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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Localisation of Fluorescent Probes and the estimation of Lipid Nanodomain sizes by modern fluorescence techniques / Lokalizace fluorescenčních značek a určování velikostí lipidových nanodomén pomocí moderních fluorescenčních metod

Sachl, Radek January 2012 (has links)
The thesis is divided into two major parts. The first part focuses on the localisation of probes in lipid/polymeric bilayers and in GM1 micelles. Included in this thesis is a new approach based on electronic energy transfer/migration (FRET/DDEM), which efficiently determines transversal positions of fluorescent molecules in lipid bilayers. This approach has been used to locate newly synthesized lipid probes in DOPC bilayers. The label was introduced at the end of sn-2 acyl chains of variable length. Analytical models accounting for FRET exist for a limited number of basic geometries. Here, a combination of FRET and Monte Carlo simulations enables the localisation of probes in bicelles and in bilayers containing pores, i.e. in lipid systems with variable curvature, or in non-homogenous lipid systems. This approach has been used to test whether conical-like fluorescence probes have an increased affinity to highly curved regions, which would enable preferential labelling of membrane pores. A simplified FRET model has been applied to localize 2-pyridones, a class of potential drugs, in GM1 micelles. Since the localisation of drugs within nanoparticles might influence the release kinetics and loading efficiency, knowledge about the drug location is highly relevant. It turned out that all derivatives were localised at the core-shell interface of GM1 micelles. The second part of the thesis focuses mainly on the estimation of lipid nanodomain size by means of FRET, which still remains the most powerful method in this field. Limitations of FRET in the determination of domain size have been explored. We showed that the limitations of FRET are mainly caused by a low probes affinity to either the liquid-ordered or liquid-disordered phase. In the continuing work we provided a detailed dynamic and structural study of crosslinker-triggered formation of nanodomains. Here, two different domains have been revealed, i.e. i) domains whose size grows with increasing amount of added cholera toxin (CTxB), and to which CTxB binds tightly; ii) domains formed in membranes containing a slightly increased amount of sphingomyelin (as compared to i) whose size does not change during titration by additional CTxB and to which CTxB binds less tightly. / Disertace je rozdělena do dvou hlavníchčástí. Prvníčást se zabývá lokalizací značek v lipidových/polymerních dvojvrstvách a v GM1micelách. V práci prezentujeme nový přístup založený na přenosu/migraci elektronické energie (FRET/DDEM), jež umožňuje efektivně určovat vertikální pozici fluorescenčních molekul uvnitř lipidové dvojvrstvy. Tato metoda byla použita k lokalizaci nově syntetizovaných lipidových značek značených na konci sn-2 acylového řetězce s různou délkou v DOPC dvojvrstvách. Analytické modely popisující FRET existují pouze pro limitovaný počet základních geometrií. Kombinace FRETu s Monte Carlo simulacemi nicméně umožňuje lokalizaci značek v bicelách a v dvojvrstvách obsahujících póry, tj. v lipidových systémech s proměnlivým zakřivením a v nehomogenních lipidových útvarech. Tento přístup umožnil např. zjistit, zda kuželovitětvarované značky mají zvýšenou afinitu k vysoce zakřiveným oblastem dvojvrstvy, což by umožnilo preferenční značení pórů. Lokalizovány byly rovněž tři deriváty 2-pyridonů(potencionálních léčiv) v GM1micelách za použití jednoduchého modelu zohledňujícího FRET mezi donory a akceptory nacházejícími se v micelách. Lokalizace léčiv v nanočásticích ovlivňuje kinetiku uvolňování (release kinetics) a množství látky solubilizované v micelách (loading efficiency). Druhá část se především zabývá určováním velikostí lipidových nanodomén pomocí FRETu, který stále zůstává nejvíce výkonnou metodou v této oblasti. Zkoumány byly limitace FRETu v určování lipidových nanodomén. Ukázalo se, že tato omezení jsou především způsobena nízkou afinitou značek buď k Lonebo k Ldfázi. V navazující studii jsme poskytnuli detailní dynamickou a strukturní studii formace nanodomén indukované crosslinkerem. Objevili jsme dva typy domén: a) domény, jejichž velikost se zvětšuje s rostoucím množstvím přidaného cholera toxinu (CTxB) a k nimž se CTxB váže pevně a b) domény vzniklé v membránách se zvýšeným množstvím sfingomyelinu (ve srovnání s a)), jejichž velikost se nemění během titrace dodatečným CTxB a k nimž se CTxB váže méně pevně. / This thesis has been elaborated within the framework of the Agreement on JointSupervision (co-tutelle) of an International Doctoral Degree Programmebetween Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic and the Department of Chemistry at Umeå University, Sweden.
2

