26 April 2018
Microgrids are local power systems of different sizes located inside the distribution systems. Each microgrid contains a group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources that acts as a single controllable entity with respect to the grid. Their islanding operation capabilities during emergencies improve the resiliency and reliability of the electric energy supply. Due to its low kinetic energy storage capacity, maintaining microgrid stability is challenging under system contingencies and unpredictable power generation from renewable resources. This dissertation highlights the potential benefits of flexibly utilizing the battery energy storage systems to enhance the stability of microgrids. The main contribution of this research consists in the development of a storage converter controller with an additional stability margin that enables it to improve microgrid frequency and voltage regulation as well as its induction motor post-fault speed recovery. This new autonomous control technique is implemented by adaptively setting the converter controller parameters based on its estimated phase-locked loop frequency deviation and terminal voltage magnitude measurement. This work also assists in the microgrid design process by determining the normalized minimum storage converter sizing under a wide range of microgrid motor inertia, loading and fault clearing time with both symmetrical and asymmetrical fault types. This study evaluates the expandability of the proposed control methodologies under an unbalanced meshed microgrid with fault-induced feeder switching and multiple contingencies in addition to random power output from renewable generators. The favorable results demonstrate the robust storage converter controller performance under a dynamic changing microgrid environment.
25 April 2013
The goal of this study was to determine the economic feasibility of battery energy storage system (BESS). Three major economic benefits derived from BESS using were studied: 1. Energy Purchase Shifting, 2. Distribution Feeder Deferral, 3. Outage Avoidance. The economic analysis was based on theoretical modeling of the BESS and distribution system. Three simulation models were developed to quantify the effects of different parameters, such as: BESS round-trip efficiency, life span, rated power, rated discharge time, marginal cost of electric energy, 24 h feeder load profile, annual load variation, feeder load growth rate and feeder length. An optimal battery charging/discharging method was presented to determine the differential cost of energy (DCE). The annual maximum DCE was calculated using stochastic probability analysis on seasonal load variation. The net present value was evaluated as the present value difference between two investments: first, the distribution feeder upgrade without BESS deferral, and second, with BESS deferral. Furthermore, the BESSâ€™s contributions under different outage strategies were compared. It was determined that feeder length is the most significant parameter. The economics of the studied system becomes favorable when the feeder length exceeds a critical value.
A method has been developed, Physical Hybrid Model, to investigate the physical large scale electrical effects of a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) on a distribution grid by scaling the response from a small size Research Development and Demonstration (RD&D) platform. In order to realize the model the control system of an existing RD&D platform was refurbished and stability of components ensured. The Physical Hybrid Model proceeds as follows: Data from a distribution grid are collected. A BESS cycle curve is produced based on analyzed measurements. Required BESS power and capacity in investigated grid is scaled down by factor k to that of the physical test installation of the RD&D platform. The scaled BESS cycle is sent as input to control of the battery cycling of the RD&D platform. The response from the RD&D platform is scaled – up, and used in simulation of the distribution grid to find the impact of a BESS. The model was successfully implemented on a regional distribution grid in southern Sweden.
28 August 2008
This thesis presents the application of a series interconnection module for small distributed generation (DG) or renewable energy systems integration in the distribution network. The concept used one set of voltage source converter (VSC) with battery energy storage system to control the injected voltage magnitude and phase angle for power injection and voltage sag mitigation applications. Through an energy storage device and the VSC, the module allows storage of surplus energy during off peak period and release for use during daytime peak load period, therefore, exhibits a load leveling characteristic. Due to its series connection characteristic, it is convenient in preventing islanding operation and suitable for voltage sag mitigation. The concept is suitable for locations where the voltage phase shift is not a problem. Due to the use of only one set of VSC, it is economic for customer site distributed energy resource applications.
Economic and grid potentials of implementing an energy storage system : A case study of the benefits of peak shaving if implementing an energy storage systemArvidsson, Maria, Ericson, Sara, Söderlind, Alicia January 2020 (has links)
Morgongåva is an urban centre in Sweden, with several challenges in the electrical power grid. In order to use the power grid more efficiently, this report investigates potentials of installing a battery energy storage system (BESS). Focus lies on finding economic and technical benefits of reducing power peaks, which occur during high demand hours when transmitting energy is more expensive. This method is referred to as peak shaving. Further, economic calculations if installing a BESS are based on electricity pricing data. Calculations regarding technical benefits are based on net power demand data. Further, the study shows that the usage of the grid, which was measured with the load factor, would increase and thus allow installation of more power sources and connecting more load to the grid. The load factor was estimated to increase by an average of 2.12 percent each month in 2019. In one year, the economic profit was estimated to be 91,000 kr. The conclusion is that there are economic profits for Sala-Heby Energi of installing a BESS, but more importantly a BESS has technical consequences in the power grid. Where technical benefits are important in order to reach the goals of Agenda 2030 but also to obtain a more reliable grid for the customers. A sensitivity analysis shows that the model is robust. Thus, the conclusion is that Sala-Heby Energi and the local electricity grid in Morgongåva would benefit from installing a BESS.
