Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Texas at Austin, 2008. / Vita. Includes bibliographical references.
07 November 2012
The Switched Reluctance Motors(SRM) have gained considerable attention in the variable speed drive market mainly due to the simple construction of the motor and the possibility of developing low cost converters and controllers. As these machines are under development, a considerable amount of research effort is directed to the experimental performance evaluation of the SRM drives. System efficiency, electromagnetic torque, torque ripple, output and losses are some of the required measurements. / Master of Science
Abrahams, Robin Wayne
27 May 2015
Thesis (M.Sc.(Engineering))--University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Engineering, 2000.
Regier, Naomi Kay.
Call number: LD2668 .T4 1986 R43 / Master of Science / Biological and Agricultural Engineering
Rosado, Sebastian Pedro
12 August 2001
The present work studies the disturbances created in the electric system of a pumped storage power plant, which is an hydraulic generation facility where the machines can work as turbines or pumps, by the operation of a static frequency converter (SFC). The SFC is used for starting the synchronous machines at the station when in the pump mode. During the starting process several equipment is connected to the SFC being possible to get affected by the disturbances generated. These disturbances mainly include the creation of transient overvoltages during the commutation of the semiconductor devices of the SFC and the introduction of harmonics in the network currents and voltages. This work analyzes the possible effects of the SFC operation over the station equipment based on computer simulations. For this purpose, the complete system was modeled and the starting process simulated in a computer transient simulator program. The work begins with a general review of the effects of electric disturbances over high voltage equipment and in particular of the disturbances generated by power electronics conversion equipment. Then the models for the different kind of equipment present in the system are discussed and formulated. The control system that governs the operation of the SFC during the starting process is analyzed later as well as the operation conditions. Once the model of the system is set up, the harmonic analysis of the electric network is done by frequency domain and time domain methods. Time domain methods are also employed for the analysis of the commutation transient produced by the SFC operation. Finally, the simulation results are used to evaluate the impact of the SFC operation on the station equipment, especially on the generator step up transformer. / Master of Science
31 March 2017
A novel multilevel converter that is especially suited for high speed multi-megawatt switched reluctance motor drives operating at the medium voltage level is presented. The drive is capable of variable speed, four-quadrant operation. Each phase leg of the converter contains an arbitrary number of cascaded cells connected in series with the phase winding. Each cell contains a half-bridge chopper connected to a capacitor. The converter is named the cascaded chopper cell converter. The modular nature of the converter with the ability to add redundant cells makes it very reliable, which is a key requirement for medium voltage drive applications. A comprehensive control algorithm that overcomes the challenges of balancing and controlling cell capacitor voltages is also proposed. A suitable startup algorithm to limit startup current and switching losses, as well as ensure that cell capacitor voltages remain controlled at startup, is suggested. Details of the drive design such as component sizing and control parameter selection are also discussed. A detailed simulation model is developed and explained, and simulation results are provided for primary validation. Operation with standard current and speed control is first simulated. Then a scheme that gives way to a controller that operates the drive in single-pulse mode is developed and presented. This single-pulse control scheme controls the turn-on and turn-off angles, as well as the energization voltage level, in order to obtain high efficiency. Practical considerations related to the drive such as reliability, efficiency, and cost considerations are also discussed. Finally, a detailed comparison of the proposed converter to another competing converter is performed. Besides its scalability to high voltages and powers, the reliability and efficiency of the proposed converter makes it also a candidate for sub-megawatt applications requiring minimum downtime, or any application where high efficiency or improved performance is required. A small part of this work is also dedicated to brushless dc machines. Control methods for a new converter for brushless dc machines are proposed and verified via simulation. The main advantage of this converter with the proposed control is that it allows exact control of torque or speed up to twice the rated speed, without resorting to current phase advancing or other flux-weakening techniques. / Ph. D.