The opioid peptide dynorphin A : Biophysical studies of peptide–receptor and peptide–membrane interactions

Björnerås, Johannes January 2014 (has links)
The work presented in this thesis concerns the opioid peptide dynorphin A (DynA). DynA functions primarily as a neurotransmitter and belongs to the family of typical opioid peptides. These peptides are a part of the opioid system, together with the opioid receptors, a family of GPCR membrane proteins. The opioid system system is involved or implicated in several physiological processes such as analgesia, addiction, depression and other types of neurological disorders. In this thesis, two biologically relevant aspects of DynA have been investigated with biophysical methods. First, interactions between DynA and an opioid receptor, and second, the direct membrane interactions of DynA. The DynA–receptor studies were focused on the selectivity-modulating second extracellular loop (EL2) of the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR). A protein engineering approach was used in which the EL2 was grafted onto a soluble protein scaffold. The results show that DynA binds with low affinity but high specificity to EL2 in the construct protein environment. The strength of the interaction is in the micromolar range, and we argue that this interaction is part of the receptor recognition event. With bicelles as a mimetic, membrane interactions were probed for wild-type DynA and for two DynA peptide variants linked to a neurological disorder. R6W–DynA and L5S–DynA were shown to be very different in terms of bicelle association, penetration and structure induction. In these experiments, as well as in investigations of DynA dynamics in bicelles, the lipid environment was shown to have much larger effects on peptide dynamics than on structure; and both these properties depend on lipid charge. Additionally, in a methodological project, DHPC/DMPC bicelle morphology as a function of total PC concentration was characterised by diffusion NMR in combination with two-way decomposition. The results may contribute to providing guidelines for the appropriate use of bicelles as a membrane mimetic. / <p>At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 5: Manuscript.</p>
3

DEVELOPMENT OF NEW METHODS FOR THE ALIGNMENT OF LONGER CHAIN PHOSPHOLIPIDS IN BICELLES AND SOLID-STATE NMR STUDIES OF PHOSPHOLAMBAN

Tiburu, Elvis K 04 October 2004 (has links)
No description available.
4

X-band EPR Spectroscopy of Spin-labeled Membrane Biomolecules Incorporated into Magnetically Aligned Phospholipid Bilayers

Cardon, Thomas B. 14 August 2006 (has links)
No description available.
5

Solid-state NMR studies of phospholipid model membranes and membrane-associated macromolecules

Lu, Junxia 10 July 2007 (has links)
No description available.
6

Évaluation de l’efficacité des antimicrobiens naturels libres et encapsulés contre la colonisation du jus d’orange par des bactéries lactiques : comparaison entre quatre systèmes d'encapsulation / Evaluation of the efficacy of free and encapsulated natural antimicrobials against the colonization of orange juice by lactic acid bacteria : comparison between four encapsulation systems

