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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
51

The adoption of virtual teams and virtual technology in human resources management : a South African perspective

Tekeh, Emmanuel Temban January 2015 (has links)
Thesis (MTech (Business Information Systems))--Cape Peninsula University of Technology, 2015. / This study explores factors contributing to the slow adoption of virtual teams and virtual technology by South African organisations in Cape Town. The study adopted the Technology Organisation and Environment (TOE) framework to examine the influence of technological organisational and environmental contextual factors on organisation’s adoption of virtual teams and virtual technology. Three organisations from different industries in Cape Town were chosen as a case study. Data was collected via qualitative interviews and quantitative questionnaires while content analysis and a statistics package for social sciences were used to analyse and generate results. The results indicated that all three dimensions of the TOE framework significantly either enabled or inhibited organisational adoption of virtual teams and virtual technology. Technological contextual factors such as availability of technology were found to enable adoption while high set-up cost inhibited adoption, and perceived benefit and drawbacks either inhibited or enabled adoption due to the influence of other contextual factors. Organisational contextual factors like available resources and slacks were found to facilitate, whereas organisational competency and formal and informal linking structures impeded adoption. Management commitment, communication process, degree of centralisation, organisation size and technological competency were found to either enable or inhibit technology adoption owing to the influences of other contextual factors. Environmental contextual factors such as competition, government regulation and rapidly growing industries were found to encourage technology adoption. Lack of skilled labour was found to restrain technology adoption while industry characteristics, market structures and technology support infrastructure either enabled or inhibited organisational adoption of virtual teams and virtual technology due to the influence of other contextual factors.
52

Globally Distributed Agile Teams: An Exploratory Study of the Dimensions Contributing to Successful Team Configuration

Sharp, Jason H. 12 1900 (has links)
Drawing upon configurational theory, work group design research, virtualness concepts, and the software agility literature, the purpose of this study was to provide a starting point for theorizing about the successful configuration of globally distributed agile teams by exploring the dimensions of team structure, virtualness, and agility. Due to the complex nature of this topic, the need to examine the phenomenon within its natural setting, and the limited amount of research that has been conducted in this particular area, this study adopted an embedded multiple-case research design. The primary data collection method consisted of semi-structured interviews involving members of globally distributed agile teams within three U.S. based organizations with members located in distributed sights in multiple countries. Additional data were collected from archival records. Within-case and cross-analysis was conducted using qualitative data analysis software. This study provides a starting point for answering the question of how the configuration of globally distributed agile teams differs from the configuration of other types of globally distributed teams; it synthesizes past research and findings into a comprehensive theoretical framework; it provides a starting point for theorizing about the successful configuration of globally distributed agile teams; it helps practitioners to identify and address the challenges related to the configuration of globally distributed agile teams; and it presents a set of best practices which will inform organizations on how to configure their globally distributed agile teams.
53

Content and Temporal Analysis of Communications to Predict Task Cohesion in Software Development Global Teams

Castro Hernandez, Alberto 05 1900 (has links)
Virtual teams in industry are increasingly being used to develop software, create products, and accomplish tasks. However, analyzing those collaborations under same-time/different-place conditions is well-known to be difficult. In order to overcome some of these challenges, this research was concerned with the study of collaboration-based, content-based and temporal measures and their ability to predict cohesion within global software development projects. Messages were collected from three software development projects that involved students from two different countries. The similarities and quantities of these interactions were computed and analyzed at individual and group levels. Results of interaction-based metrics showed that the collaboration variables most related to Task Cohesion were Linguistic Style Matching and Information Exchange. The study also found that Information Exchange rate and Reply rate have a significant and positive correlation to Task Cohesion, a factor used to describe participants' engagement in the global software development process. This relation was also found at the Group level. All these results suggest that metrics based on rate can be very useful for predicting cohesion in virtual groups. Similarly, content features based on communication categories were used to improve the identification of Task Cohesion levels. This model showed mixed results, since only Work similarity and Social rate were found to be correlated with Task Cohesion. This result can be explained by how a group's cohesiveness is often associated with fairness and trust, and that these two factors are often achieved by increased social and work communications. Also, at a group-level, all models were found correlated to Task Cohesion, specifically, Similarity+Rate, which suggests that models that include social and work communication categories are also good predictors of team cohesiveness. Finally, temporal interaction similarity measures were calculated to assess their prediction capabilities in a global setting. Results showed a significant negative correlation between the Pacing Rate and Task Cohesion, which suggests that frequent communications increases the cohesion between team members. The study also found a positive correlation between Coherence Similarity and Task Cohesion, which indicates the importance of establishing a rhythm within a team. In addition, the temporal models at individual and group-levels were found to be good predictors of Task Cohesion, which indicates the existence of a strong effect of frequent and rhythmic communications on cohesion related to the task. The contributions in this dissertation are three fold. 1) Novel use of Temporal measures to describe a team's rhythmic interactions, 2) Development of new, quantifiable factors for analyzing different characteristics of a team's communications, 3) Identification of interesting factors for predicting Task Cohesion levels among global teams.
54