Operation of battery energy storage system for frequency control of hydropower operated in island modeHallblad, Amanda January 2020 (has links)
The purpose of this study is to analyse how a battery energy storage system (BESS) can support the frequency and voltage stability for an islanded microgrid containing a hydropower plant. Two different microgrids, both situated in Sweden, are evaluated. Modelling and dynamic simulations are conducted in the PowerFactory tool. The result shows that both the frequency and the voltage control can be improved with the BESS. However, with the allowed limit of ± 1 Hz, not all simulated scenarios including a BESS meets the requirement. A large difference between the BESS and generator capacity might be a possible cause for this. By dividing the larger loads so that smaller loads are attained, the frequency deviation might be reduced. Furthermore, by adjusting the systems PID-parameters according to the island mode operation, faster regulation can be attained. The system operates according to the Master slave control strategy, with the hydropower being the master unit with voltage control and the BESS being a slave unit with PQ control. The ability to operate an islanded microgrid can ensure the supply of electricity to inhabitants and vital functions in society. By utilizing a BESS for increasing electric stability, emission of CO2 is indirectly mitigated. As cost for BESS are expected to decrease rapidly, they will be accessible for utilization all over the world.
In deregulated electricity markets, profit driven electricity retailers compete to supply cheap reliable electricity to electricity consumers, and the electricity consumers have free will to switch between the electricity retailers. The need to maximize the profits of the electricity retailers while minimizing the electricity costs of the electricity consumers has therefore seen a drastic increase in the research of electricity markets. One of the factors that affect the profits of the electricity retailers and the energy cost of the consumers in electricity retail markets is the supply and demand. During high-supply and low-demand periods, the excess electricity if not managed, is wasted. During low-supply high-demand periods, the deficit supply can lead to electricity blackouts or costly electricity because of the volatile electricity wholesale spot market prices. Research studies have shown that electricity retailers can achieve significant profits and reduced electricity costs for their electricity consumers by minimizing the excess electricity and deficit electricity. Existing studies developed load forecasting models that aimed to match electricity supply and electricity demand. These models reached excellent accuracy levels, however due to the high volatility character of load demand and the rise of new electricity consumers, load forecasting alone is unable to mitigate excess and deficit electricity. In other studies, researchers proposed charging the electricity consumers’ batteries with excess electricity during high-supply low-demand periods and supplying their deficit electricity during low-supply high-demand periods. Electricity consumers’ incorporating batteries resulted in minimized excess and deficit electricity, in turn, maximizing the profits for the electricity retailers and minimizing the electricity costs for the electricity consumers. However, the batteries are consumer centric and only provide battery energy for the battery-owned consumer. Electricity consumers without battery energy during low-supply highdemand periods have electricity blackouts or require costly electricity from the electricity wholesale spot market. The peer-to-peer (P2P) energy sharing framework which allows electricity consumers to share their energy resources with one another is a viable solution to allow electricity consumers to share their battery energy. P2P energy sharing is a hot topic in research because of its potential to maximize the electricity retailers’ profits and minimize the electricity consumers’ electricity costs. Due to the increased profits for the electricity retailer and reduced electricity costs for the electricity consumers from implementing battery charging and P2P energy sharing, this dissertation proposes a day-ahead electricity retail market structure in which the electricity retailer supplies consumers’ batteries with excess electricity during high-supply low-demand periods, and during low-supply highdemand periods the electricity retailer discharges the consumers’ batteries to supply their deficit supply or supply their peers’ deficit supply. The electricity retailer aims to maximize its profits and minimize the electricity cost of the electricity consumers in its electricity retail market, by minimizing the excess and deficit electricity. The problem is formulated as a non-linear optimization model and solved using game theory. This dissertation compares the profits of the electricity retailer and electricity costs of the consumers that charge their batteries with excess electricity, discharge their batteries and purchase electricity from their peers to supply their deficit supply, with consumers that only charge their batteries with excess electricity but do not share their battery energy with their peers, consumers that only purchase electricity from their peers to supply their deficit supply but do not employ a battery, and consumers that neither employ a battery nor purchase electricity from their peers to supply their deficit supply. The results show that the consumers that charge their batteries with excess electricity, discharge their batteries and purchase electricity from their peers to supply their deficit supply achieved the lowest electricity cost and highest profits for the electricity retailer. / Dissertation (MEng)--University of Pretoria, 2020. / Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering / MEng / Unrestricted
Batterilagring för ökad självkonsumtion från solceller : En studie om lönsamheten hos batterilagring i den svenska bostadssektornBagger Toräng, Adrian, Rickhammar, Olof January 2020 (has links)