Ephrem, Elissa 18 December 2018 (has links)
Le jus d'orange frais est largement apprécié par les consommateurs en raison de son goût agréable et sa haute valeur nutritionnelle. La qualité du jus d'orange frais est rapidement altérée, notamment par les microorganismes. L'addition des antimicrobiens d'origine végétale au jus d'orange pourrait augmenter la durée de vie de ce jus durant le stockage à 4 °C. Parmi ces antimicrobiens naturels, plusieurs sont sensibles aux facteurs environnementaux qui diminuent leur efficacité dans les produits alimentaires, ce qui nécessite leur incorporation dans des systèmes d'encapsulation. Bien que ce domaine soit promettant, l'évaluation de l'activité des molécules antimicrobiennes encapsulées dans des jus de fruits reste limitée. Nous avons recherché une molécule naturelle active contre Lactobacillus fermentum, une bactérie impliquée dans la détérioration du jus 'orange, dans le milieu de culture. Le nérolidol (Ner), un sesquiterpène alcool, a été sélectionné parmi 28 molécules naturelles (terpènes et phénols) criblées et a montré une puissante activité contre L. fermentum (concentration minimale inhibitrice (CMI) = 25 μM et concentration minimale bactéricide (CMB)= 50 μM) dans le milieu de culture à 37 °C. Dans la suite du travail, le Ner a été incorporé dans le complexe d'inclusion hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD)/Ner, les liposomes conventionnels (LCs), les liposomes contenant le complexe d'inclusion (DCL) et les bicelles. Les analyses HPLC ont montré que les complexes d'inclusion, les LCs et le système DCL contenaient 40, 30 et 15 μg Ner/mg poudre, respectivement. En outre, les systèmes ont été caractérisés en termes de morphologie, de taille, d'homogénéité et de potentiel zêta. Le Ner a été incorporé dans les bicelles à un rapport molaire phospholipides:Ner de 100:1 sans altération de la structure du système (taille, homogénéité, potentiel zêta, morphologie). Cette formulation a montré une efficacité d'encapsulation du Ner et un taux d'incorporation des phospholipides élevés et un pourcentage de Ner dans les bicelles de 0,86%. A des concentrations plus élevées, le Ner a altéré les caractéristiques physiques (taille, homogénéité, morphologie) et thermodynamiques de la membrane des bicelles et a augmenté le désordre au niveau membranaire. Le complexe d'inclusion HP-β-CD/Ner (CMI = 100 μM et CMB= 200 μM) a montré une bonne efficacité contre L. fermentum dans le milieu de culture à 37 °C. L'efficacité du Ner libre et du complexe d'inclusion HP-β-CD/Ner a énormément diminué dans le jus d'orange réfrigéré, vu qu'un effet bactéricide total a été obtenu après 8 et 17 jours d'incubation, respectivement, à 2000 μM en Ner. Alors que les liposomes ont bloqué cette activité pour au moins 20 jours et ont altéré l'aspect du jus. A 4000 μM en Ner libre ou incorporé dans le complexe d'inclusion, une mort bactérienne totale a été observée après 5 et 6 jours, respectivement. En outre, la présence du complexe d'inclusion n'a pas modifié le pH et l'acidité titrable du jus, alors qu'une faible augmentation du degré de Brix a été observée. Des études ultérieures sur l'activité antibactérienne des bicelles incorporant le Ner peuvent être envisagées pour déterminer l'efficacité du système préparé. Ce système pourrait être aussi caractérisé en termes de cinétique de libération, de protection du Ner / Fresh orange juice is widely appreciated by consumers due to its pleasant taste and high nutritional value. Fresh orange juice is rapidly altered during storage, especially by microorganisms. The addition of plant-derived antimicrobials to orange juice may increase its shelf life during storage at 4 °C. Many of these natural antimicrobials are sensitive to environmental factors which reduce their effectiveness in food products. Therefore, their incorporation into encapsulation systems is required. Although this strategy is promising, the evaluation of the activity of encapsulated antimicrobials in fruit juices remains limited. In this study, we searched for a natural molecule active against Lactobacillus fermentum, a bacterium involved in the deterioration of orange juice, in the culture medium. Nerolidol (Ner), a sesquiterpene alcohol, was selected among 28 natural molecules (terpenes and phenols) and showed a potent activity against L. fermentum (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 25 μM and minimal bactericidal concentration (CMB) = 50 μM) in culture medium at 37 °C. Ner was incorporated into hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) inclusion complex, conventional liposomes (CLs), dug-in-cyclodextrin-in liposome (DCL) and bicelles. HPLC analysis showed a Ner content of 40, 30 and 15 μg per mg powder of HP-β-CD/Ner inclusion complex, LCs, and DCL system, respectively. In addition, the systems were characterized in terms of morphology, size, homogeneity, and zeta potential. Ner was incorporated in bicelles at a phospholipids to Ner molar ratio of 100:1 without altering the structural characteristics of the system (size, homogeneity, zeta potential, morphology). This formulation showed a high encapsulation efficiency of Ner, a high phospholipid incorporation rate, and a molar percentage of Ner in bicelles of 0.86%. At higher concentrations, Ner altered the physical (size, homogeneity, morphology) and the thermodynamic parameters of the bicelles membrane in addition to the increase in membrane fluidity. The HP-β-CD/Ner inclusion complex (MIC = 100 μM and CMB = 200 μM) showed good efficacy against L. fermentum in the culture medium at 37 C. The efficacy of free Ner and HP-β-CD/Ner inclusion complex was greatly reduced in refrigerated orange juice, as a total bactericidal activity was observed after 8 and 17 days of incubation, respectively, at a Ner concentration of 2000 μM. Whereas, liposomes blocked this activity for at least 20 days and altered the appearance of the juice. At 4000 μMof free Ner or Ner incorporated into the inclusion complex, a total bacterial death was observed after 5 and 6 days, respectively. In addition, the presence of the inclusion complex did not alter the pH and the titratable acidity of the juice, while a slight increase in the Brix degree value was observed. Subsequent studies on the antibacterial activity of bicelles incorporating Ner may be considered to determine the effectiveness of the prepared system. This system could also be characterized in terms of release rate and Ner stability
7

