental health of victims of trafficking. Findings also showed that nongovernmental organizations in Nepal also use other interventions to integrate the women back into the society, such as skills training, education and physiological treatment. To better understand these interventions and to conceptualize our findings we have used different theories such as, Empowerment, Crises work and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. We have also used Hasenfelds organization theory which helps to illustrate the work structure in the organizations behind the methods and interventions. Result showed that people-changing is the main organizational strategy for the nongovernmental organizations. The study has practical implications in that it highlights the need for, not only more resources, but also an awareness of the complexity of the issue of rehabilitation as well as the need for a multitude of interventions. Keywords: Human trafficking; Rehabilitation work; Nepal; Empowerment
Socio-cultural determinants of sexual behaviours and trafficking in children and adolescents in the south-South geo-political zone of NigeriaEtobe, Eteng Ikpi January 2009 (has links)
A Thesis submitted in accordance with the requirements for the award of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Sociology at the University of Zululand, South Africa in the Department of Sociology, Faculty of Arts, 2009. / The major objective of this study was to examine the various and numerous socio-cultural determinants of trafficking in children and adolescents for sexual purposes in several groups of children and adolescents as well as their parents, in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Major Sociological and Criminological theories were used as theoretical frame on which this research rests. These include Shaw and McKay's Social Disorganization theory; Cornish and Clarke's Rational Choice theory; Quay and Gray's Reward Dominance theory; Emile Durkheim's Anomie theory; Merton's Structural Strain theory and Sutherland's Differential Association theory. Other theories which supported the phenomenon under study include the Social Learning theory by Burgess and Akers; Labeling theory by Tannenbaum and Lemert and the Control theory by Reiss, Hirschi and Gottfredson. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the course of this study which were tested using the Statistical Programme for Social Sciences, Version 16.0 (SPSS). A total of 1770 subjects were interviewed in four surveys, while the fifth survey covered 630 parents of trafficked victims. The primal determinant of TCASP from the findings was poverty which was a function of parents' low socio-economic status. Also child abandonment due to witchcraft accusation and austere economic conditions made most children (especially girls) vulnerable to trafficking for sexual purposes in foreign countries. Based on the above findings, the study recommended, inter-alia, that governments should establish partnerships with the private sector, NGOs, FBOs and intergovernmental organisations to develop programmes that will ensure high-risk groups (children and women) are provided with good education, job training and opportunities for survival. As a result of grave implications of TCASP, policy formulation should incorporate support for further studies and research on the phenomenon of trafficking of children, to better understand its dynamics, its mutations and best ways of addressing it.
Defining Success in Anti-Trafficking Policy: An Analysis of the U.S. State Departments Criteria for Combating Human TraffickingSellitto, Jenna 22 April 2013 (has links)
Victims of human trafficking may be exploited for prostitution, sweatshop labor, domestic work, and as child soldiers for armed conflicts. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, "after drug dealing, human trafficking is tied with the illegal arms industry as the second largest criminal industry in the world today, and it is the fastest growing, with an annual profit of $32 billion" (U.S Department of Health and Human Services, 2004). This thesis looks at policies that are in place to prevent, prosecute and protect against human trafficking in ten countries from around the world that have changed to Tier 1 countries according to the U.S. State Department's annual Trafficking In Persons report. This study analyzed if there were trends in what kind of policies were implemented by state's governments that allowed them to be credited with a Tier 1 ranking, as well as, compared policies that were in place the year before the state changed Tier rankings. The data showed no definite trend in what it took to become ranked as a Tier 1 country, however the majority of the countries data showed that as long as improvements were made from the previous year then that country would move to a higher ranking. This research demonstrates that the TIP report does not consistently rank countries using the same standards. However, it proves that the shaming and global pressure through sanctions that the United States puts on other countries through the annual publishing of the TIP report does make a positive difference when it comes to countries working to combat human trafficking. / McAnulty College and Graduate School of Liberal Arts; / Graduate Center for Social and Public Policy / MA; / Thesis;
Exploring vulnerability and consent to trafficking related migration A study of South Asian bar dancers /Jani, Nairruti. January 2009 (has links)
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Texas at Arlington, 2009.
Iroanya, Richard Obinna
This study examined and analysed human trafficking as a security issue using South Africa and Mozambique as country case studies. Information gathered through documentary analysis methodology is relied upon to develop a conceptual framework of human trafficking and security. The link between trafficking and security is evaluated based on the conceptualisation of trafficking in the Palermo Protocol as well as the criteria for declaring social phenomena security threats, as articulated by the UN and several scholars. Through global and national overviews of human trafficking, its patterns, extent and enabling conditions are identified and analysed. In South Africa and Mozambique, human trafficking has domestic and international dimensions and is facilitated by several factors. However, factors facilitating domestic trafficking do not necessarily facilitate international trafficking in South Africa. The opposite is however, the case in the Mozambican context. An analysis of global, regional, and national counter trafficking measures, shows that the national security implications of human trafficking are not explicitly addressed. Trafficking involves national border violations; organised crime; corruption, and physical violence which have implications for security at all levels. Consequently, recommendations are made for the explicit securitisation of trafficking as well as the demonstration of sufficient political will to combat it. Regional and international co-operation is also considered necessary to combat trafficking, as well as prosecution of offenders and the introduction of poverty alleviating measures. / Thesis (DPhil)--University of Pretoria, 2014. / tm2015 / Political Sciences / DPhil / Unrestricted
McDonald, Lora Ann
01 January 2018
Human trafficking is a transnational crime that allows traffickers to abuse victims physically and mentally, as well as stripping them of their human rights. The United Nations theory of human security and Mendelsohn's theory of victimology provided a conceptual framework to examine the harm that people endure from human trafficking. The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to explain how human trafficking threatens the security of people and communities. Reviewing data from the Department of State concerning trafficking led to the investigation of youth exploitation, the use of technology in advancing the growth of human trafficking, the health concerns of victims of communities, and the possible uses of money made by traffickers. The primary guiding question for this study asked, "How does human trafficking threaten the safety of people who live in communities and the security of those communities throughout the United States? Data were collected from articles and current information published by government agencies, news media, and non-governmental organizations. Data were analyzed after coding for themes and patterns using Braun and Clarke's 6-step thematic analysis procedure. Findings indicate that victims live in fear, have lost their lives, are operating in plain sight but not recognized as victims, and endanger people living in local communities. The implications for positive social change include recommendations for collaboration among all stakeholders at the local level where traffickers operate in vulnerable communities, increase training of local law enforcement and healthcare personnel in identifying victims properly, and the development of awareness programs that reach people in local communities.