Variable speed constant frequency power conversion with permanent magnet synchronous and switched reluctance generatorsRim, Geun-hie 20 October 2005 (has links)
Power electronics is inevitably concerned with the processing of variable speed power generations such as in wind turbines, aircraft systems and naval on-board ship systems. The nature of these types of energy is distinct in that their frequency and power vary depending on the speed of the prime-mover. To make use of the variable speed energy, a power processing scheme which transforms the variable speed energy into a constant frequency power is required. There are measures such as mechanical and electrical links for such purposes. Electrical link systems are chosen in this study due to their fast responses and high reliabilities. The power conversion stage may be a dc link with a line-commutated converter, a dc link with a self-commutated inverter, or a cycloconverter. The line-commutated converter and cycloconverter power stages require a fixed frequency supply for operation whereas the self-commutated inverter is capable of stand-alone operation, thus making it attractive. Two cases of variable speed power generation using a permanent magnet synchronous machine (hereafter referred to as PMSM) and a switched reluctance machine (hereafter referred to as SRM) were studied in this dissertation. The possible use of PMSMs has been proved by the good correlation between the experimental results and the theoretically predicted results. Three different control strategies have been proposed, implemented in hardware, and experimentally verified. The efficiency of the VSCF power conversion with a self commutated converter were comparable to the one using a line-commutated converter. A novel converter topology with no dc link capacitor has been proposed for the application of SRMs to the VSCF power conversion. The proposed topology directly links the constant frequency ac source to the SRM. This feature enhances the reliability of the power conversion scheme and reduces the weight and volume of the system. The correlation between the theoretical and experimental results of some key issues showed the feasibility of the proposed VSCF power conversion scheme. In the course of the study, one stage ac to dc power conversion with a compact transformer was required for dc loads. However, phase-controlled ac to dc conversion has the disadvantages of low power factor and harmonic pollution on the utility side, particularly in the case where dc voltage regulation is required. Therefore, a novel single phase rectifier for dc load which provides ohmic isolation with a high frequency transformer is extensively investigated. The proposed scheme had a wide output variation on dc output while maintaining unity power factor and sinusoidal current in the ac input side. Three control strategies for the operation of the converter were proposed and verified experimentally. The harmonic spectra on ac and dc sides are analytically derived and experimentally proved under some load conditions. / Ph. D.
Criterios para o uso eficiente de inversores de frequencia em sistemas de bombeamento de agua / Criterion for the effcient use of variable speed drive in water public systemsRodrigues, Wlamir 08 September 2007 (has links)
Orientador: Edevar Luvizotto Junior / Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo / Made available in DSpace on 2018-08-09T10:53:20Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Rodrigues_Wlamir_D.pdf: 3842184 bytes, checksum: b2d244ce79104124ad706f65f2c5c853 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2007 / Resumo: Instalações de bombeamento são comumente encontradas em qualquer sistema que envolva o transporte de líquidos, como sistemas públicos de abastecimento. Num passado não tão distante, os projetos dessas instalações eram superdimensionados e, na maioria das vezes, nunca chegavam a operar em sua plenitude. A operação de controle de vazão, através de uma válvula na saída da estação de bombeamento, sempre foi uma ação nociva a estrutura em todos os sentidos, além do desperdício de energia elétrica que esse tipo de operação provocava. Paralelamente, a energia elétrica se tornou muito dispendiosa, e a sua geração muito mais complicada com impactos cada vez maiores no meio ambiente. Em condições tão desfavoráveis, o inversor de freqüência se tornou peca importante na missão de racionalizar o uso da energia elétrica sem afetar a operação do sistema. Neste trabalho são estudadas duas instalações de bombeamento da cidade de Campinas ¿ SP, dotadas de inversores de freqüência, onde são comparadas operações com e sem o uso deste dispositivo, suas vantagens e desvantagens, possibilidades e limitações. Com o auxilio de três modelos matemático-computacionais, um que reproduziu uma das instalações, outro de auditoria energética e um terceiro de otimização, especialmente desenvolvidos para esse estudo, foi possível a simulação de cenários operacionais, buscando extrair a máxima eficiência do inversor e a conseqüente otimização do sistema como um todo. Ao final do trabalho são propostos critérios, resultantes do estudo desenvolvido, que podem servir como parâmetros quando da adoção de inversores de freqüência em sistema de bombeamento / Abstract: The pumping systems are frequently found in any process which involves transport of liquids, like the public water systems. In a recent past, these pumping systems plans were oversized and, frequently, did not work in