Designing In-Headset Authoring Tools for Virtual Reality Video

Nguyen, Cuong 07 December 2017 (has links)
Virtual Reality (VR) video is emerging as a new art form. Viewing VR video requires wearing the VR headset to fully experience the immersive surrounding of the content. However, the novel viewing experience of VR video creates new challenges and requirements for conventional video authoring tools, which were designed mainly for working with normal video on a desktop display. Designing effective authoring tools for VR video requires intuitive video interfaces specific to VR. This dissertation develops new workflows and systems that enable filmmakers to create and improve VR video while fully immersed in a VR headset. We introduce a series of authoring tools that enables filmmakers to work with video in VR: 1) Vremiere, an in-headset video editing application that enables editors to edit VR video entirely in the headset, 2) CollaVR, a networked system that enables multiple users to collaborate and review video together in VR, and 3) a set of techniques to assist filmmakers in managing and accessing interfaces in stereoscopic VR video without suffering depth conflicts. The design of these applications is grounded in existing practices and principles learned in interviews with VR professionals. A series of studies is conducted to evaluate these systems, which demonstrate the potential of in-headset video authoring.
55

Activités collaboratives et génération de comportements d'agents : moteur décisionnel s'appuyant sur un modèle de confiance / Collective activities and agent behavior : trust-based decision-making system