One key to two doors : Dual targeting peptides and membrane mimetics

Ye, Weihua January 2015 (has links)
A targeting peptide at the N-terminus of a precursor protein usually directs the protein synthesized in the cytosol to a specific organelle in the cell. Interestingly, some targeting peptides, so-called dual targeting peptides (dTPs) can target their protein to both mitochondria and chloroplasts. In order to understand the mechanism of dual targeting, a dTP from threonyl tRNA synthetase (ThrRS-dTP) was investigated as a model dTP in this thesis work. The results suggest that ThrRS-dTP is intrinsically disordered in solution but has an α-helical propensity at the N-terminal part. Tom20 and Toc34 are the two primary receptors on the outer membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts, respectively. We found that the N-terminal half of the ThrRS-dTP sequence, including an amphiphilic helix, is important for the interaction with Tom20. This part also contains a φχχφφ motif, where φ represents a hydrophobic/aromatic residue and χ represents any amino acid residue. In contrast, neither the amphiphilic helix nor φχχφφ motif in ThrRS-dTP has any special role for its interaction with Toc34. Instead, the entire sequence of ThrRS-dTP is important for Toc34 interaction, including the C-terminal part which is barely affected by Tom20 interaction. In addition, the role of lipids in the organelle membrane for the recognition of dual targeting peptides during protein import is also the focus of this thesis. The tendency to form α-helix in ThrRS-dTP, which is not observable in solution by CD, becomes obvious in the presence of lipids and DPC micelles. To be able to study such interactions, DMPC/DHPC isotropic bicelles under different conditions have also been characterized. These results demonstrate that bicelles with a long-chained/short-chained lipid ratio q = 0.5 and a concentration larger than 75 mM should be used to ensure that the classic bicelle morphology persists. Moreover, we developed a novel membrane mimetic system containing the galactolipids, MGDG or DGDG, which have been proposed to be important for protein import into chloroplasts. Up to 30% MGDG or DGDG lipids were able to be integrated into bicelles. The local dynamics of the galactolipids in bicelles displays two types of behavior: the sugar head-group and the glycerol part are rigid, and the acyl chains are flexible. / <p>At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: In press.</p>
8

Characterization of the Interactions of the Bacterial Cell Division Regulator MinE

Hafizi, Fatima 23 August 2012 (has links)
Symmetric cell division in gram-negative bacteria is essential for generating two equal-sized daughter cells, each containing cellular material crucial for growth and future replication. The Min system, comprised of proteins MinC, MinD and MinE, is particularly important for this process since its deletion leads to minicells incapable of further replication. This thesis focuses on the interactions involving MinE that are important for allowing cell division at the mid-cell and for directing the dynamic localization of MinD that is observed in vivo. Previous experiments have shown that the MinE protein contains an N-terminal region that is required to stimulate MinD-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis in the Min protein interaction cycle. However, MinD-binding residues in MinE identified by in vitro MinD ATPase assays were subsequently found to be buried in the hydrophobic dimeric interface in the MinE structure, raising the possibility that these residues are not directly involved in the interaction. To address this issue, the ability of N-terminal MinE peptides to stimulate MinD activity was studied to determine the role of these residues in MinD activation. Our results implied that MinE likely undergoes a change in conformation or oligomerization state before binding MinD. In addition we performed circular dichroism spectroscopy of MinE. The data suggest that direct interactions between MinE and the lipid membrane can lead to conformational changes in MinE. Using NMR spectroscopy in an attempt to observe this structure change, different membrane-mimetic environments were tested. However the results strongly suggest that structural studies on the membrane-bound state of MinE will pose significant challenges. Taken together, the results in this thesis open the door for further exploration of the interactions involving MinE in order to gain a better understanding of the dynamic localization patterns formed by these proteins in vivo.
9

Characterization of the Interactions of the Bacterial Cell Division Regulator MinE