Gonzalez, Nicole M.
Master of Science / Family Studies and Human Services / Sandra M. Stith / The purpose of this thesis is to learn from human trafficking survivors about how service providers can better help female victims of human trafficking. The paper is guided by two theories, i.e., Attention Restoration Theory (Hartig, Evans, Jamner, Davis, & Galing, 2003) and The Holistic Process Theory of Healing (Ventegodt, Andersen, & Merrick, 2003). In this paper, I refer to the participants in my research as survivors and individuals who have been or currently are victims of human trafficking as victims. To utilize the common language used by the participants of this study, sex trafficking will be referred to as the “sex industry”. The purpose of the study was to gain the perspectives of women in the process of exiting from the sex industry to answer the overarching questions of how service providers can better help women who are on the path to restoration and recovery, as well as to help service providers better identify female victims and their needs. A combined approach of Braun and Clarke’s (2006) thematic analysis and Gilligan, Spencer, Weinberg and Bertsch’s (n.d.) Listening Guide was used to analyze the transcribed interviews for a better understanding of the narratives of the participants and the themes that emerged from their narratives.
Rodriguez, Claudia Ana
05 January 2011
Human trafficking is an international crime affecting all countries that continues to grow. The crime operates as part of an illicit underground network, starting with traffickers who manipulate, deceive, and exploit victims. Victims are both male and female, but the crime disproportionally affects women more than men. Latin American women are especially vulnerable to being trafficked due to societal and cultural norms that demand they be subordinate. Additionally, these women lack many educational and job opportunities, and face mental and physical abuse at home and in their communities. These factors make them vulnerable, and the traffickers use these vulnerabilities to deceive and exploit them. This report will argue that in order to effectively prevent victimization, women need to be empowered, not only access to education but also job opportunities. Furthermore, a societal transformation needs to occur that gives more value and significance to women, where they are viewed as powerful beings instead of submissive and subordinate human beings. / text
Trafficking in persons in general and in children in particular is a phenomenon that affects each and every country in the world. No African country is immune from trafficking, the quasi-totality of them are simultaneously countries of origin, transit and destination of trafficked children. They are trafficked internally or trans-nationally for all types of exploitations, such as sexual exploitation, labour exploitation, and removal of body parts. In spite ofjoint efforts by the international community to eradicate trafficking in children, research reveals that this modem form of slavery is a phenomenon on the rise instead of decreasing. The situation is more alarming on the African continent where most countries have not yet found appropriate solutions to the problem. Child trafficking is fought through prevention and criminalization. The former entails measures such as awareness raising and the alleviation of factors that make children vulnerable to trafficking and the demand that fosters all forms of exploitation of children. Criminalization measures tress the enactment of comprehensive anti-trafficking legislation, investigation and prosecution of traffickers and protection of child victims of trafficking. This dissertation evaluates the best solutions to prevent and eradicate child trafficking. It seeks to recommend practices which are effective for African countries by taking into consideration the continent's realities, such as resource limitations and underdevelopment. / Thesis (LL.M.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2009.
The global problem of sex trafficking in women : a comparative legal analysis of international, European, and national responsesManavalan, Sangeetha January 2017 (has links)
There has been a flurry of legislative action at the international and regional levels to address the global problem of trafficking in persons, which victimises epidemic-proportions of individuals and generates one of the largest proceeds of organised crime. The harmonisation of national legal responses based on minimum standards around prevention, prosecution, and protection as espoused by those international and regional instruments is a prerequisite for effective and wide cooperation among countries of origin, transit, and destination. However, the reluctance of states to lift to the lofty heights of international consensus the contentious policy issues surrounding trafficking, including prostitution, has resulted in the adoption of rather ambiguous anti-trafficking norms and obligations, which allow states to individually determine what constitutes 'trafficking in persons' within their own jurisdictions. The subsequent divergence in national responses reveals that legal harmonisation has not taken place. The mechanisms of enforcement, which attach directly or indirectly to those international and regional instruments, therefore, have the formidable task of assisting states in the implementation of the substantive content of anti-trafficking norms and obligations through their monitoring and reporting mandates. However, their work remains a neglected area of academic research, compared to writings on the ambiguity of the international anti-trafficking framework. The challenge to international regulation of the trafficking problem, as identified in this thesis, relates on a fundamental level to the systemic limitations of the formal processes of law based on state consent and respect for the principles of sovereignty and territorial integrity. Through a comparative legal analysis of international and European legal responses to sex trafficking in women, this thesis illuminates the main systemic challenges to combating trafficking in Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, the Netherlands, Romania, and Sweden, and how the work of those enforcement mechanisms remedies some of those challenges.
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