01 January 2016
Women play an important role in the development of their families and communities economically; however, in comparison to men, they disproportionately experience barriers such as low income households, poverty, unemployment, lack of training, and discrimination. The purpose of this mini-ethnographic case study was to explore the perceptions of women entrepreneurs in Enugu State, Nigeria on what information they need to overcome possible barriers in their business and economic development. The 5M (market, money, management, motherhood, meso, and microenvironment) framework provided the theoretical lens for this investigation. The data gathering process involved face-to-face semistructured interviews with 15 women entrepreneurs in 3 local markets in Enugu State, in addition to direct observation, field notes, and reflective journal entries. Data were inductively analyzed and then triangulated to ensure trustworthiness of findings. The major themes revealed that these women needed information in the areas of marketing, customer relations, accounting procedures, financing strategies, and formal business training to grow their businesses. Embracing the results of this research may contribute to positive social change by providing information on how small scale women entrepreneurs could reduce their dependence on their husbands, partners, and relatives.
Ahmed, Asia Maccawi
No description available.
Enhancing the performance of women-owned small and medium-sized enterprises in developing countries : a study of ZambiaMandawa, Bernadette January 2016 (has links)
Female entrepreneurs contribute significantly to the global economy especially through employment creation, contributing to diversity in entrepreneurship and economic growth. Notwithstanding this contribution, their potential remains considerably unexploited in many countries, evidenced by businesses that underperform those owned by men. Significant research gaps on the subject of female entrepreneurship exist in the literature. To illustrate, the number of studies focusing on women-owned businesses remains significantly fewer than that of studies focusing on businesses owned by men, resulting in little being known about the subject. Another important research gap is the absence of a conceptual model of factors affecting performance of women-owned SMEs in the context of Sub-Saharan African countries. Furthermore, the majority of studies on female entrepreneurship have been done in developed countries, giving rise to theories originating from those contexts and relative lack of knowledge and empirical results in the context of developing countries. Zambia represents a specific case of a developing context where little is known about female entrepreneurs. This research develops and tests a conceptual model of individual level and firm level factors affecting performance in women-owned SMEs in Zambia, drawing on the Competency Approach, Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO), and Resource Based View of the firm as the main theoretical foundations. It adopts a mixed method approach implemented in two stages: an exploratory qualitative study (carried out as the initial stage of this research) and a main quantitative study. The study uses the findings of the exploratory qualitative study to refine the conceptual model developed and to provide insights into the quantitative findings. The conceptual model is tested empirically using structural equation modelling with SPSS Amos software. The research makes a new contribution by identifying a new set of entrepreneurial competencies relevant to the Zambian context. It also attempts to integrate two literature streams (i.e. competency approach and entrepreneurial orientation) by providing empirical evidence that the relationship between entrepreneurial competencies and firm performance is partially mediated by entrepreneurial orientation. The study also extends the boundaries of knowledge by challenging the applicability of established measures and research approaches originating from developed contexts to non-industrially developed contexts. For example, it provides empirical evidence that the relevance of entrepreneurial competencies in a particular context is contingent on the unique aspects of its business environment. The study also challenges widely accepted knowledge that EO enhances firm performance, and provides empirical evidence for the argument that this relationship is context-specific. It further demonstrates that the individual dimensions of EO may have varying effects on firm performance, suggesting that it is better to view the EO construct as a multidimensional rather than unidimensional construct. This research also extends literature on entrepreneurial competencies by showing that they are strong predictors of firm performance in the current research context, and that formal education and previous entrepreneurship experience contribute to their development.
10 July 2001
There are more and more women in Taiwan are running their own business. Therefore women entrepreneurs¡¦ sex-role attitudes and their operating characteristics are worthy to study. The interview concludes that the sex-role attitudes of women entrepreneurs can be divided into two parts ¡X family role and work role. In family, women entrepreneurs take part in traditional role taking the most responsibility of house working and child rearing. At the same time, they also take an active role in decision-making and risk-taking in business. She needs to share household duty to keep balance between family and work with her family, her mother or mother in law, and babysitter or servant. The sex-role attitude of spouse will affect the marital relations. If the husband does not support wife¡¦s entrepreneurship and at the same time the wife could not put her family as the first priority, they would have frequent quarrel or argument. Women entrepreneurs have an operational weakness that is they doesn¡¦t have plentiful business¡¦ network. The reason may they didn¡¦t spend much time to set their connection with other business partners but spend most time stay at home after work. When Women entrepreneurs require the emotional support or some business¡¦ suggestions, they usually appeal to their friends. The results to analyze their entrepreneurial behaviors are as follow, although some women entrepreneurs launch their own business for making money but they still want to achieve the goals of personal development and customer satisfaction etc. Besides, they measure their performance in social contributions, good interactions between customer and employee not just only in growth of market share and increase in profit.