their full potential. The flow regulated by throttling has always presented, in all senses, a harmful effect to the installation. Moreover, this kind of action has caused waste of electric energy. Along with that the cost of electric energy has been increasing and its production has created damages to the environment. Since we have so many negative conditions, the variable speed drive has become the most important part to rationalize the use of electric energy causing no affect on the operation of the system. This work studies two pump stations located in the city of Campinas, which are operated with variable speed drives. At these pumping stations, comparisons are made with and without the use of this equipment, considering its advantages and disadvantages, its possibilities and limitations. Three mathematicmodels were especially developed for this study, the first to reproduce one of the systems, the second to make an energetic audit and the third to optimize the results. Making use of these three models it was possible to simulate operational scenarios to reach the maximum efficiency from variable speed drive and the optimization of the system as a whole. As a conclusion of this study, some criteria are presented to support the use of variable speed drive in the pumping system / Doutorado / Recursos Hidricos / Doutor em Engenharia Civil
Critical evaluation and application of position sensorless control techniques for reluctance synchronous machinesVillet, Wikus Theo 04 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2014. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The position sensorless controllability of the reluctance synchronous machine (RSM) is investigated in this thesis with the focus on industry applications where variable and dynamic torque is required from startup up to rated speed. Two low speed as well as one medium to high speed position sensorless control (PSC) method for RSMs are investigated. These methods are extended to operate in the entire rated speed region with a hybrid PSC structure that makes use of phase locked-loop synchronisation and a hysteresis changeover method. It is shown in this thesis that PSC of the lateral rib rotor RSM is not possible from zero up to ± 0.2 p.u current. It is shown through finite element (FE) simulations that PSC of the ideal rotor RSM however, is possible at zero reference current. A novel construction method is used to build two ideal rotor RSMs. Measured flux linkage curve results of the ideal rotor RSMs correlate well with simulation results and it is shown that the electrical angle of the machine can be tracked successfully at zero reference current. The FE simulation package is used to compare the saliency of the RSM on a per-unit scale to three types of field intensified permanent magnet (FI-PM) synchronous machines and a field weakening interior permanent magnet synchronous machine. It is shown that the saliency of the RSM is larger than that of the investigated PM machines from zero up to rated load. It is thus concluded that the RSM is well suited to saliency-based PSC (SB-PSC) methods, which are used to control synchronous machines at startup and low speeds. The hybrid PSC methods developed in this thesis, are tested and evaluated on three proposed industry applications. The first is a reluctance synchronous wind generator with an inverter output LC filter. The LC filter allows long cables to be used and reduces the voltage stress on the stator windings of the machine. The combination of the LC filter and hybrid PSC method allows the power electronics and controller to be stationed in the base of the turbine tower. A new stator quantity estimation method is derived to omit the need of current and voltage sensors on the machine side of the LC filter. Good maximum power point tracking laboratory results are shown with the high frequency injection-assisted hybrid PSC method. The second application investigated is a position sensorless controlled variable gear electric vehicle (EV) RSM drive. Simulation and measured results show good torque capabilities of the position sensorless controlled EV RSM. It is shown through simulation results that the fundamental current harmonic is dominant in the demodulation scheme of the high frequency injection position sensorless control (HFIPSC) method due to the high current rating of the proposed RSM. The HFI-PSC method is extended to reduce the effect of the fundamental current harmonic in the demodulation scheme without adding any additional filters. The final investigated application is a novel mine scraper winch, which uses two position sensorless controlled RSMs to retrieve ore from the blast site underground. The new design improves on the safety, efficiency and durability of the current scraper winch design. Measured results show that the position sensorless controlled winch RSM is able to deliver rated startup torque with both investigated SB-PSC methods. Finally an automation method is implemented and tested to limited the applied force on the scraper and automatically free itself when stuck. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die posisie sensorlose beheer eienskappe van die reluktansie sinchroonmasjien (RSM) word in hierdie tesis ondersoek met die fokus op industriële toepassings waar varierende dinamiese draaimoment vereis word vanaf stilstand tot by ken spoed. Twee lae spoed- en een ho¨e spoed posisie sensorlose beheer (PSB) metodes vir RSMe is ondersoek. Hierdie metodes is uitgebrei om twee hibriede PSB metodes to skep wat die RSM van stilstand tot by kenspoed posisie sensorloos kan beheer. Die ontwikkelde hibriede metodes maak gebruik van ’n histerese oorskakelings skema en fase geslote lus sinchronisasie Daar word in hierdie tesis bevestig dat die laterale rib RSM nie beheer kan word met die geondersoekte PSB metodes by nul stroom nie. Eindige element simulasie resultate wys egter daarop dat die ideale rotor RSM wel beheer kan word met die geondersoekte metodes by nul stroom. ’n Nuwe konstruksie metode is voorgestel om twee ideale rotor RSMe to bou. Gemete vloed omsluiting kurwes resultate korreleer baie goed met dié van die eindige element simulasies. Gemete resultate wys ook daarop dat PSB van die nuwe masjiene moontlik is by nul stroom. ’n Eindige element pakket is gebruik om die speek-koëffissiënt van die RSM te vergelyk met drie tipes veld-versterkte permanent magneet masjiene, asook een veld verswakte permanent magneet versinkte masjien. Die simulasie resultate wys dat die RSM se speek-koëffissiënt hoër is as die van die geondersoekte permanent magneet masjiene. Die RSM is dus geskik vir speek-koëffissiënt georienteerde PSB metodes, wat hoofsaaklik by stilstand en lae spoed gebruik word. Die ontwikkelde hibried PSB metodes is getoets en geëvalueer met drie voorgestelde industriële toepassings. Die eerste is ’n reluktansie sinchroon wind generator met ’n omsetter uittree laagdeurlaat filter. Die laagdeurlaat filter laat toe dat langer kabels vanaf die omsetter na die generator gebruik kan word. Die kombinasie van die laagdeurlaat filter en die PSB metodes laat toe dat die drywingselektronika en die beheerders in die toring basis geplaas kan word. Dit kan die gewig van die nasel verminder. Goeie maksimum drywingspunt volging laboratorium resultate word getoon met die hoë frekwensie ondersteunde hibried PSB metode. Die tweede geondersoekte toepassing is ’n posisie sensorlose beheerde, varierende ratkas elektriese voertuig RSM. Goeie simulasie en gemete draaimoment resultate van die RSM word getoon. Simulasie resultate toon dat die fundamentele q-as stroom harmoniek dominant is in die demodulasie skema van die hoë frekwensie PSB metode, as gevolg van die hoë ken stroom van die motor. Die hoë frekwensie PSB metode is uitgebrei om die fundamentele stroom harmoniek te onderdruk in die demodulasie skema sonder om enige filters by te voeg. Die finale toepassing is ’n nuwe myn windas wat van twee posisie sensorlose beheerde RSMe gebruik maak om klippe ondergronds te verplaas vanaf die ontploffings area. Die voorgestelde ontwerp verbeter die huidige ontwerp ten opsigte van die veiligheid, energie effektiwiteit en robuustheid. Gemete resultate wys dat ken draaimoment moontlik is met altwee speek-koëffissiënt metodes. ’n Automasie metode, wat die maksimum draaimoment op die windas beperk en automaties homself bevry indien hy vasval, is voorgestel en geëvalueer.
Energy efficiency and renewable energy use are two main priorities leading to industrial sustainability nowadays according to European Steel Technology Platform (ESTP). Modernization efforts can be done by industries to improve energy consumptions of the production lines. These days, steel making industrial applications are energy and emission intensive. It was estimated that over the past years, energy consumption and corresponding CO2 generation has increased steadily reaching approximately 338.15 parts per million in august 2010 . These kinds of facts and statistics have introduced a lot of room for improvement in energy efficiency for industrial applications through modernization and use of renewable energy sources such as solar Photovoltaic Systems (PV).The purpose of this thesis work is to make a preliminary design and simulation of the solar photovoltaic system which would attempt to cover the energy demand of the initial part of the pickling line hydraulic system at the SSAB steel plant. For this purpose, the energy consumptions of this hydraulic system would be studied and evaluated and a general analysis of the hydraulic and control components performance would be done which would yield a proper set of guidelines contributing towards future energy savings. The results of the energy efficiency analysis showed that the initial part of the pickling line hydraulic system worked with a low efficiency of 3.3%. Results of general analysis showed that hydraulic accumulators of 650 liter size should be used by the initial part pickling line system in combination with a one pump delivery of 100 l/min. Based on this, one PV system can deliver energy to an AC motor-pump set covering 17.6% of total energy and another PV system can supply a DC hydraulic pump substituting 26.7% of the demand. The first system used 290 m2 area of the roof and was sized as 40 kWp, the second used 109 m2 and was sized as 15.2 kWp. It was concluded that the reason for the low efficiency was the oversized design of the system. Incremental modernization efforts could help to improve the hydraulic system energy efficiency and make the design of the solar photovoltaic system realistically possible. Two types of PV systems where analyzed in the thesis work. A method was found calculating the load simulation sequence based on the energy efficiency studies to help in the PV system simulations. Hydraulic accumulators integrated into the pickling line worked as energy storage when being charged by the PV system as well.
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