Hafizi, Fatima 23 August 2012 (has links)
Symmetric cell division in gram-negative bacteria is essential for generating two equal-sized daughter cells, each containing cellular material crucial for growth and future replication. The Min system, comprised of proteins MinC, MinD and MinE, is particularly important for this process since its deletion leads to minicells incapable of further replication. This thesis focuses on the interactions involving MinE that are important for allowing cell division at the mid-cell and for directing the dynamic localization of MinD that is observed in vivo. Previous experiments have shown that the MinE protein contains an N-terminal region that is required to stimulate MinD-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis in the Min protein interaction cycle. However, MinD-binding residues in MinE identified by in vitro MinD ATPase assays were subsequently found to be buried in the hydrophobic dimeric interface in the MinE structure, raising the possibility that these residues are not directly involved in the interaction. To address this issue, the ability of N-terminal MinE peptides to stimulate MinD activity was studied to determine the role of these residues in MinD activation. Our results implied that MinE likely undergoes a change in conformation or oligomerization state before binding MinD. In addition we performed circular dichroism spectroscopy of MinE. The data suggest that direct interactions between MinE and the lipid membrane can lead to conformational changes in MinE. Using NMR spectroscopy in an attempt to observe this structure change, different membrane-mimetic environments were tested. However the results strongly suggest that structural studies on the membrane-bound state of MinE will pose significant challenges. Taken together, the results in this thesis open the door for further exploration of the interactions involving MinE in order to gain a better understanding of the dynamic localization patterns formed by these proteins in vivo.
10

Molecular Expression Through Fluorescence: Studies In Probe Design And Aggregation