Callebert, Lucile 18 October 2016 (has links)
Lorsqu’ils travaillent en équipe, les humains ont rarement des comportements optimaux : ils peuvent faire des erreurs, manquer de motivation ou de compétence. Dans les domaines des environnements virtuels ou des systèmes multi-agents, de nombreux travaux ont cherché à reproduire les comportements d’équipes humaines : un agent représente alors un membre de l’équipe. Cependant, ces travaux ont très souvent pour objectif la performance de l’équipe, et non la fidélité des comportements produits. Pour former un apprenant en environnement virtuel à prêter attention et à s’adapter aux autres, nous avons cherché dans cette thèse à reproduire des comportements humains réalistes et non-optimaux de travail d’équipe. Plus particulièrement, nous nous sommes intéressés aux équipes auto-organisées, c’est-à-dire aux équipes dans lesquelles le pouvoir de décision est réparti entre les membres, et dans lesquelles l’organisation est implicite. Dans de telles équipes, l’organisation se fait non pas au travers des communications mais par l’observation et l’anticipation des comportements des autres. Pour s’organiser, chaque agent doit se demander ce qu’il est préférable de faire en fonction de ce que pourraient faire les autres, et donc se poser des questions telles que Ai-je confiance en la compétence de mon coéquipier pour faire cette tâche ? Les relations de confiance permettent donc à chacun de prendre en compte les autres. Pour générer de tels comportements, nous proposons un système permettant aux agents de raisonner d’une part sur un modèle de l’activité à effectuer et d’autre part sur les relations de confiance qui les lient aux autres agents de l’environnement. Dans ce cadre, notre première contribution porte sur l’augmentation du langage de description de l’activité Activity-DL de manière à permettre la description d’activités collectives. Nous proposons également des mécanismes de propagation de contraintes et d’informations qui faciliteront le raisonnement des agents. Ces contraintes et informations permettront par exemple aux agents de répondre à la question Avons-nous les compétences nécessaires pour faire la tâche qui permettra de réaliser notre but collectif ? Notre seconde contribution porte sur la proposition d’un modèle d’agent opérationnalisant le modèle de confiance de Mayer et al. (1995), sélectionné après une étude de la littérature en sciences humaines et sociales sur la confiance. La confiance d’un agent en un autre est décrite selon trois dimensions : l’intégrité, la bienveillance et les compétences. Chaque agent est donc défini par ces trois dimensions et a des croyances sur l’intégrité, la bienveillance et la compétence des autres agents. De plus chaque agent possède des buts qui lui sont personnels ainsi que des buts collectifs et devra donc choisir quel but privilégier. Finalement nous proposons un moteur décisionnel qui permet à chaque agent de calculer l’importance qu’il accorde à ses buts afin de sélectionner une tâche. Nous avons défini les mécanismes de calcul de l’importance des buts de manière à modéliser l’influence sur l’agent de ses croyances sur les autres, et pour sélectionner une tâche, l’agent raisonne à la fois sur les modèles d’activité et sur ses attentes à propos du comportement des autres, également générées à partir des croyances de l’agent sur les autres. Nous avons implémenté notre système et constaté qu’il répond à nos objectifs de génération de comportements d’équipe réalistes et non optimaux. Nous avons également conduit une évaluation perceptive préliminaire au cours de laquelle les participants ont notamment été capables de percevoir la confiance ou le manque de confiance d’un agent en un autre grâce à son comportement. / When working in teams, humans rarely display optimal behaviors: they sometimes make mistakes, lack motivation or competence. In virtual environments or in multi-agent systems, many studies have tried to reproduce human teamwork: each agent acts as a team member. However, the main objective in those studies is the performance of the team: each agent should display optimal behavior, and the realism of those simulated behaviors is not a concern. To train someone in a virtual environment to pay attention to and to adapt to their teammates, we built a decision-making system for agents to display realistic and non-optimal behaviors. More specifically, we are interested in self-organized teams (i.e. teams where the decision power is decentralized among its members) and in implicit organization (i.e. when team members do not interact through communications but rather through the observation of others’ behaviors). In such a team, each agent has to think about what it should do given what others could do. Agents then have to ask themselves questions such as Do I trust my teammate’s competence to perform this task? Trust relationships therefore allow agents to take others into account. We propose a system that allows agents to reason, on the first hand, on models of the activity they have to do, and on the other hand, on trust relationships they share with others. In that context, we first augmented the Activity-Description Language so that it supports the description of collective activities. We also defined mechanisms for constraint generation that facilitates agent reasoning, by giving them the answer to questions like Do we have the required abilities to perform the task which will achieve our goal? We then proposed an agent model based on the model of interpersonal trust of Mayer et al. (1995) that we selected after a study of trust in social science. This model describes trust relationship with three dimensions: the trustor trusts the trustee’s integrity, benevolence and abilities. An agent is therefore defined through those three dimensions, and has a mental model of each other agent; i.e. has trust beliefs about others’ integrity, benevolence and abilities. Moreover each agent has both personal and collective goals (i.e. goals that are shared with other members of the team), and thus will have to decide which goal to focus on. Finally we proposed a decision-making system that allows an agent to compute the importance it gives to its goals and then to select a task. When computing goal importance, the agent is influenced by its trust beliefs about others, and to select a task, it reasons on the activity models and on its expectations about what others could do. Those expectations are generated from the agents’ trust beliefs. We implemented our system and observed that it produces realistic and non-optimal behaviors. We also conducted a preliminary perceptive evaluation which showed that participants were able to recognize one agent’s trust or lack of trust in another through the behaviors of the first one.
56

Analysis and Performance of a Cyber-Human System and Protocols for Geographically Separated Collaborators

Jonnada, Srikanth 12 1900 (has links)
This dissertation provides an innovative mechanism to collaborate two geographically separated people on a physical task and a novel method to measure Complexity Index (CI) and calculate Minimal Complexity Index (MCI) of a collaboration protocol. The protocol is represented as a structure, and the information content of it is measured in bits to understand the complex nature of the protocol. Using the complexity metrics, one can analyze the performance of a collaborative system and a collaboration protocol. Security and privacy of the consumers are vital while seeking remote help; this dissertation also provides a novel authorization framework for dynamic access control of resources on an input-constrained appliance used for completing the physical task. Using the innovative Collaborative Appliance for REmote-help (CARE) and with the support of a remotely located expert, fifty-nine subjects with minimal or no prior mechanical knowledge are able to elevate a car for replacing a tire in an average time of six minutes and 53 seconds and with an average protocol complexity of 171.6 bits. Moreover, thirty subjects with minimal or no prior plumbing knowledge are able to change the cartridge of a faucet in an average time of ten minutes and with an average protocol complexity of 250.6 bits. Our experiments and results show that one can use the developed mechanism and methods for expanding the protocols for a variety of home, vehicle, and appliance repairs and installations.
57