Det finns en ökande efterfrågan på förnybar elproduktion och effektiva lösningar att kombinera med denna. Ett flertal tidigare arbeten har undersökt energilagringssystem (ESS) och dess lönsamhet i olika tillämpningar. Det råder en osäkerhet kring lönsamheten hos ESS för ökad självkonsumtion i Sverige. Detta arbete undersöker lönsamheten hos batterilagringssystem (BESS) som används i syftet att öka självkonsumtionen för aktörer med solceller i den svenska bostadssektorn. En modell konstruerades baserat på Levelized Cost of Storage (LCOS), och indata till modellen varierades för olika scenarier. Resultaten visade att BESS kostnader i dagsläget är för höga, med LCOS mellan 1,68 kr/kWh och 3,56 kr/kWh beroende på aktör och indata. För lönsamhet krävs reduktion av LCOS mellan 55% och 85%. Vidare undersöker arbetet vilka variabler som har störst påverkan på BESS lönsamhet. En känslighetsanalys genomfördes, där CAPEX, antalet battericykler per år, WACC och skattereduktioner vid elhandel identifierades som viktiga variabler. Arbetet visade att det antagligen krävs en kombination av högre elpriser och reducerade investeringskostnader för att motivera en investering i BESS. Utöver ökad självkonsumtion behövs ytterligare värden för att motivera en investering i BESS inom en snar framtid. / There is a growing demand for renewable power generation and efficient solutions to combine with renewables. Previous works have explored energy storage systems (ESS) and their profitability in various applications. There is an uncertainty about the profitability of ESS for increased self-consumption in Sweden. This thesis explores the profitability of battery energy storage systems (BESS) used for increased self-consumption for stakeholders with solar photovoltaics in the Swedish residential sector. A model based on levelized cost of storage (LCOS) was constructed, and varying input values were used for different scenarios. The results showed that the current cost of BESS is too high, with LCOS ranging between 1,68 SEK/kWh and 3,56 SEK/kWh depending on the stakeholder as well as input data. For profitability, a reduction of LCOS between 55% and 85% is needed. Furthermore, this thesis explores which variables have the greatest effect on a BESS’s profitability. A sensitivity analysis was conducted, where CAPEX, the number of battery cycles per year, WACC and tax reductions linked to electricity trading were identified as important variables. This thesis concluded that higher electricity prices in combination with reduced investment costs is needed to justify an investment in BESS. Besides increased self-consumption, other values are needed to justify an investment in a BESS in the near future.
The awareness of the problems with fossil energy sources have increased the past decades. To decrease the effects of the fossil fuels on the climate and the environment, the use of intermittent energy sources such as solar- and wind power are increasing. Intermittent generation creates instability in the power grid, which cause fluctuations in the voltage and the frequency of the power grid. To be able to handle these fluctuations, regulating capacity such as for example pumped storage or batteries are needed. This thesis has investigated how the placement and the power capacity of a battery energy storage system affects the possibility for frequency and voltage regulation in a weak distribution grid. The investigation was made in MATLAB Simulink by creating a weak radial distribution grid with a high penetration of solar power. The distribution grid had variable loads with different power consumption at each bus, creating instability in the distribution grid. The optimal placement of a battery energy storage system is firstly at the largest load and secondly as far away from the other power generation units as possible. A battery storage with a power capacity that can handle all consumption is optimal. It is possible to have a smaller power capacity if the grid is stable enough to withstand the appearing fluctuation of frequency or voltage. The frequency variations are more dependent on the power capacity and the voltage variations are more dependent on the placement of the battery energy storage system. ISSN:
Darle, Maria, Lindqvist, Saga
In this study, an examination regarding what benefits an aggregatedpopulation of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) could result incompared to when the individual units in the population are being usedseparately has been executed. The increased flexibility and reducedsafety margins as results of the aggregation was also examined. Thestudy was executed on behalf of the smart energy service companyCheckWatt AB and the study furthermore rests upon results of earlierperformed master theses on behalf of the company. By investigating previous work and studies through a literature study,the enabling of anumerical study was done. The numerical study wasbased on a simple model of a Virtual Power Plant (VPP) where severalBESSs are smartly controlled in order to be used for both local peakshaving and as common providers of the frequency reserve FrequencyContainment Reserve - Normal (FCR-N). The study involved the formation of a numerical model which simulated cases of both aggregated and non-aggregated populations of up to 45 load profile units, this in order for advantages and differences to be distinguished. The data used inthe simulations was received mainly from the CheckWatt AB andconsisted of photovoltaic (PV) electricity production and load data of 45 customers of the company. A sensibility analysis of the numericalstudy was also performed, which showed that the studied model andsystem were quite stable. The results of the simulations of the case of the study proved thatthere are some advantages connected to aggregation of several BESSs,and that the aggregation enabled an added value and a higher level offlexibility within the system. The safety margins connected todelivery of FCR-N could be reduced when aggregating several BESS,while a more extensive study is requested regarding safety marginsconnected to peak shaving. The study’s results further showed that anaggregator can be used as a sustainable and flexible solution forbalancing the electrical grid in the transition to a sustainableenergy system allowing a higher penetration of intermittentenergy sources.
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