Family firms and the making of cosmopolitanism the effacement of gender in the global capitalism of the Italian Nordest /Brazzale, Claudia, January 2007 (has links)
Thesis (Ph.D.)--UCLA, 2007. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 339-356).
05 June 2012
M.Tech. / Women in South Africa account for more than half the population, yet traditionally have been excluded from the formal environments of business. Women entrepreneurs in play a critical and important role in the economy and their contribution is limited to more traditional businesses such as crafts, hawking, personal services and the retail sectors. For women entrepreneurs to contribute positively to the South African economy, the environment in which they operate needs to be understood. Women business owners are faced with many challenges iv that hinder their success. The objective of this study is to identify and investigate the success factors and relevant barriers facing women entrepreneurs and to determine to what extent these barriers affect their success to starting, managing and growing their ventures taking into account their bio-graphics.
Financial literacy amongst women entrepreneurs in Kenya: a value-added product for economic empowerment.Wangui, Kinyanjui Joyce January 2018 (has links)
A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Arts in fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor Of Philosophy in the Department of Library and Information Studies at the University Of Zululand, 2018 / Human civilisation has been characterised by numerous revolutions, with the most recent one being the information revolution. Information is driving development in all spheres of life: social, political, economic, health and human services. For effective utilisation of information, a special kind of literacy beyond functional literacy or the ability to read and write is required. This kind of literacy is what is commonly referred to as Information literacy (IL). Researchers are increasingly designating several types of literacy. Financial literacy, which is the ability to understand the fundamentals of money management, namely budgeting, spending, saving, investment, the use of financial products and services like government financial assistance programmes, banking and insurance; basic numeric skills and debt levels, is at the core of this study. The overall aim of the study was to establish the financial literacy competences of women entrepreneurs and determine their impact on women’s economic empowerment. The overall aim of the research was to identify the financial literacy skills of women entrepreneurs and to study their role in women's economic empowerment. The study's objectives were: 1) To determine the financial literacy skills of women entrepreneurs in Kenya; 2) To determine the level of economic empowerment of women entrepreneurs. 3) To determine the relationship between financial literacy and women's economic empowerment and 4) To suggest a model for the enhancement of the financial literacy skills of women entrepreneurs in Kenya. The following research questions were addressed to realise the objectives of the study: 1) What are the financial literacy skills of women entrepreneurs in Kenya? 2) What is the level of economic empowerment of women entrepreneurs? 3) What is the relationship between women’s financial literacy and their economic empowerment? 4) Which is the best model for enhancing financial literacy skills of women entrepreneurs in Kenya? The study used the mixed method approach which is normally associated with Pragmatic paradigm. The study combined the Positivist/postpositivist approach, which is associated with quantitative data, and Constructivist approaches which emphasise the socially constructed nature of reality and are therefore associated with qualitative data. The study was carried out using the survey research design because of its ability to capture the complexities of the issues under study using only a small sample of the population. Purposive sampling was used to select 105 women’s groups who had obtained loans from the Uwezo Fund in Chuka Constituency in the financial year 2013/2014. Both random and stratified sampling technique was applied to select the women entrepreneurs who formed the sample. The number of respondents from each stratum was proportionate to the size of the different strata of enterprises funded. In order to reduce possible sampling error, a total of 400 respondents were selected. Detailed questionnaires with both structured and open-ended questions were used to collect data. Discrete data was analysed using the Statistics and Data (STATA) package to generate descriptive statistics such as frequencies (counts) and percentages to describe data on the various variables. Cross-tabulation analysis was conducted to simultaneously analyse the relationship between two or more variables in the study. Causal analysis that is concerned with the study of how one variable affects changes in another variable, was used to determine how financial literacy skills affect women's economic empowerment, which is one of the research questions. A chi-square test of independence was then carried out to assess the degree of association between these variables. Research findings confirm that financial literacy skills are a major factor in women's economic empowerment, but that some financial literacy skills have a greater impact than others. Women entrepreneurs acquire financial literacy skills through social constructionism. Lack of financial literacy skills is hindering women entrepreneurs from becoming economically empowered. A willingness to invest in a risky business venture 239 (62.57%), lack of basic numeric skills 237 (61.88%), and taking loans without considering the cost 88 (71.42%) is undermining women’s economic empowerment. This is demonstrated by the fact that 78 (20.47%) of the respondents feel that their financial status is out of control and 153 (40.26%) feel uncomfortable about their current debt status. This study proposes that regular assessment of women entrepreneurs’ financial literacy skills be carried out and tailor-made training courses to fulfil these needs be introduced. Priority should be given to topics such as computing, loans, reading and understanding bank statements, budgeting, spending, saving and investing in business ventures. In order to increase the number of women entrepreneurs included in formal financial services, financial institutions should offer women financial products that suit them.