Gulyani, Akash 04 1900 (has links)
The present thesis entitled, "Molecular expression through fluorescence: Studies in probe design and aggregation" describes very simple bi-functional donor-acceptor poly-aromatic fluorophores that have been shown to possess distinctive properties depending on the context in which they are studied. In a sense, this work is an effort in exemplifying the inherent diversity and power of "molecular expression", with the central theme here being the phenomenon of fluorescence. The work has been divided into four chapters, each having a self-contained introduction. Chapter 1: First instance of metal ion (Zn2+) sensing exclusively at amphiphilic interfaces. (1 -pyrenyl)rnethyl-bis- [(2-pyridyl)methyl]amine (Pybpa), a simple, bi-functional fluorophore was synthesized. Pybpa has the modular design of a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) based analyte sensor. In Pybpa, a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) operates from the pyrenyl nitrogen (PyCH2-iV) to the excited pyrenyl (Py*) chromophore leading to fluorescence quenching. Zn2+ ion binding to the bis-picolyl (bpa) unit of Pybpa stops the PET process and leads to fluorescence enhancement. Thus Pybpa was able to sense Zn2+" in organic solvents. In water, however, Pybpa showed pronounced aggregation and the probe did not sense any metal ion. Surfactant micelles provide hydrophobic regions in water and the dynamic rnicellar assemblies could disrupt Pybpa aggregates. Pybpa monomers solubilized in micelles were responsive to Zn2+ in the low micro molar concentration range. The metal ion sensing on micelles was reflective of the charge of the interface. The sensing is negligible on cationic surface (CTAB), moderate on negatively charged surface (SDS micelles) and is the most efficient on neutral interface provided by TWEEN-20 micelles. With the Pybpa 'sensor*, no sensing is possible in water and hence the sensing is exclusive to the interface. Pybpa doped in membranous aggregates like phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid bilayers, exists in monomeric form, and was able to sense Zn . The sensing on phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayer vesicles was found to depend on the fluidity of the membrane. Zn2^ sensing with interfacially bound probe "was extended to a globular protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). BSA, a carrier protein, can bind hydrophobic molecules as well as metal ions like Zn2f. BSA was shown to disrupt Pybpa aggregation and bind Pybpa in a facile manner. BSA bound Pybpa was able to sense externally added Zn2+. Biological sensing of trace amounts of Zn2+ has been considered important since Zn2+ is crucial for eukaryotic systems. This is the first example of such 'exclusive' interfacial sensing of a metal ion. Chapter 2: Towards understanding and modulating self-assembly of pyrenyl bis-picolyl a mine: Organic nanoparticles that show tunable emission. Pybpa was found to aggregate in water in the size range of 80-250 nm. Evidence of aggregation was seen at concentrations as low as 1 |iM. The nanoscopic particles formed were characterized through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Pybpa in water showed dual emission bands, with one band resernhling the emission from 'monomeric' Pybpa (as seen in solutions in organic solvents) and a broad red-shifted emission band (A,max ~ 480 ran) designated as "aggregate/nanoparticle" emission. Distinct excitation spectra for the two emission bands indicate that the bands (the '390 nm' band and the '480 nm' band) originate through distinct excitation/emission channels. The time resolved emission decay for the 'monomer' emission (397 nm) showed a substantial contribution from a long-lived pyrene-like excited state (x = 103.9 ns, 40% relative amplitude). On the other hand, the decay at 475 nm (for the nanoparticle/aggregate emission band) was considerably faster, with no evidence of any pyrene-like long-lived state. The short lifetimes indicated an exciplex nature of the red-shifted emission band, X-,nax~480 nm. The effect of temperature and urea on these aggregates was examined. The nanoparticles formed even in a concentrated urea solution (7.8 M). The aggregates formed in urea were found to be more emissive, indicating a 'looser' aggregate with reduced fluorescence quenching. Similar results were obtained on heating the aggregate. Increasing the concentration of Pybpa in water causes a change in the nature of the colloids formed as exemplified by increase in aggregate size and a decrease in the polydispersity index. Also seen was a substantial red shift in the 'aggregate emission'. At higher concentrations, the presence of three independent excitation/emission channels was observed. It is likely that a new type of aggregated Pybpa species formed at higher concentration, which emits at longer wavelength (A,rnax~540 nm), In such a scenario, it is possible to tune the emission wavelength by the choice of appropriate wavelength of excitation. Further, there is an opportunity to tailor the emission properties by controlling the aggregation behavior. The modulation of emission is one of the primary goals of research on fluorescent organic nanoparticles. Chapter 3: Photophysical properties of aryl-terpyridines in solution, solid and aggregated state: Unique CT emission from nanoparticles in water. Two aryl terpyridines, 4T-(l-pyrenyl)-2,2l:6'52fl-terpyridine (Pytpy) and 4'-(9-anthryl)-2,2':6',2n-terpyridine (Antpy), where the fluorophoric pyrene or anthracene unit is directly coupled to the terpyridine unit, were synthesized. The aryl terpyridines conjugates can be viewed as donor-acceptor molecules that are conformationally labile, with the possibility of rotation around three single bonds. It was of interest to see as to how conformational effects express themselves in different environments, especially in relation to the possibility of charge separation. Crystal structure data and Serni-empirical AMI calculations revealed a twisted molecular conformation for each of the molecules. Absorption and emission (steady state as well as tirne-resolved) behavior of Pytpy and Antpy in various organic solvents have been presented. The molecules showed only limited conjugation between the two units in the absorption behavior with the degree of conjugation being greater for Pytpy. In the emission behavior, only a single emission band (with a single lifetime) was observed in all organic solvent. Steady state and time resolved fluorescence data suggest the existence of a mixed or coupled, largely 7t—7i* state, with only marginal charge separation. The various photophysical parameters have been determined for the two systems. It appears that in the excited state, the inesomeric interactions show an increase