A framework for best practices in the functioning of effective virtual teams in organisations within the technology industry of South Africa

De Bruyn, Anita Juliana 09 1900 (has links)
Business need required a holistic and focussed framework for best practices in the functioning of effective virtual teams, despite the fragmented nature of empirical studies in this field. This study endeavoured to explore the best practices in the functioning of effective virtual teams against four prominent and unique themes linked to purpose, processes, people and technology. The value of this study does not vest in the existence of virtual teams, but in their orderly operation, in terms of best practice and the value proposition of effectiveness. Following an exploratory qualitative strategy, the research was conducted according to the interpretivist branch of the phenomenological tradition, with a transcendental orientation in the social research field. A qualitative multi-case research design for the empirical study was selected, resulting in a non-probability sample within the software sector of the technology industry in South Africa. An original and pre-tested Lime Survey 2.0+ electronic questionnaire instrument was utilised as the instrument to collect information within a cross-sectional time horizon, to work in synchronisation with the collaborative asynchronous electronic architecture of virtual teams. Content analysis was applied to analyse data. The main findings indicated that effective virtual teams purposefully orientate themselves toward excellence through electronic management systems, a specific value system, with a knowledge seeking focus, and a seamless linkage in electronic infrastructure, applications, and platforms which contribute to the functionality of the effective virtual team. The main recommendations were that a pre-existing, functional, collaborative, integrated, electronic management system is regarded as the primary step in founding an effective virtual team. The focus of organisational leadership should be to embrace a holistic value system approach encapsulating specific elements of excellence, such as trust and independence. Human networking practices pursuing and sustaining knowledge are regarded as the key enabler for functioning of effective virtual teams. Lastly, a focussed seamless interface between the various electronic applications, platforms and infrastructures is recommended. / Human Resource Management / D. Com. (Human Resource Management)
58

Diferen??as sociocomportamentais entre o trabalho em equipes virtuais e equipes presenciais

Sato, Alexandre Abbud 23 November 2005 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2015-12-03T18:32:52Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Alexandre_Abbud_Sato.pdf: 1372942 bytes, checksum: 4e91cbb15d29adda9df58c5fae6dd52f (MD5) Previous issue date: 2005-11-23 / The present study aimed at investigating virtual teams within organizations. It was guided by the hypothesis that significant differences are found in the behavioral and social characteristics of the members of these two kinds of teams. The strategy was to match those characteristics as found in attendance and virtual teams with factors such as requirements, difficulties, outcomes and work flow to search for differences, which would they be? and which kind of team would be favored by them?. That hypothesis was investigated under the differentiation of gender and nationality, as the independent variables. The survey was carried out entirely through e-mails by the means of a questionnaire composed by closed and open questions in order to provide data for qualitative and quantitative analysis. The hypothesis was confirmed by the findings not only in the whole group of subjects but also in the two subgroups according to the independent variables. Effectiveness, lower costs and better quality of life were the main results favoring virtual teams although the latter do not apply homogeneously to the several sorts of tasks. Yet, the findings disclosed that hybrid models of teams were seen by the subjects as the ideal form of team-work. / O presente estudo teve como prop??sito investigar as equipes virtuais nas organiza????es. A pesquisa foi baseada na hip??tese de que h?? diferen??as significativas no tocante ??s caracter??sticas sociocomportamentais dos integrantes desses dois tipos de equipe. A estrat??gia foi comparar essas caracter??sticas entre equipes presenciais e virtuais quanto a fatores como necessidade, dificuldade, resultado e processo de trabalho para determinar se h?? e quais eram as diferen??as? e em qual tipo de equipe elas eram maiores?. A hip??tese foi investigada tanto em rela????o ao g??nero quanto ?? nacionalidade, como vari??veis independentes. A pesquisa foi realizada apenas com a utiliza????o de emails por meio de question??rio composto de perguntas fechadas e abertas, com vistas ?? an??lise qualitativa e quantitativa dos dados. A hip??tese foi confirmada pelos resultados, n??o somente no grupo geral de sujeitos mas tamb??m nos dois subgrupos, de acordo com as vari??veis independentes. Efic??cia, redu????o de custos e melhor qualidade de vida foram os principais resultados que favorecem as equipes virtuais, embora isso n??o ocorra homogeneamente para os v??rios tipos de tarefa. Os resultados revelaram ainda que o modelo h??brido de equipe, presencial-virtual, foi visto pelos sujeitos da pesquisa como ideal para o trabalho em equipe.
59