A longitudinal study of the motivations of women entrepreneurs in a transitional and developing economy : the case of ChinaWen-Thornton, Yan January 2013 (has links)
This research is a pioneering longitudinal study of Chinese women entrepreneurs that focuses specifically on the government economic reform period of 1980 to the present. The study makes a significant contribution to entrepreneurship studies and it contributes to our knowledge of women entrepreneurship in transitional economies. The study investigates the drivers that influence and factors associated with Chinese women's entrepreneurial success in China. The research also explores the motivations of Chinese women entrepreneurs in starting-up their business in the reform periods across the last three decades. A total of nine Chinese women entrepreneurs in three groups who set up their own business in the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s were investigated for an in-depth interview, using narrative approaches, in a qualitative research methodology. How Chinese culture, government policy and massive domestic market demand have influenced Chinese women’s entrepreneurial identity and motivation are the main outcomes of the project. Additionally, the barriers, family issues and effects of relationships were uncovered during this research.
Philip, Tracey Lee-Ann
The study aimed to explore women entrepreneurs’ experiences using social capital to develop their manufacturing businesses. Social capital has apparent benefits for developing women-owned businesses. The manufacturing sector has traditionally been male-dominated globally, therefore to promote inclusivity the need arose to explore the dynamics of social capital and its perceived benefits, to gain an insightful understanding of the value it might hold for both academics and business. Valuable insights were gained on the combination of creating and sustaining relationships, and social networking as influencers that impacts the accumulation of social capital. This research set out to discover the main drivers of social capital, obtain narratives regarding the barriers and enablers in accessing social networks. Deeper understanding was gained on how support structures act as resources to develop women-owned businesses. The study highlighted the need to promote cultural and societal transformation with social capital being a critical component to develop of women’s entrepreneurship. / Mini Dissertation (MBA)--University of Pretoria, 2021. / Gordon Institute of Business Science (GIBS) / MBA / Unrestricted
African American Women Bloggers’ Lived Experiences with Digital Entrepreneurship: A Transcendental Phenomenological StudyMcDowell, Melissa 01 January 2020 (has links)
The professionalization of blogs has elevated blogging to an organizational field whereby bloggers develop a legitimate career path. For many minority women bloggers, the transition from being traditionally employed to managing a one-person digital enterprise is often met with racial and gender imbalances created by nontraditional modes of work. The purpose of this qualitative transcendental phenomenological study was to gain a deeper understanding of how African American women bloggers described their lived experiences with managing a one-person digital enterprise and the implications of their racial and gender identity within this nontraditional mode of work. To address this gap, a transcendental phenomenological method was used to collect data from African American women bloggers. This study was framed by 3 key concepts focused on African American women bloggers: Brydges and Sj00F6holm’s concept of personal style blogger, Martinez Dy et al’s concept of women digital entrepreneurs, and Gabriel’s concept of Black female identity online. Data were gathered using 9 virtual semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the modified Van Kaam method. Eight themes emerged when answering the research question. The findings of the research showed that being an African American woman blogger means conducting entrepreneurial activity, working towards financial solvency, being proud of racial identity, and creating and delivering content as a blogger. Results gleaned from this transcendental phenomenological study may help promote social change by bringing awareness to policymakers on the issues of equity, access, and opportunity for marginalized populations who seek to become digital entrepreneurs.
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