for each of the two aryl-terpyridines, indicating at least a partially planar geometry in the excited state. Some specific solvent effects were observed for the molecules in alcoholic solvents and there was evidence of excited state H-bonding occurs for the aryl terpyridines in polar protic organic solvents, especially methanol. Pytpy and Antpy self-assembled in water over a large concentration range (1-100 |xM) to form spherical nanoparticles in the size range of 150-200 nm, as characterized by TEM and DLS. The absorption spectra for both conjugates showed red shift of the absorption bands in water (-10 nrn) along with significant tailing of the long-wavelength bands. The change in emission behavior in going from solution to the aggregates in water was very dramatic. Multiple, broadened, highly red-shifted emission bands for both Antpy and Pytpy were observed. Quite significantly, a long lifetime component in the emission decay was shown by the conjugates in water as compared to the lifetimes observed in solution. The data points towards a unique CT emission for Antpy and Pytpy aggregates in water. The excitation spectra for the multiple emission bands seen for Pytpy (or Antpy) were observed to be identical. Thus a single ground state population is responsible for emission over the entire range (approximately 420 nin - 600 nm). The existence of multiple emission bands and the large bathochromic shifts are exclusively due to excited state effects in the aggregated state in water. It appears that excited state H-bonding of the tpy N with water helps facilitate the excited state CT. The solid-state behavior of Pytpy and Antpy lias been examined and the emission from the two crystalline solids is very distinct. Antpy emission showed a X,,nax at -430 nm while Pytpy emission peaked at ~ 560 nm. The difference in the solid-state emission behavior exhibited by Pytpy and Antpy is explained through a consideration of the crystal packing for the two molecules. The degree of n-facial stacking was observed to be much greater for Pytpy. The observation of the distinct packing and emission shown by solid Pytpy and Antpy is highly significant if one considers the identical emission shown by the aqueous nanoparticles of the two molecules and brings to fore the 'nanoparticle effect' in water as compared to a simple concentration effect. It was also demonstrated that it was possible to modulate the aggregation of the terpyridines through additives, like metal ions Chapter 4: Pyrenyl terpyridine as a ratiometric fluorescence probe for sensing order and polarity of membranous aggregates. Pytpy was examined for its utility in probing surfactant aggregates, particularly membranous assemblies. la lipid bilayer vesicles made of phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids (like dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine, DMPC or egg-yolk PC) Pytpy showed an emission profile with marked similarity to that shown by the probe in water. Specifically, a broad red-shifted emission with A,maxin. the 500 nm region was observed. In addition, a peak in the -420 nm region was also seen. Fluorescence anisotropy was used to confirm the presence of vesicle-bound probe. Excitation spectra confirmed the presence of two distinct probe populations, om responsible for the '420 nm9 emission and another population responsible for the multiple, red-shifted emission bands. The emission behavior was indicative of aggregation of Pytpy on the vesicle surface and CT effects operating in conjunction with H-bonding. Fluorescence lifetime measurements, carried out at different Is suggest the CT nature of the red-shifted emission. The aggregation of the probe on the bilayer interface was confirmed by concentration and temperature dependence of the emission profile. The role of water in stabilizing this CT emission on bilayer surfaces was shown with use of a surface dehydrating agent polyethylene glycol (PEG). All these results helped build a model for the behavior of Pytpy in water. Pytpy aggregates on bilayer surface and shows a red-shifted CT emission with stabilization by interfacial water. Thus, the Pytpy 'aggregate' has a shallow, water accessible location in the bilayer. In addition to this, there is another Pytpy population responsible for the emission in the 420 nm region, and this second population might have a comparatively deeper location. The wavelength of the CT emission was sensitive to the polarity of the interface as evidenced "by the results obtained with bilayers made of a number of PC lipids. In general, the X™ax of the CTband showed a red shift with increasing polarity. The increase in polarity also caused an increase in the average lifetime of the probe. Pytpy could distinguish between vesicles made of lipids of different head groups. Aggregates made of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) head group are in general less hydrated than PC lipid assemblies and Pytpy emission reflected this when examined in vesicles made of related lipids (dioleoyl lipids, DOPC and DOPE; dirnyristoyl lipids, DMPC and DMPE). Pytpy emission from PE vesicles was quenched and showed a pronounced blue shift in the emission Xmax vis-a-vis PC bilayers. Thus, dehydration of the interface consistently led to the destabilization of the CT state. Further, Pytpy emission was also responsive to hydration in more complex mixed PC-PE assemblies. Pytpy emission "behavior was also used to probe fluidity in complex "mixed" lipid assemblies- The effect of cholesterol on DMPC bilayers in terms of its known ability to dehydrate the bilayer was reported through a blue-shift Xmax of CT emission band. Further, cholesterol also causes drastic change in the bilayer at concentrations greater than ~ 30 mol%. This change in the bilayer was sensed through a sudden reduction in fluorescence intensity. Also from a careful analysis of Pytpy in various PC and PE vesicles, it emerged that the more fluid aggregates showed larger quantum yields. Thus, Pytpy could simultaneously report on both the polarity and fluidity of lipidic aggregates. Pytpy could also provide information about the order of an assembly. While the probe aggregated in bilayers and other membranous assemblies and showed water assisted CT emission, in more dynamic assemblies like micelles, Pytpy aggregates were not sustained, Pytpy in micelles showed emission spectra very similar to that seen in solutions in aprotic organic solvents. Thus, Pytpy proved to be a very useful ratiometric sensor for vesicle-to-rnicelle transition. Also, it has been possible to study some surfactant-lipid mixed assemblies that show phase separation. Pytpy reported the formation of a 'rigid', bilayer-like phases in mixed assemblies that are called bicelles.

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