Suporte a colaboração em redes P2P / Collaborative support in P2P networks

Martins, Dalton Lopes 20 December 2004 (has links)
Orientador: Ivan Luiz Marques Ricarte / Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computação / Made available in DSpace on 2018-08-04T04:08:09Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Martins_DaltonLopes_M.pdf: 1278026 bytes, checksum: b7c0e45069a357920387e022e4bc3f77 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2004 / Resumo: O suporte à colaboração e as redes P2P (peer-to-peer) tem sido dois assuntos que, por muitos momentos, se cruzam no estudo e na pesquisa do uso das novas tecnologias em ambientes colaborativos de aprendizado. O presente estudo trata das motivações sociais e técnicas para o uso das redes P2P como um suporte ao trabalho colaborativo entre grupos. Inicialmente, realizamos um estudo das características de uso e da mudança de paradigmas de trabalho em rede que o P2P nos fornece. Como base de aplicação prática deste trabalho, também apresentamos um estudo de protocolos e sistemas computacionais já existentes que tratam, de alguma forma, da questão da colaboração através de redes P2P. Por final, com base no estudo apresentado, elaboramos a especificação e a implementação de um sistema de colaboração, o SemiCode, de forma a validar algumas das idéias desenvolvidas neste trabalho, além de apresentarmos algumas soluções onde o P2P pode atuar em conjunto com sistemas cliente-servidor / Abstract: The support to the collaboration and P2P network are two related subjects in the study and research involving new technologies for collaboratives learning environments. The present study deals with social motivations and techniques for the use of P2P nets as a support to the collaborative work. Initially, we carry through a study of the characteristics of use and the change of paradigms of work in net P2P supplies. Supporting the development of a application in this work, also we present a study of protocols and existing computational systems that, in some way, deal with collaboration through P2P nets. Finally, based on this study, we elaborate the specification and the implementation of a collaborative system, the SemiCode, wich validates some of these ideas. We also present some solutions based on the integra from between P2P and client-server systems / Mestrado / Engenharia de Computação / Mestre em Engenharia Elétrica
60

Leader Emergence and Effectiveness in Virtual Workgroups: Dispositional and Social Identity Perspectives

Hite, Dwight M. 08 1900 (has links)
In today's global competitive environment, many organizations utilize virtual workgroups to overcome geographic and organizational boundaries. Research into their dynamics has received the attention of scholars within multiple disciplines, and the potential for an integrative approach to the study of virtual workgroups exists. This dissertation is a first step towards such an approach. The primary aim of this research is to examine antecedent and contextual factors that affect the emergence and effectiveness of leaders in virtual workgroups. To achieve this aim, an integrative model assembled from theory and empirical findings in leadership, management, social identity, and communications research is posited. Hypothesized relationships depicted in the model identify key dispositional and contextual variables linked to leader emergence, member behavior, and leader effectiveness within virtual workgroups. This study employed a nonexperimental research design, in which leader emergence and social identity manifest as naturally occurring phenomena. Data collection occurred via two web-based surveys administered at different points in time. Hypothesized relationships were tested utilizing correlational and hierarchical moderated multiple regression analyses. The findings of this dissertation suggest that traits, such as personality and cognitive ability, are not associated with leader emergence in virtual workgroups. In addition, the results indicate that the exhibition of relationship-oriented leader behaviors enhances group identity. In turn, identification is associated with increases in perceptions of leader effectiveness and decreases in counterproductive behavior exhibited by group members. This dissertation exposes an important limitation to the application of trait leadership theory. It also demonstrates the importance of relationship-oriented behavior and social identity in virtual contexts. Further, it advances an integrative theoretical model for the study of virtual workgroup phenomena. These contributions should assist and inform other researchers, as well as practitioners, interested in leadership and group member behavior in virtual workgroups.

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